[Advances in Ecological Research] Litter Decomposition: A Guide to Carbon and Nutrient Turnover Volume 38 || Index

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  • IndexAbiotic Condensation Model, of humus

    development 198

    Aboveground compartment, of soil 912

    Accumulated lignin mass loss (ALML) 134

    Acid-detergent lignin (ADL) 48

    Acid precipitation

    CO2 and 265266, 281

    decomposers and 280

    decomposition and 280281

    litter and soil, effects on 265266

    respiration rate and 281

    Actinomycetes 77, 84

    ADL. See Acid-detergent lignin

    AET. See Annual actual evapotranspiration

    Ag. See Silver

    Al. See Aluminum

    Alcohol 196

    Aldehyde 196

    ALML. See Accumulated lignin mass loss

    Aluminum (Al), concentrations of 270, 280

    Amides 196

    Amino 196

    Aminos 196

    Amylase 97

    Analysis of variance (ANOVA) 324326

    Anhydride 196

    Animals 7981

    microbial communities, influence on 96102competition in 9698

    decomposition process, effects on 98102

    succession in 9698

    microorganisms v. 7577

    taxonomy of 7981

    Annual actual evapotranspiration (AET) 31

    climate change and 284287

    concentrations of nutrients and 5658

    K concentrations and 5658

    latitude and 33, 34

    LCIR and 259260

    limit values and 285287

    Mn concentrations and 61NCIR and 5658, 61, 259260, 285287

    nutrient concentrations and 57

    P concentrations and 5658

    S concentrations and 5658

    Annual average temperature (AVGT) 31

    Annual precipitation (PRECIP) 31

    Anodic stripping voltametry 318319

    ANOVA. See Analysis of variance

    Anthropogenic impacts

    acid precipitation due toCO2 in 265266, 281

    decomposers, effects on 280

    decomposition, effects on 280281

    litter and soil, effects on 265266

    respiration rate and 281

    balance and 17

    climate change due to 39

    AET and 284287

    atmospheric pool of CO2 and 5

    CO2 and 59

    decomposition, effects on 39, 283290

    feedback mechanisms and 89, 10

    primary productivity and 5

    SOM, effects on 283

    student exercises relating to 336337, 349

    decomposition and 39, 277290

    acid precipitation and 280281

    climate change and 283290

    heavy metals and 277280

    organic pollutants and 281282

    water regimen changes and 289290

    heavy metals due to

    decomposition, effects on 116120,

    277280

    litter and soil, effects on 266268

    litterfall, effects on 5153, 6670

    maximum concentration of 268

    microbial transport of 272

    organic pollutants v. 275

    pH and 267268

    respiration rate and 278280

  • 408 INDEXAnthropogenic impacts (cont.)sources of 271274

    toxicity of 266267, 277278

    introduction to 263264

    litterfall and 6470

    heavy metal pollution in 6670

    nitrogen fertilized Scots pine and

    Norway spruce in 6466

    organic pollutants due to

    decomposition, effects on 281282

    heavy metals v. 275

    litter and soil, effects on 275277

    soil invertebrates, effects on 282

    pollutants in litter and soil due to 264277

    acid precipitation and 265266

    background on 264265

    heavy metals and 266268

    metals in decomposing litter,

    case study of 268270

    organic 275277

    sources of heavy metal and 271274

    Arabinan 45

    Aromatic rings

    of brown-rotted lignins 93

    of white-rotted lignins 89

    Arsenic 69, 278

    Ash, litter fraction of 114

    Asian forests, litter of 37, 39, 58

    Atmobionts 80

    Atmospheric pool

    climate change and 5

    of CO2 45, 283

    of O 45

    Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) 292,

    315319

    Atomic emission spectrometry (AES) 316319

    Average temperature in July (JULT) 31

    AVGT. See Annual average temperature

    Bacteria 2, 9. See also Microorganisms

    degradation of fibers by 9596

    size and structure of 7778

    succession of 9698

    systematics of 77

    Balance 1217

    anthropogenic activities and 17

    climatic conditions in 1213SOM and 283

    edaphic conditions in 1213

    humus and 1516

    pollution and 1617Basal area 21, 28

    Basal respiration rate 311

    Basidiomycetes 94, 97

    Beech

    litter of 2122nutrient and heavy metal

    concentrations in 52

    nutrient richness of 61

    nutrient withdrawal and 51

    Biological regulation, of

    decomposition 133135

    Biomass

    decomposition of 39

    distribution of 912

    earthworms and 9

    energy transfer and 9

    of European forest organisms 11

    litterfall and 23

    microorganisms and 9

    nutrient distribution and 912

    production of 12, 5, 7

    rotation time v. 9

    Biomes 12, 58

    Biopolymer Degradation Model, of humus

    development 198

    Bordeaux mixture 275

    Boreal forests 7, 10

    decomposers in 75

    foliar litter of 284

    litterfall and 30, 39

    Boron 66

    Box-and-whisker plots 329331

    Branch and twig litter 24, 25

    Broadleaf trees. See Deciduous trees

    Brown-rot fungi 76, 82, 9395

    Bulk deposition 264, 272

    C. See Carbon

    Ca. See Calcium

    Cadmium (Cd)

    concentrations of 6970, 267268,

    270272

    decomposition and 278

    in ecosystems 265

    Calcium (Ca), concentrations of 268

    during decomposition 119

    in leaves 56

    site-specific factors and 58

    Canopy cover, litterfall and 21, 28

    Canopy interception. See Interception

    Carbamates 275

  • INDEX 409Carbon (C)

    climate change and 284285

    energy transfer and 4, 9

    fixing of 4, 79, 10

    lignin degradation and sources of 8889

    oxidation of 4

    turnover of 4

    Carbon dioxide (CO2)

    acid precipitation and 265266, 281

    atmospheric pool of 45N concentrations v. 283

    climate change and 59

    evolution of 306309

    problems with measuring 309

    retention time of 4

    Carbon fixing 4, 79

    feedback mechanisms and 89, 10

    forests and 79

    Carbon sequestration. See Carbon fixing

    Carbon-to-nitrogen ratio 130

    Carbon-to-nutrient ratio 126

    Carboxyl 196

    Cation exchange capacity (CEC) 202

    Cavitation, by bacteria 95

    Cd. See Cadmium

    CEC. See Cation exchange capacity

    Cellulase 97, 100

    Cellulolytic microorganisms 7576, 84

    Cellulose 40, 4347

    degradation of 8184

    litter decomposition and 111

    Ceriporiopsis subvermispora 94

    Chemical composition. See also Nutrients

    of litter 116120across climatic transects 61

    climate scenarios v. 285

    climatic and geographic factors

    and 258260

    factors in 6061

    leaching of compounds and 156

    soil properties and 62

    methodology and 314319

    analytical techniques in 315319

    introduction to 314

    preparation of samples in 315319

    regression model of 269

    Chemical mechanisms, decomposition

    and 133135

    Chinons 275

    Chlorite 276

    Chloroaliphatic acids 275Chloronicotinyles 275

    Chloroorganic insecticides 275

    Climate change

    AET and 284287

    anthropogenic activities and 6

    atmospheric pool and 5

    CO2 and 59

    decomposition and 39, 283290existing scenario of 283284

    labile fraction of SOM and 283284,

    287289

    limit values v. 285287

    litter chemical composition v.

    scenarios of 285

    soil C dynamics and 284285

    feedback mechanisms and 89, 10

    litterfall and 287

    primary productivity and 5

    respiration rate and 288289

    student exercises relating to 336337, 349

    Climatic and geographic factors 1213, 5859

    humus and litter in humus-near stages

    and 261

    introduction to 227228

    limiting factors for decomposition

    and 255257

    limiting factors for lignin degradation rates

    and 255257

    litter chemical changes and 258260lignin concentration in foliar litter

    and 259260

    N concentration in Scots pine foliar litter

    and 258259

    litterfall and 2829

    microbial response to 228229

    Norway spruce litter decomposition

    and 250255

    first-year mass loss in 250251

    general comments on 250

    lignin-mediated effects in late stage

    of 251255

    root litter and 257258

    Scots pine foliar litter early stage

    decomposition and 229240

    Atlantic/maritime v. summer sites in

    transect of 238240

    different species in trans-European

    transect of 236238

    latitudinal transects of 240

    local litter in monocultures in transects

    of 232235

  • 410 INDEXClimatic and geographic factors (cont.)one forest stands 229231

    transects of 231240

    unified litter in monocultures in transects

    of 235236

    substrate quality and mass-loss rates

    and 240250

    early stages in 240242

    late stage in 242245

    respiration from humus and 245250

    Climatic indices 31

    standardization of 40

    Climatic transects 233

    Clostridium cellulolyticum 8384

    CO2. See Carbon dioxide

    Co-metabolism 276

    Competition, microorganisms and 9698

    Cone litter 24, 25

    Coniferous trees, litter of 2123, 39

    leaching from 108

    nutrient richness of 61

    organic-chemical compounds in 45

    Copper (Cu) 277

    concentrations of 69, 267, 270272

    decomposition and 278

    Coriolus versicolor 85, 87

    Correlation analysis 326

    Covalent bonds, pollutants and 276277

    Cu. See Copper

    Cylindroiulus nitidus 99

    Daldinia concentrica 92

    Data analysis 320331

    ANOVA in 324326

    multivariate methods of 326328

    regression analysis in 6768, 320324

    DDT. See Dichloro-Diphenyl-

    Trichloroethane

    Decay. See Decomposition

    Deciduous trees, litter of 2123, 3840, 39,

    5964

    leaching from 108

    nutrient richness of 61

    organic-chemical compounds in 45

    Decomposers. See also Animals;

    Decomposition; Microorganisms

    acid precipitation and 280

    animals as 7981competition with microorganisms

    of 9698

    decomposition, effects on 98102microbial communities, influence

    on 96102

    succession among microorganisms

    and 9698

    degradation of fibers by 9496

    bacteria in 9596

    fungi in 9495

    degradation of main fiber polymers

    by 8194

    brown-rot fungi and 76, 82, 9395

    C sources in 8889

    cellulose in 8184

    hemicelluloses in 8485

    lignin in 8594

    Mn in 8788

    N starvation 8587

    soft-rot fungi and 82, 9192

    white-rot fungi and 76, 82, 8990

    introduction to 7577

    microorganisms as 7779

    Decomposition 39. See also

    Mineralization

    animals and 7981microbial communities, influence

    on 98102

    anthropogenic impacts on 6, 277290

    acid precipitation in 280281

    climate change in 39, 283290

    heavy metals in 266268, 277280

    organic pollutants in 281282

    water regimen changes in 289290

    asymptotic equation for calculating limit

    values of 125

    balance and 1217

    biochemistry of 3

    climatic and geographic factors in 1213

    humus and litter in humus-near stages

    and 261

    introduction to 227228

    limiting factors for decomposition

    and 255257

    limiting factors for lignin degradation

    rates and 255257

    litter chemical changes and 258260

    litterfall and 2829

    mass loss rates and 240250

    microbial response to 228229

    Norway spruce litter and 250255

    root litter and 257258

    Scots pine foliar litter and 229240

    substrate quality and 240250

  • INDEX 411concentrations of nutrients and heavy

    metals during 116120

    degradation of fibers in 9496

    bacteria in 9596

    fungi in 9495

    degradation of main fiber polymers

    in 8194

    brown-rot fungi and 76, 82, 9395

    C sources in 8889

    cellulose in 8184

    hemicelluloses in 8485

    lignin in 8594

    Mn in 8788

    N starvation in 8587

    soft-rot fungi and 82, 9192

    white-rot fungi and 76, 82, 8990

    double exponential model of 301304

    forests and 7

    humus and 210215

    lignin dynamics in 152156

    lignin-nitrogen effect and rate of 115,

    139141

    limiting factors for 255257

    litter in 2, 106116

    cellulose in 111

    ethanol soluble fraction in 109111

    hemicelluloses in 111

    lignin in 111116

    metals and 268270

    organic-chemical changes of 106116

    physicochemical reactions in 276

    relationships between holocellulose and

    lignin in 116

    single chemical components and groups

    of compounds in 106116

    water solubles in 107109

    microorganisms and 7779

    N dynamics and 157176

    Olsons model of 124, 303, 321

    physicochemistry of 3

    production v. 12

    rate of

    exponential model of 269

    student exercises relating to 338339

    rate-regulating factors of 104156

    retardation of

    acid precipitation and 280281

    heavy metals and 277280

    steady state concept v. accumulation

    and 215217

    three-phase model ofearly stage of 121131

    late stage of 131139

    lignin degradation v. N concentration

    in 139141

    limit values and stopping decomposition

    process in 152

    litter close to limit value and at humus-

    near stage in 144151

    overview of 121

    spruce foliar litter decomposition

    v. 141143

    first order kinetics function of 301

    DEF. See Water deficit

    Degradation. See Decomposition

    Detoxification mechanism 53

    Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane

    (DDT) 282

    Double exponential model, of

    decomposition 301304

    Earthworms 2

    biomass of 9

    decomposition and 76, 102

    Ecosystems

    balance in 1217

    natural 67, 280

    succession stages of 13

    Ecotoxicology 266

    Edaphic conditions

    balance and 1213

    litterfall and 2829

    Effland lignin 48

    Endophytes 96

    Energy limitation 32

    Energy transfer, C and 4, 9

    Enol 196

    Epedaphic species 80. See also Animals

    Equilibrium 13

    Erosion, by bacteria 95

    Ester 196

    Ethanol solubles

    litter fraction of 109111

    variation in concentration of 55

    Ether 196

    Euedaphic species 80. See also Animals

    Exchangeable acidity 202

    Exercises

    annual litter mass loss during

    decomposition (V)presentation of 337

    solution to 350352

  • 412 INDEXExercises (cont.)

    differences in increase rates for N

    concentrations (X)presentation of 343

    solution to 367370

    foliar litterfall after climate change (III)

    presentation of 336337

    solution to 349

    foliar litterfall (I)

    presentation of 335336

    solution to 344345

    foliar litterfall of different species (II)

    presentation of 336

    solution to 345349

    litter mass loss dynamics by

    functions (VI)

    presentation of 338

    solution to 352359

    litter mass loss (IV)

    presentation of 337

    solution to 349

    N dynamics (VIII)

    presentation of 339

    solution to 362366

    N stored in litter at the limit value (XII)

    presentation of 344

    solution to 373374

    NCIR (IX)

    presentation of 340342

    solution to 366

    regulating factors for decomposition

    rates (VII)

    presentation of 338339

    solution to 359362

    sequestered fraction of litter N (XI)

    presentation of 343

    solution to 371372

    FA. See Factor analysis

    Factor analysis (FA) 326327

    Fe. See Iron

    Feedback mechanisms

    C dynamics and 284

    C fixing and 89, 10

    Fibers

    decomposition of 9496bacteria in 9596

    fungi in 9495

    degradation of polymers in 8194

    structure of 4043

    Field methods. See In situ methodsFine litter 24, 25

    Fixing

    of C 4, 79, 10

    of N 16, 218221

    Foliar litter 2324

    collection of 73

    lignin concentration of 259260

    organic-chemical compounds in 45

    student exercises relating to 335336,

    336337, 344345, 345349

    types of 136

    variation in 284

    Forest stands

    age of 21

    basal area of 21

    canopy cover and 21

    litterfall patterns of 2123

    Forests

    boreal 7, 10, 30, 39, 75, 284

    C fixing and 79

    temperate 7, 12, 15, 3031, 39, 284

    Fossil fuels

    acid precipitation and 266

    incomplete mineralization and 4

    Fulvic acids 186

    heavy metals and 276

    Fungal mycelium 106, 272, 274

    Fungi 2, 9, 81. See also Microorganisms

    brown-rot 76, 82, 9395

    degradation of fibers by 9495

    heavy metal transport by 272

    N sensitivity of 8587

    size and structure of 7778

    soft-rot 82, 9192

    succession of 9698

    systematics of 77

    white-rot 76, 82, 88, 8990

    Galactan 45

    Ganoderma lucidum 90

    Global warming. See Climate change

    Glomeris marginata 99

    Greenhouse effect. See Climate change

    Greenhouse gases 5

    Grey alder, litter of

    long term organic-chemical

    changes in 110

    organic-chemical compounds in 45

    Groundwater 289

    Guaiacyl 46, 49

    lignin degradation v. 92

  • INDEX 413Heavy metals

    decomposition, effects on 116120,

    277280

    fulvic acids and 276

    humic acids and 276

    litter and soil, effects on 266268

    litterfall, effects on 5153, 6670

    maximum concentration of 268

    microbial transport of 272

    organic pollutants v. 275

    pH and 267268

    respiration rate and 278280

    sources of 271274

    toxicity of 266267, 277278

    Hemicelluloses 40, 4347. See also

    Cellulose; Fibers

    degradation of 8485

    litter decomposition and 111

    Hemiedaphic species 80. See also Animals

    Heteropolymers 8485

    Heterotrophs 9

    Hg. See Mercury

    HLQ. See Holocellulose-to-lignin quotient

    Holocellulose-to-lignin quotient (HLQ) 116

    Holocelluloses 40, 4347. See also Cellulose;

    Fibers; Hemicelluloses

    brown-rot fungi and 95

    lignin and 116

    Humic acids 186

    heavy metals and 276

    Humic substances 186

    Humin 186

    Humus 2, 186. See also Soil organic matt...

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