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IndexAbiotic Condensation Model, of humus

development 198

Aboveground compartment, of soil 912

Accumulated lignin mass loss (ALML) 134

Acid-detergent lignin (ADL) 48

Acid precipitation

CO2 and 265266, 281

decomposers and 280

decomposition and 280281

litter and soil, effects on 265266

respiration rate and 281

Actinomycetes 77, 84

ADL. See Acid-detergent lignin

AET. See Annual actual evapotranspiration

Ag. See Silver

Al. See Aluminum

Alcohol 196

Aldehyde 196

ALML. See Accumulated lignin mass loss

Aluminum (Al), concentrations of 270, 280

Amides 196

Amino 196

Aminos 196

Amylase 97

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) 324326

Anhydride 196

Animals 7981

microbial communities, influence on 96102competition in 9698

decomposition process, effects on 98102

succession in 9698

microorganisms v. 7577

taxonomy of 7981

Annual actual evapotranspiration (AET) 31

climate change and 284287

concentrations of nutrients and 5658

K concentrations and 5658

latitude and 33, 34

LCIR and 259260

limit values and 285287

Mn concentrations and 61NCIR and 5658, 61, 259260, 285287

nutrient concentrations and 57

P concentrations and 5658

S concentrations and 5658

Annual average temperature (AVGT) 31

Annual precipitation (PRECIP) 31

Anodic stripping voltametry 318319

ANOVA. See Analysis of variance

Anthropogenic impacts

acid precipitation due toCO2 in 265266, 281

decomposers, effects on 280

decomposition, effects on 280281

litter and soil, effects on 265266

respiration rate and 281

balance and 17

climate change due to 39

AET and 284287

atmospheric pool of CO2 and 5

CO2 and 59

decomposition, effects on 39, 283290

feedback mechanisms and 89, 10

primary productivity and 5

SOM, effects on 283

student exercises relating to 336337, 349

decomposition and 39, 277290

acid precipitation and 280281

climate change and 283290

heavy metals and 277280

organic pollutants and 281282

water regimen changes and 289290

heavy metals due to

decomposition, effects on 116120,

277280

litter and soil, effects on 266268

litterfall, effects on 5153, 6670

maximum concentration of 268

microbial transport of 272

organic pollutants v. 275

pH and 267268

respiration rate and 278280

408 INDEXAnthropogenic impacts (cont.)sources of 271274

toxicity of 266267, 277278

introduction to 263264

litterfall and 6470

heavy metal pollution in 6670

nitrogen fertilized Scots pine and

Norway spruce in 6466

organic pollutants due to

decomposition, effects on 281282

heavy metals v. 275

litter and soil, effects on 275277

soil invertebrates, effects on 282

pollutants in litter and soil due to 264277

acid precipitation and 265266

background on 264265

heavy metals and 266268

metals in decomposing litter,

case study of 268270

organic 275277

sources of heavy metal and 271274

Arabinan 45

Aromatic rings

of brown-rotted lignins 93

of white-rotted lignins 89

Arsenic 69, 278

Ash, litter fraction of 114

Asian forests, litter of 37, 39, 58

Atmobionts 80

Atmospheric pool

climate change and 5

of CO2 45, 283

of O 45

Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) 292,

315319

Atomic emission spectrometry (AES) 316319

Average temperature in July (JULT) 31

AVGT. See Annual average temperature

Bacteria 2, 9. See also Microorganisms

degradation of fibers by 9596

size and structure of 7778

succession of 9698

systematics of 77

Balance 1217

anthropogenic activities and 17

climatic conditions in 1213SOM and 283

edaphic conditions in 1213

humus and 1516

pollution and 1617Basal area 21, 28

Basal respiration rate 311

Basidiomycetes 94, 97

Beech

litter of 2122nutrient and heavy metal

concentrations in 52

nutrient richness of 61

nutrient withdrawal and 51

Biological regulation, of

decomposition 133135

Biomass

decomposition of 39

distribution of 912

earthworms and 9

energy transfer and 9

of European forest organisms 11

litterfall and 23

microorganisms and 9

nutrient distribution and 912

production of 12, 5, 7

rotation time v. 9

Biomes 12, 58

Biopolymer Degradation Model, of humus

development 198

Bordeaux mixture 275

Boreal forests 7, 10

decomposers in 75

foliar litter of 284

litterfall and 30, 39

Boron 66

Box-and-whisker plots 329331

Branch and twig litter 24, 25

Broadleaf trees. See Deciduous trees

Brown-rot fungi 76, 82, 9395

Bulk deposition 264, 272

C. See Carbon

Ca. See Calcium

Cadmium (Cd)

concentrations of 6970, 267268,

270272

decomposition and 278

in ecosystems 265

Calcium (Ca), concentrations of 268

during decomposition 119

in leaves 56

site-specific factors and 58

Canopy cover, litterfall and 21, 28

Canopy interception. See Interception

Carbamates 275

INDEX 409Carbon (C)

climate change and 284285

energy transfer and 4, 9

fixing of 4, 79, 10

lignin degradation and sources of 8889

oxidation of 4

turnover of 4

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

acid precipitation and 265266, 281

atmospheric pool of 45N concentrations v. 283

climate change and 59

evolution of 306309

problems with measuring 309

retention time of 4

Carbon fixing 4, 79

feedback mechanisms and 89, 10

forests and 79

Carbon sequestration. See Carbon fixing

Carbon-to-nitrogen ratio 130

Carbon-to-nutrient ratio 126

Carboxyl 196

Cation exchange capacity (CEC) 202

Cavitation, by bacteria 95

Cd. See Cadmium

CEC. See Cation exchange capacity

Cellulase 97, 100

Cellulolytic microorganisms 7576, 84

Cellulose 40, 4347

degradation of 8184

litter decomposition and 111

Ceriporiopsis subvermispora 94

Chemical composition. See also Nutrients

of litter 116120across climatic transects 61

climate scenarios v. 285

climatic and geographic factors

and 258260

factors in 6061

leaching of compounds and 156

soil properties and 62

methodology and 314319

analytical techniques in 315319

introduction to 314

preparation of samples in 315319

regression model of 269

Chemical mechanisms, decomposition

and 133135

Chinons 275

Chlorite 276

Chloroaliphatic acids 275Chloronicotinyles 275

Chloroorganic insecticides 275

Climate change

AET and 284287

anthropogenic activities and 6

atmospheric pool and 5

CO2 and 59

decomposition and 39, 283290existing scenario of 283284

labile fraction of SOM and 283284,

287289

limit values v. 285287

litter chemical composition v.

scenarios of 285

soil C dynamics and 284285

feedback mechanisms and 89, 10

litterfall and 287

primary productivity and 5

respiration rate and 288289

student exercises relating to 336337, 349

Climatic and geographic factors 1213, 5859

humus and litter in humus-near stages

and 261

introduction to 227228

limiting factors for decomposition

and 255257

limiting factors for lignin degradation rates

and 255257

litter chemical changes and 258260lignin concentration in foliar litter

and 259260

N concentration in Scots pine foliar litter

and 258259

litterfall and 2829

microbial response to 228229

Norway spruce litter decomposition

and 250255

first-year mass loss in 250251

general comments on 250

lignin-mediated effects in late stage

of 251255

root litter and 257258

Scots pine foliar litter early stage

decomposition and 229240

Atlantic/maritime v. summer sites in

transect of 238240

different species in trans-European

transect of 236238

latitudinal transects of 240

local litter in monocultures in transects

of 232235

410 INDEXClimatic and geographic factors (cont.)one forest stands 229231

transects of 231240

unified litter in monocultures in transects

of 235236

substrate quality and mass-loss rates

and 240250

early stages in 240242

late stage in 242245

respiration from humus and 245250

Climatic indices 31

standardization of 40

Climatic transects 233

Clostridium cellulolyticum 8384

CO2. See Carbon dioxide

Co-metabolism 276

Competition, microorganisms and 9698

Cone litter 24, 25

Coniferous trees, litter of 2123, 39

leaching from 108

nutrient richness of 61

organic-chemical compounds in 45

Copper (Cu) 277

concentrations of 69, 267, 270272

decomposition and 278

Coriolus versicolor 85, 87

Correlation analysis 326

Covalent bonds, pollutants and 276277

Cu. See Copper

Cylindroiulus nitidus 99

Daldinia concentrica 92

Data analysis 320331

ANOVA in 324326

multivariate methods of 326328

regression analysis in 6768, 320324

DDT. See Dichloro-Diphenyl-

Trichloroethane

Decay. See Decomposition

Deciduous trees, litter of 2123, 3840, 39,

5964

leaching from 108

nutrient richness of 61

organic-chemical compounds in 45

Decomposers. See also Animals;

Decomposition; Microorganisms

acid precipitation and 280

animals as 7981competition with microorganisms

of 9698

decomposition, effects on 98102microbial communities, influence

on 96102

succession among microorganisms

and 9698

degradation of fibers by 9496

bacteria in 9596

fungi in 9495

degradation of main fiber polymers

by 8194

brown-rot fungi and 76, 82, 9395

C sources in 8889

cellulose in 8184

hemicelluloses in 8485

lignin in 8594

Mn in 8788

N starvation 8587

soft-rot fungi and 82, 9192

white-rot fungi and 76, 82, 8990

introduction to 7577

microorganisms as 7779

Decomposition 39. See also

Mineralization

animals and 7981microbial communities, influence

on 98102

anthropogenic impacts on 6, 277290

acid precipitation in 280281

climate change in 39, 283290

heavy metals in 266268, 277280

organic pollutants in 281282

water regimen changes in 289290

asymptotic equation for calculating limit

values of 125

balance and 1217

biochemistry of 3

climatic and geographic factors in 1213

humus and litter in humus-near stages

and 261

introduction to 227228

limiting factors for decomposition

and 255257

limiting factors for lignin degradation

rates and 255257

litter chemical changes and 258260

litterfall and 2829

mass loss rates and 240250

microbial response to 228229

Norway spruce litter and 250255

root litter and 257258

Scots pine foliar litter and 229240

substrate quality and 240250

INDEX 411concentrations of nutrients and heavy

metals during 116120

degradation of fibers in 9496

bacteria in 9596

fungi in 9495

degradation of main fiber polymers

in 8194

brown-rot fungi and 76, 82, 9395

C sources in 8889

cellulose in 8184

hemicelluloses in 8485

lignin in 8594

Mn in 8788

N starvation in 8587

soft-rot fungi and 82, 9192

white-rot fungi and 76, 82, 8990

double exponential model of 301304

forests and 7

humus and 210215

lignin dynamics in 152156

lignin-nitrogen effect and rate of 115,

139141

limiting factors for 255257

litter in 2, 106116

cellulose in 111

ethanol soluble fraction in 109111

hemicelluloses in 111

lignin in 111116

metals and 268270

organic-chemical changes of 106116

physicochemical reactions in 276

relationships between holocellulose and

lignin in 116

single chemical components and groups

of compounds in 106116

water solubles in 107109

microorganisms and 7779

N dynamics and 157176

Olsons model of 124, 303, 321

physicochemistry of 3

production v. 12

rate of

exponential model of 269

student exercises relating to 338339

rate-regulating factors of 104156

retardation of

acid precipitation and 280281

heavy metals and 277280

steady state concept v. accumulation

and 215217

three-phase model ofearly stage of 121131

late stage of 131139

lignin degradation v. N concentration

in 139141

limit values and stopping decomposition

process in 152

litter close to limit value and at humus-

near stage in 144151

overview of 121

spruce foliar litter decomposition

v. 141143

first order kinetics function of 301

DEF. See Water deficit

Degradation. See Decomposition

Detoxification mechanism 53

Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane

(DDT) 282

Double exponential model, of

decomposition 301304

Earthworms 2

biomass of 9

decomposition and 76, 102

Ecosystems

balance in 1217

natural 67, 280

succession stages of 13

Ecotoxicology 266

Edaphic conditions

balance and 1213

litterfall and 2829

Effland lignin 48

Endophytes 96

Energy limitation 32

Energy transfer, C and 4, 9

Enol 196

Epedaphic species 80. See also Animals

Equilibrium 13

Erosion, by bacteria 95

Ester 196

Ethanol solubles

litter fraction of 109111

variation in concentration of 55

Ether 196

Euedaphic species 80. See also Animals

Exchangeable acidity 202

Exercises

annual litter mass loss during

decomposition (V)presentation of 337

solution to 350352

412 INDEXExercises (cont.)

differences in increase rates for N

concentrations (X)presentation of 343

solution to 367370

foliar litterfall after climate change (III)

presentation of 336337

solution to 349

foliar litterfall (I)

presentation of 335336

solution to 344345

foliar litterfall of different species (II)

presentation of 336

solution to 345349

litter mass loss dynamics by

functions (VI)

presentation of 338

solution to 352359

litter mass loss (IV)

presentation of 337

solution to 349

N dynamics (VIII)

presentation of 339

solution to 362366

N stored in litter at the limit value (XII)

presentation of 344

solution to 373374

NCIR (IX)

presentation of 340342

solution to 366

regulating factors for decomposition

rates (VII)

presentation of 338339

solution to 359362

sequestered fraction of litter N (XI)

presentation of 343

solution to 371372

FA. See Factor analysis

Factor analysis (FA) 326327

Fe. See Iron

Feedback mechanisms

C dynamics and 284

C fixing and 89, 10

Fibers

decomposition of 9496bacteria in 9596

fungi in 9495

degradation of polymers in 8194

structure of 4043

Field methods. See In situ methodsFine litter 24, 25

Fixing

of C 4, 79, 10

of N 16, 218221

Foliar litter 2324

collection of 73

lignin concentration of 259260

organic-chemical compounds in 45

student exercises relating to 335336,

336337, 344345, 345349

types of 136

variation in 284

Forest stands

age of 21

basal area of 21

canopy cover and 21

litterfall patterns of 2123

Forests

boreal 7, 10, 30, 39, 75, 284

C fixing and 79

temperate 7, 12, 15, 3031, 39, 284

Fossil fuels

acid precipitation and 266

incomplete mineralization and 4

Fulvic acids 186

heavy metals and 276

Fungal mycelium 106, 272, 274

Fungi 2, 9, 81. See also Microorganisms

brown-rot 76, 82, 9395

degradation of fibers by 9495

heavy metal transport by 272

N sensitivity of 8587

size and structure of 7778

soft-rot 82, 9192

succession of 9698

systematics of 77

white-rot 76, 82, 88, 8990

Galactan 45

Ganoderma lucidum 90

Global warming. See Climate change

Glomeris marginata 99

Greenhouse effect. See Climate change

Greenhouse gases 5

Grey alder, litter of

long term organic-chemical

changes in 110

organic-chemical compounds in 45

Groundwater 289

Guaiacyl 46, 49

lignin degradation v. 92

INDEX 413Heavy metals

decomposition, effects on 116120,

277280

fulvic acids and 276

humic acids and 276

litter and soil, effects on 266268

litterfall, effects on 5153, 6670

maximum concentration of 268

microbial transport of 272

organic pollutants v. 275

pH and 267268

respiration rate and 278280

sources of 271274

toxicity of 266267, 277278

Hemicelluloses 40, 4347. See also

Cellulose; Fibers

degradation of 8485

litter decomposition and 111

Hemiedaphic species 80. See also Animals

Heteropolymers 8485

Heterotrophs 9

Hg. See Mercury

HLQ. See Holocellulose-to-lignin quotient

Holocellulose-to-lignin quotient (HLQ) 116

Holocelluloses 40, 4347. See also Cellulose;

Fibers; Hemicelluloses

brown-rot fungi and 95

lignin and 116

Humic acids 186

heavy metals and 276

Humic substances 186

Humin 186

Humus 2, 186. See also Soil organic matt...