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Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Page 1: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

1

The world leader in serving science

Michael Hargreaves

Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

Page 2: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Meeting Growing Needs in Many Applications

Accelerating

Lab to Field

Metal Alloy ID

• Recycling, PMI,

fabrication, QC/QA

Regulatory

• Lead paint, environmental,

consumer product safety

(lead in toys)

Safety & Security

• Explosives identification,

unknown threat screening

Mining

• Exploration, ore grading,

ore trading

Pharma/Chem

• Raw Material ID,

counterfeit drugs

Narcotics

• Crime scene investigation,

local police, border agents

• New application

• Building Awareness

Food/Feed/Ag

• Moisture, fat, protein for

feed producers

• New application

• Developing Markets

Page 3: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Overview

• Handheld Raman & FTIR history

• Science recap

• Thermo Scientific™ FirstDefender™, TruDefender™, and

TruNarc™ Analyzers

• Thermo Scientific™ Gemini™ Analyzer

• New features

• New hardware

• GUI overview

• Summary

Page 4: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Elite Users Worldwide: 8,500+ Units Deployed Military EOD & CBRNE, Customs, Police Forensics, Fire HAZMAT units: • Key U.S. Customers

• U.S. Military (Air Force, Army, Navy, Marine Corp, National Guard)

• Department of Justice – ATF and FBI

• Department of Homeland Security – Customs & TSA

• Department of State

• Global users:

• Australian Defense Force & Federal Police

• Chinese Public Security Bureau (PSB)

• German Bundespolizei

• Japanese Ministry of Defense (MOD)

• Indian Police & Mumbai Airport

• Indonesian National Police & National Narcotics Agency (BNN)

• Royal Norwegian Ministry of Defense

• Singapore HSA & Civil Defense

• South Korean National Police & Presidential Security Service

• United Kingdom Ministry of Defense (MOD)

Page 5: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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A Legacy of Innovation

TruDefender™ FTi

TruDefender™ FT

FirstDefender ™ (2005)

TruScreen™ TSA QPL

ECAC, Type A

TruDefender™ FT FirstDefender™ RM/RMX

TruScreen™ TSA QPL

ECAC, Type A

TruDefender™ FTi

TruNarc™

FirstDefender™ (2005)

TruDefender™ FTX/i Gemini™

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Raman Spectrometer

• First handheld for S&S

• Chemometric software

• Ultra compact low power laser

FTIR Spectrometer

• First ever handheld

• Michelson interferometer

• Sealed ATR

Generation II Raman

• 5X Faster, 50% smaller

• Integrated optical components

• Robot integration

Counter-Narcotics

• Purpose-built for law enforcement

• Fluorescence solution

• Pay-per-scan option

Software & Hardware

Advancements

• Customizable screening algorithms

• GSM wireless

• Tagging

• Improved anvil

Elite 2-in-1 Raman & FTIR

• First and only 2-in-1 handheld

• Motorized FTIR anvil

• Scan assist

• Touchscreen

Page 6: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Of Interest?

Page 7: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Raman & FTIR Spectroscopy

Page 8: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Complementary Technologies

FTIR Raman

Dark colored solids

Fluorescent

samples

Through sealed

transparent

containers

Pressure

sensitive

substances

Samples

diluted in water

Light colored solids

FTIR + Raman

together serve as

complementary

tests for many

samples

Two-in-one Analyzer!

Page 9: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Typical Spectra

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

EAM2201

MAM2201

AM2201

Raman Shift ∆cm-1

Molecular “fingerprint” of the molecule

AM2201

MAM2201

EAM2201

Page 10: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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• Organic Chemicals

• Narcotics

• TICs & TIMs

• Explosives

• Inorganic Chemicals

• Mineral acids (such as sulfuric and nitric acid)

• Oxides (such as titanium dioxide)

• Sulfates, phosphates, perchlorates, and carbonates

• CANNOT identify

• Pure metals

• Biologicals

• Trace detection/identification (Note Type-H kit)

Technology Capabilities (FTIR & Raman)

Page 11: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Gunpowder

smokeless

powder

nitroglycerin

TATP

RDX

PETN

RAMAN

500 1000 1500 2000 2500

Raman shift (D cm-1)

fluorescent/heat

fluorescent/heat

FT-IR

1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000

wavenumbers (cm-1)

pressure sensitivity

Complementary Nature of Raman & FTIR

Page 12: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Dec 25, 2009 – Northwest Flight #253

“AhuraFD machines were put to their most important test

Friday night when federal authorities called for help

analyzing the chemicals ... onboard Northwest Airlines

Flight 253.”

“Using the AhuraFD machine, officials were able to

confirm… that the chemical was PETN.”

“It's great to be able to identify what the FBI was looking

at and to have it whenever we need it.”

- Lt. Dan Ross, Warren Fire Department

Page 13: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Oct 29, 2010 – Printer Cartridge Cargo Incident

Dubai: AhuraFD used to

identify suspicious

materials in the field, which

was communicated to time-

sensitive related site in the

UK. Chemicals identified

include:

• PETN: 300 to 400 grams

(primary explosive)

• Lead azide: 5 grams

(detonator)

Page 14: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Nov 2011 – “Bomb Factory” in Escondido, CA

• Following detonation in yard, responders find hundreds

of unknown chemicals and explosives

• FirstDefender RMX used as primary chemical ID

tool throughout response

• Largest known cache of HMTD in the US found in home

• Decision was made to burn home based on quantity

and variety of materials

Photos courtesy of County of San Diego, DEH-HIRT

Page 15: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Sept 24, 2012 – Acid Attack, San Diego

• Suspect threw unknown liquid at female victim after

altercation, causing pain and burning, San Diego HazMat

team responds.

• TruDefender FTi identifed the liquid as concentrated

sulfuric acid at 4 different sites.

• Data transmitted wirelessly to Thermo Scientific

reachback support, who confirmed the identification.

• Due to overwhelming evidence, suspect pled guilty to

assault with a caustic chemical and aggravated mayhem.

Photos courtesy of County of San Diego, DEH-HIRT

Page 16: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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High-Risk Precursors – Priority & Opportunity

• Precursors tend

to travel farther

than finished

Products

• More opportunity

for interdiction T

ime

Distance

Legal manufacture of

precursor materials

Manufacture

of Illicit

product

Subversion

to illicit intent

Opportunities

for interdiction

HME/Narcotic

Required for Success:

Training/SOPs

Intelligence

Technology in the field

Page 17: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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TruNarc: Narcotics Identification capability

TruNarc CAN Identify:

• Cocaine

• Heroin

• Ketamine

• Methamphetamine

• MDMA (ecstasy)

• Synthetic Cannabinoids

• In ‘bulk’ and after sprayed on

leaves

• GHB / GBL

• Morphine

• PCP

• Oxycodone (high and low

dose)

• Methadone

• MDPV

Simple, quick, accurate test

with easy to interpret results

TruNarc CANNOT Identify:

• Marijuana / Hashish / LSD / Opium

Page 18: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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EMCDDA website

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

MDP2P methyl glycidate

APAAN (Aqueous Solution)

alpha-Acetylphenylacetonitrile

(APAAN)

Raman Shift ∆cm-1

UNODC Global Smart Update

Narcotic Precursors

Page 19: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Dutch Police APAAN Seizure

• Following the discovery of a warehouse filled

with APAAN on Jan 29, Dutch law

enforcement investigated transportation

methods, resulting in a truck found on Feb 27.

• AhuraFD (a.k.a. FirstDefender) immediately

identified the truck’s contents as10,000 kg of

APAAN, a pre-precursor in the field.

Truck with APAAN found Feb 27 APAAN operating pilot - Jan29

APAAN BMK Amphetamine

Methamphetamine

AhuraFD result screen – tweeted by Dutch Police

Page 20: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Synthetic Cathinones

EMCDDA image

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000

Pentedrone hydrochloride

3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone hydrochloride

(MDPV)

Mephedrone hydrochloride

3,4-Dimethylethcathinone hydrochloride

4-Fluoromethcathinone hydrochloride

Wavenumber /cm-1

EMCDDA data

FTIR spectra

Page 21: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Synthetic Cannabinoids

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

EAM2201

AB-PINACA

BB-22

PB-22

Raman Shift ∆cm-1

Page 22: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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TruNarc Type-H kit

Page 23: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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French Customs

• Charles de Gaulle

airport

• Customs

demonstration at

FedEx

• Numerous packages

tested

• Chemicals

manufactured in China

identified as synthetic

drugs

Page 24: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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VFestival - UK

Page 25: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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February 2014 – “Gravel” in Massachusetts

• Feb 21 – Quincy Police, TruNarc

users, receive request from

neighboring town on unknown

sample – drugs suspected

• TruNarc immediately identifies

Alpha-PVP (“Gravel”) a synthetic

cathinone

• First seizure in Massachusetts

• 1 day later: received official alert

warning that new drug be

trafficked to Massachusetts

Page 26: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Meth Lab/Drug Bust, Quincy, MA, USA

• Quincy Drug Unit called to support a “disorder

in progress”

• Drugs & Unknowns in plain view

• Assessed as meth lab (one-pot)

• Hazmat Team used AhuraFD to safely &

accurately identify liquids in mason jars

• Acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, camping fuel &

ammonium nitrate

• Used TruNarc to safely & accurately ID

multiple narcotics, pre-cursors & cutting

agents

• Cocaine, Methamphetamine, Ketamine, Heroin, MDMA,

Methylone, MDPV, pseudoephedrine, benzocaine, inositol,

creatine, baking soda, sugar, ethanol, etc.

• And Saved $$ by using far less NIK kits

• Proved “intent to distribute”

• Locked up 5; seized cash; condemned house

Page 27: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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South America

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q_8GxuKib_E&feature=youtu.be&a

Page 28: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Other Narcotics Application Examples

New Zealand

The Netherlands

Page 29: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Thermo Scientific Gemini Analyzer

Page 30: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Gemini Components

Touch Screen

Display

Motorized

Anvil

Vial

Compartment

Laser

Indicator

Lights Raman

Probe

Keypad

FTIR

Sampling

Surface

SD Card

Slot

Page 31: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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XX

Gemini Development

3

Final Configuration Rapid Prototypes Layout Concepts

• Evaluated several design approaches

• Leveraged expertise

• Ground up design – every aspect was scrutinized

• Pushed the technology envelope

Page 32: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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• Raman Optical Engine is the

same as the RMX Optical Engine

with a smaller probe

• 30% smaller Raman probe

• FTIR Optical Engine is a smaller

version of the FTX Optical

Engine with a replaceable IR

source

• 44% smaller FTIR engine

Technology Enablers

Page 33: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Enhanced User Interface

Touch Screen Profiles Trusted Results

• Brighter, larger

screen (4.3”/11cm)

• Full Control:

rugged buttons and

resistive touch

screen (designed

for gloves)

• Quick Setup: using

response profiles

• Pre-loaded with:

Chemical, Clan

Lab, Explosives,

Hazmat, &

Narcotics profiles

• 5 customizable

configurations

available

• Clear results, no

subjective

interpretation

• Automatic mixture

analysis

• Hazard warnings

and chemical

information

• Scan assist guides

efficient and safe use

• Most beneficial for

new or infrequent

users

Scan Assist

Page 34: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Easy to Understand, Actionable Information

Raman Shift ∆cm-1

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

What is it?

Page 35: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Simplified GUI

Page 36: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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FTIR Measurement

Page 37: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Raman Measurement

Page 38: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Easy to Understand, Actionable Information

Page 39: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Summary

• Instrument Trends • Smaller, rugged, field instruments

• Instruments at point-of-need

• Implications for End-Users • Answers where they’re needed

• Enables faster decision making

• Real-time support when it’s needed

Page 40: Advances in Handheld Raman and FTIR Chemical Identification

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Mike Hargreaves Global Applied R&D Manager

Thermo Scientific Portable Analytical Instruments

[email protected] | +1.978.495.0859