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Age of Enlightenment A new way of thinking critically about the world and about humankind, independent of religion, myth, or tradition, and instead

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Slide 2 Slide 3 Slide 4 Age of Enlightenment A new way of thinking critically about the world and about humankind, independent of religion, myth, or tradition, and instead based on using reason to reflect on the results of physical experiments. In the arts, this new way of thinking can be seen in the general term modern used to describe the art from the eighteenth century on, indicating an awareness of history and the idea of being up-to-date. Two ways in which European art was changed as a result of the scientific and technological advances made from the end of the eighteenth through the early nineteenth centuries Increased practice of dissection led to the anatomical artists skill becoming a specialty and anatomical drawings an instrument for the education of surgeons. The theories and inventions of the Industrial Revolution could be elevated to the plane of history painting, as in Joseph Wright of Derbys works. Slide 5 Wright of Derbys Philosopher Giving a Lecture at the Orrery reflects the scientific view of the universe by the light from the lamp, representing the sun, pours forth from in front of the boy silhouetted in the front of the picture. The metal orbs in the orrery represent the planets. Everyone in the painting is caught up in the wonders of scientific knowledge. Slide 6 The type of lighting that was often used by Joseph Wright of Derby was usually a single light from within the picture, candlelight, and moonlight. Slide 7 Slide 8 Slide 9 The Coalbrookdale bridge was the first bridge that used iron. Iron allowed a bridge to span a much greater distance than wood and to carry heavier volumes. Slide 10 Jean-Antoine Houdon Voltaire 1781 marble approximately life-size Voltaire was the most representative figure of the Enlightenment, Voltaire was instrumental in introducing Newton and Locke to the French intelligentsia. His writings protested against government persecution of the freedom of thought and religion. Slide 11 According to Rousseau, The arts, sciences, society, and civilization in general had corrupted the natural man His views differ from those of Voltaire in that Voltaire thought that the salvation of humanity was in the advancement of science and in the rational improvement of society. Rousseau thought that humanitys salvation lay in a return to something like the ignorance, innocence, and happiness of its original condition. Rousseaus views were largely responsible for the turning away from the Rococo sensibility and the formation of a taste for the natural, as opposed to the artificial. Slide 12 Jean-Baptiste Greuze The Village Bride 1761 oil on canvas 3 ft. x 3 ft. 10 1/2 in. Sentimentality and moralizing are obvious traits of the work of the French painter Jean-Baptiste Greuze. Slide 13 Jean-Baptiste-Simon Chardin Grace at Table 1740 oil on canvas 1 ft. 7 in. x 1 ft. 3 in. The social class of the majority of Chardins patrons came from the bourgeoisie. His work appeal to them because the peasants are happy because happiness is the reward of natural virtue. They preferred narratives that taught moral lessons, dismissing the frivolities and indecent subjects of the Rococo. Slide 14 Jean-Baptiste-Simon Chardin The Soap Bubble ca. 1739 oil on canvas 61 x 63 cm Slide 15 lisabeth Louise Vige-Lebrun Self-Portrait 1790 oil on canvas 8 ft. 4 in. x 6 ft. 9 in. The French painter Elisabeth Louise Vige-Lebrune specialized in portraits of nobility. In contrast to Rococo artificiality, the style of her self-portrait can be described as Natural, self- confidence of a woman who has won herself an independent role in her society, close-up and intimate. Slide 16 Adlaide Labille-Guiard Self-Portrait with Two Pupils 1785 oil on canvas 6 ft. 11 in. x 4 ft. 11 1/2 in. Slide 17 William Hogarth Breakfast Scene from Marriage la Mode ca. 1745 oil on canvas 2 ft. 4 in. x 3 ft. Satires of contemporary life was the subject matter did Hogarth work. Slide 18 Slide 19 Thomas Gainsborough Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan 1787 oil on canvas 7 ft. 2 5/8 in. x 5 ft. 5/8 in. Although Gainsborough preferred to paint landscapes, he is best known for his portraits. Style: Soft-hued light, feathery brushwork, interest in the natural, the innocent, and the pastoral. He began as a landscape painter and incorporated landscape elements into his portraits. The genre in which Gainsboroughs portraits belonged was called Grand Manner portraiture. Slide 20 Sir Joshua Reynolds Lady Sarah Bunbury Sacrificing to the Graces 1765 oil on canvas 7 ft. 10 in. x 5 ft. The type of portraits that Sir Joshua Reynolds was most famous for were contemporaries who participated in the great events of the latter part of the century, including military hero portraits. Slide 21 Sir Joshua Reynolds Lord Heathfield 1787 oil on canvas 4 ft. 8 in. x 3 ft. 9 in. Slide 22 Charles Wilson Peale George Washington ca. 1779-81 oil on canvas 95 x 61 3/4 in. Slide 23 Benjamin West The Death of General Wolfe 1771 oil on canvas approximately 5 x 7 ft. Benjamin West was an American painter who was influential in the Anglo-American school of history painting Slide 24 John Singleton Copley Portrait of Paul Revere ca. 1768-1770 oil on canvas 2 ft. 11 1/8 in. x 2 ft. 4 in. Copleys portrait of Paul Revere differs from contemporary British and continental portraits in that unlike Grand Manner portraiture, Copleys portrait conveys a sense of directness and faithfulness to visual fact that marked the taste for downrightness and plainness many associated with America. Slide 25 Canaletto dome of the Chapel of Saint Ivo College of the Sapienza Rome, Italy begun 1642 A veduta painting are Views of Venice, painted to sell to British visitors. Slide 26 The eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 BCE enabled modern scholars to learn so much about life in a Roman town Neoclassicism was stimulated by the excavation of the Roman cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii in the mid18 th century. Slide 27 Slide 28 Angelica Kauffmann combined Rococo and Neoclassicism in her work. Angelica Kauffmann Mother of the Gracchi ca. 1785 oil on canvas 3 ft. 4 in. x 4 ft. 2 in. Slide 29 Slide 30 Jean-Antoine Houdon Voltaire 1778 marble 18 7/8 in. high Slide 31 Jean-Antoine Houdon George Washington 1788-92 marble 6 ft. 2 in. high Slide 32 Jacques-Louis David Oath of the Horatii 1784 oil on canvas approximately 11 x 14 ft. The importance of the subject matter in the Oath of the Horatii is that the leaders of two warring cities decide to resolve the cities conflicts by sending their sons to fight as representatives. The active, forceful forms of the men, associated with the Enlightenment, contrast with the curvilinear shapes of the distraught women. It marked a revolutionary change from the feminine Rococo to the masculine Neoclassical. Two Neoclassical stylistic features that are found in that work: It deals with a narrative of patriotism and sacrifice from Roman history. It is painted with force and clarity. Slide 33 Slide 34 Jacques-Louis David Death of Socrates 1787 oil on canvas 51 x 77 1/4 in. Slide 35 Jacques-Louis David The Death of Marat 1793 oil on canvas approximately 5 ft. 3 in. x 4 ft. 1 in. Politics behind Davids Death of Marat: In 1793 Jean-Paul Marat, a friend of Davids and a revolutionary radical and writer, was assassinated in the bath by a member of a rival political faction. Narrative details like the knife and the wound are composed to sharpen the sense of pain and outrage and to confront viewers with the scene. It presented Marat to the French people as a tragic martyr who died in the service of the state. The painting functions as an altarpiece to the new civic religion. Slide 36 Jacques-Louis David Napoleon at St. Bernards Pass 1800 oil on canvas 9 ft. 11 1/2 in. x 7 ft. 2 in. Slide 37 Jacques-Louis David The Coronation of Napoleon 1805-1808 oil on canvas 20 ft. 4 1/2 in. x 32 ft. 1 3/4 in. Napoleon Bonaparte was a major patron of Davids work after the fall of the Revolutionary party Slide 38 The Coronation of Napoleon documents the relationship between church and state by showing the coronation taking place in Notre Dame Cathedral. Napoleon insisted that David show the pope with his hand raised in blessing. The painting shows the moment just after Napoleon has crowned himself, instead of letting the pope crown him, as was traditional. Neoclassic features that are apparent in the painting: The structured composition and the action is presented as on a theater stage. Also, David grouped the figures to represent polaritiesthe group of the clergy on the right, contrasting with members of Napoleons imperial court on the left. Slide 39 Slide 40 Jacques-Louis David Monsieur Lavoisier and His Wife 1788 oil on canvas 8 ft. 8 1/4 in. x 7 ft. 4 1/8 in. Slide 41 tienne-Louis Boule Cenotaph for Isaac Newton (never built) 1784 ink and wash drawings each 15 1/2 x 25 1/2 in. Slide 42 Slide 43 Jacques-Germain Soufflot The Panthon (Sainte-Genevive) Paris, France 1755-1792 Inspiration for Soufflots design for the church of Ste. Genevieve in Paris were the Roman ruins at Ballbek in Syria, especially its titanic colonnade. Slide 44 Pierre Vignon La Madeleine Paris, France 1807-1842 The original purpose of La Madeleine was a church before being changed to a temple of glory for Napoleons armies and as a monument to the newly won glories of France. After his defeat in 1807 it reverted to a church. Stylistic features: The high podium, broad flight of stairs leading to a deep porch in the front, Corinthian columns, and a sequence of three domes on the interior. Slide 45 Pierre Vignon La Madeleine Paris, France 1807-1842 Slide 46 Slide 47 Aspect of Canovas portrait of Pauline Borghese that comes from the earlier Rococo style is the sensuousness of the figure and her portrayal as the goddess of love. Realistic aspects: The sharply detailed rendering of the couch and drapery. Neoclassical aspects: The pose and drapery; it is also not as idealized as might be expected. Slide 48 Antonio Canova Paulene Borghese as Venus 1808 marble life-size Slide 49 Antonio Canova Perseus with the Head of Medusa ca. 1800 marble life-size Slide 50 Antonio Canova Cupid and Psyche 1787-93 marble 5 ft. 1 in. x 5 ft. 8 1/4 in. Slide 51 Slide 52 Slide 53 Slide 54 In reaction to Baroque buildings like Blenheim, the restraint of the Palladian doctrine was restated in buildings like Chiswick House. Chiswick House was designed by Richard Boyle and William Kent. Four of its stylistic features: Simple symmetry. Unadorned planes. Right angles. Stiffy wrought proportions. Slide 55 Slide 56 Slide 57 The Importance of the Royal Crescent at Bath: The classical Roman designs, with many variations, became a standard for British urban architecture for a century. Slide 58 Slide 59 Wedgwood and Co. Vase with Bridal Preparation Scene black basalt stoneware 1769-1775 18 in. high Slide 60 Slide 61 Robert Adam Etruscan Room Osterley Park House Middlesex, England begun 1761 Significance: It shows how completely symmetry and rectilinearity had returned, but with great delicacy and none of the massive splendor of the Louis XIV style. Slide 62 Thomas Jefferson Monticello Charlottesville, Virginia 1770-1806 Two buildings that apparently influenced Jeffersons designs for Monticello were the Villa Rotonda and the Chiswick House Jefferson believed that the Neoclasssic style was appropriate for the architecture of the new American republic because he felt the style was representative of the new American democratic qualities. Slide 63 Horatio Greenough George Washington 1832-1841 marble approximately 11 ft. 4 in. high Slide 64 Benjamin Latrobe Capitol Building Washington, DC 1803-1807 Major LEnfant Plan of Washington Washington, DC 1791 Slide 65 Benjamin Latrobe Tobacco Capital Washington, DC 1809 Slide 66 Benjamin Latrobe Corncob Capital Washington, DC 1809 Slide 67 Edmonia Lewis Forever Free 1867 marble 3 ft. 5 1/4 in. x 11 in. x 7 in. Political significance Edmonia Lewis Forever Free is that it was an abolitionist statement produced four years after Lincolns issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation. Slide 68 Hiram Powers The Greek Slave 1843 marble 5 ft. 5 1/2 in. high Slide 69 Hiram Powers The Greek Slave 1843 marble 5 ft. 5 1/2 in. high Slide 70 Three of Davids pupils: Antoine-Jean Gros Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres Slide 71 Apotheosis of Homer 1827 oil on canvas 12 ft. 8 in. x 16 ft. 10 3/4 in. In breaking with David, Ingres adopted a manner that he felt was based on true and pure Greek style. Two characteristics of that style include: Flat and linear forms approximating those found in Greek vase painting. The figures are placed in the foreground, like a piece of low-relief sculpture. Ingres used Raphaels School of Athens. as the model for the composition of his Apotheosis of Homer. Slide 72 Slide 73 Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres Paganini 1819 pencil drawing 1 ft. x 8 1/2 in. Slide 74 Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres Grande Odalisque 1814 oil on canvas 2 ft. 11 in. x 5 ft. 4 in. Slide 75 Anne-Louis Trioson The Burial of Atala 1808 oil on canvas 6 ft. 11 in. x 8 ft. 9 in. The setting for Girodet-Troisons Burial of Atala was Louisiana. The story of Atala from the novel The Genius of Christianity. Atala and Chactas were two Native American youths who fell in love and ran away together. Atala committed suicide rather than break her vow of lifelong virginity. Slide 76 Antoine-Jean Gros Napoleon at the Pesthouse at Jaffa 1804 oil on canvas 17 ft. 5 in. x 23 ft. 7 in. Slide 77 Jacques-Louis David Oath of the Horatii 1784 oil on canvas approximately 11 x 14 ft. Antoine-Jean Gros Napoleon at the Pesthouse at Jaffa 1804 oil on canvas 17 ft. 5 in. x 23 ft. 7 in. Gros Pest House at Jaffa differs stylistically from Davids Oath of the Horatii by the depiction of Near East architecture, attire, and terrain was a departure from Neoclassicism, as well as the emphasis on death and suffering, and an emotional rendering of the scene.