PRODUCTION OF BIO-FERTILIZERSBy:Abhijeet Verma
Biofertilizer is a substance which contains livingmicroorganismswhich, when applied to seed, plant surfaces, or soil, promotes growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant.What is Bio Fertilizer?Environment friendly pose no danger to environmentShown advantage over chemical fertilizerEconomical as compared to chemical fertilizerIncreases Nitrogen fixation capacity of soilReplaces 25-30% of chemical fertilizerLeads to increase in productivity
Why Bio-Fertilizer?Currently Bio-fertilizer is used as a supplement to chemical fertilizerAs 25% of requirements for chemical fertilizer can be replaced by bio-fertilizer the coming demand of Bio-fertilizer can be estimated to be 27.3 lac MT for achieving the target production of 321 million tonnes of food grain by 2020.Current installed production capacity for production is 86078 MTHuge gap between requirement and production
Current Market Scenario Types Of Bio Fertilizer
RhizobiumAzotobacterAzospirillumPhosphate solubilizing microorganisms(PSM)AzollaVesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM)
OUTLINE FOR COMMERCIAL RHIZOBIUM MANUFACTURE OF BIO-FERTILIZER
Culture selection and maintenance.
Culture Augmentation or Mass Multiplication.
Carrier Sterilization CULTURE SELECTION AND MAINTENANCE
The pure mother cultures of various strains are being maintained in Agricultural Universities, IARI, some ICAR institutions, Regional biofertilizer labs of MOA, etc.
International sources of supply also like NifTAL, IRRI etc.
The mother culture in test tubes of desired strain can be purchased from the identified sources.
They have to be further sub-cultured and maintained purely for mass production by adopting standard techniques under the supervision of trained microbiologist.
CULTURE AUGMENTATION OR MASS MULTIPLICATION
The culture has to be mass multiplied in two levels namely At primary level using shakers in flasks, and; Secondary stage multiplication in fermenters.
In case of Rhizobium, molasses could serve as a superior source for rhizobial growth.
Liquid malt extract could be ranked in the list and the third one was medium having sucrose mannitol in combination.
Similarly, compositions for growth media are available for other cultures.After the media is formulated and sterilized in fermenter, It is inoculated using the shorter cultures multiplied in the flasks at definite ratios usually 5%. The bacteria growing medium is called BROTH and it is continuously aerated by passing sterile air from compressors.After about 3-4 days fermentation period, The broth will be ready for packing in a carrier material. At various stages the quality is tested by drawing samples.Carrier Sterilization
While the broth is getting ready in the fermenter the carrier material, which is usually the carbon source for the cultures to survive, is sterilized in autoclaves and kept ready for mixing the broth.
For preparation of seed inoculant, the carrier material is milled to fine powder with particle size of 10-40 m.Properties of a good carrier material for seed inoculation
Non-toxic to inoculant bacterial strainGood moisture absorption capacityEasy to process and free of lump-forming materialsEasy to sterilize by autoclaving or gamma-irradiationInexpensiveGood adhesion to seedsGood ph buffering capacity, and;Non-toxic to plantFlow Chart For Commercial Production
STOCK CULTUREBROTHBROTH IN BIG FLASK FOR CULTURINGFERMENTATION FOR LARGE SCALE PRODUCTIONBROTH QUALITY CHECKBLENDED WITH STERILIZED CAREERPACKAGINGQUALITY CHECK AFTER DIFFERENT DURATION
Mother CultureBrothBroth in small flaskBroth in big flask or bottlesBroth quality checkingThe broth is blended with sterilized carrierPackaging in polythene bags25C curing in controlled temperature roomsPeat culture quality checking4C storage in low temperature roomsDISPATCH TO FARMERSFermenters for large scale productionProduction cycle of bio fertilizerSALES AND MARKETING STRATEGYPRE EXECUTION MARKETINGPOST EXECUTION MARKETINGPRE EXECUTION MARKETING
Area IdentificationMass CampaigningVillage MeetingTargeting of potential farmers
POST EXECUTION MARKETING
PublicityMega Farmers MeetingProduct DisplayDemonstrationAdvertisingField Demonstration & TrainingCAPACITY UTILIZATION & SALES1st year2nd year3rd year4th year5th yearProduction Capacity per Annum150150150150150Capacity Utilization20%40%70%90%90%Annual Sales3060105135135Annual Sales value9450001890000330750042525004252500Own Capital (25%)17Bank Loan (50%)34Government Subsidy (25%)*17Total Capital Required68Requirement & Source of Capital*Capital Investment Subsidy Scheme for Commercial Production Units of Organic Inputs under National Project on Organic Farming for each unit of Bio fertilizer will be provided with a subsidy @25% of the capital cost of the project subject to a ceiling of Rs40 lakh. So, as per the scheme the unit is entitled for the subsidy to the tune of Rs 17 lakhs.
Capital Cost of The Project
S.no.ParticularsEstimated Cost (in lakhs)1.Land Leveling0.82.Civil Structures153.Plant and Machinery254.Other Fixtures185.Preliminary and Pre-op. Expenses36.Other Miscellaneous Expenses6.2TOTAL6819BREAK-EVEN ANALYSISDetermining a price of Rs.31.5/Kg which is 20% above the cost price we came to calculate the breakeven at 60238 Kg between 2 to 2.5 years