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-Q ADVANCED BEARDSWORTH

Advanced Digital Black White Photography

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-Q ADVANCED BEARDSWORTH ADVANCED>>> PHOTOGRAPHY This book brings black-and-white photography into the digital age.Digitalcamerasmaycapturecolorimages,butmany photographersstill love the richtradition and unique graphic qualitiesofblack andwhite,andsensetheremustbemore to digitalmonochrome than simplythrowingawaythe color inPhotoshop.Whilemanybookscaterforbothambitious newcomersandadvanceddarkroomenthusiasts,blackand whiteistoooftentreated asanafterthought.It'srelegated to a few pages of outmoded techniques, never explaining the specialcharacteroftheblack-and-whiteimageandhowit canbe maximized and manipulated digitally. TakingfulladvantageofthelatestfeaturesinAdobe Photoshop (53, Advanced Digital Black &White Photography worksatthefrontierofblack-and-whitephotographyand digitalimaging. Youwilldiscoverthemostcreativewaysto convertyour picture to black and white, how to fine-tune the monochromeimage,andhowtoemphasizeyoursubject's qualities.Withbothquicksolutionstocommonproblems andflexible,non-destructivemethodsforfinercontrol,this bookwillenableyou toproducethefinest, mostexpressive black-and-white interpretations of yourpictures. ADVANCED AdvancedDigitalBlack&WhitePhotography LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationData Beardsworth,JohnDavid. Advanced digitalblack& whitephotography/JohnDavid Beardsworth.--1st ed. p.em. Includesindex. ISBN-13:978-1-60059-210-2(pb-withflaps'alk.paper) ISBN-lO:1-60059-210-4(pb-withflapsalk.paper) 1Photography-Digitaltechniques.2.Black-and-white photography.I Title.II.Title:Advanceddigitalblackandwhitephotography. TR267. B4352007 778.3-dc22 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1FirstEdition 2007015986 Published byLarkBooks,ADiviSion of SterlingPublishingCo ..Inc 387ParkAvenue South, New York, NY10016 TheIlexPresslimited2007 Thisbookwasconceived,designed,and producedby: ILEX,Lewes,England DistributedinCanadabySterlingPublishing, c/oCanadianManda Group,165DuffennStreet Toronto,Ontario,CanadaM6K 3H6 Thewritteninstructions,photographs,designs,patterns,and projectsinthis volumeareintendedforthepersonaluse ofthe readerand maybereproducedforthatpurposeonly.Anyother use,especiallycommercialuse,isforbiddenunderlawwithout writtenpermissionofthe publisher.Theworksrepresentedare the originalcreations ofthecontributingartists.Allartists retain copyrightson their individualworks,exceptasnoted. Everyefforthasbeenmadetoensurethatall theinformationin thisbookisaccurate.However,duetodifferingconditions,tools, and Individualskills,the publishercannotberesponsibleforany injuries,losses,andotherdamagesthatmayresultfromtheuse oftheinformationinthisbook.Becausespecificationsmaybe changedbythemanufacturerwithoutnotice,thecontentsofthis bookmaynotnecessarilyagreewithsoftwareandequipment changesmadeafterpublication. If you havequestionsorcomments aboutthisbook,please contact: LarkBooks 67Broadway Asheville,NC 28801 (828)253-0467 ManufacturedIn China Allrightsreserved ISBN 13:978-1-60059-210-2 ISBN10:1-60059-210-4 Todownloadexamplefilesfrom Advanced DigitalBlack &White Photography, goto: www.web-linked.com/adbwus Forinformationaboutcustomeditions,specialsales,premium andcorporatepurchases,pleasecontactSterlingSpecialSales Departmentat800-805-5489 or [email protected] CONTENTS 6Introduction CameraWork: CapturingtheBlack-and-WhiteImage 12Black-and-whitemodes 14ShootRAWandincolor 16Whatworksinblackandwhite 18Toneandcontrast 20Digital black-and-whiteexposure 22Exposingtotheright 24Theshadows 26Drawntothebrightlights 28Increasingdynamicrange 30Coloredfilters:not forgotten 32Filtersfordigitalblackandwhite 34Digitalinfraredcapture TheDigitalDarkroom1: ConvertingtoBlackandWhite 40Destructivetechniques 44Calculations 46Thetoolsofthetrade 48TheChannelMixer 50"Filmandfilter" 52CS3BlackandWhite 54Paintingblackandwhite 56Black-and-whitepresets 58CameraRawandSmartObjects 62Convertingselectedimageareas 66Creativeconversion:People 70Creative conversion:Landscapes 72Tonalseparation .a&m74TheDigitalDarkroom2:132Solarization andtheSabattiereffect Fine-tuningthePhotograph 134Simulatinglith 76Settingthe blackandwhitepoints138Grainandnoise 78Overallbrightnessandcontrast140Simulatingfilmtypes 80FinecontrastcontrolI142Simulatingpinholecameraimages 82Addingcontrast selectively144Photorealisticlinedrawings 84Local contrast150Softfocus 86Creativeclipping .I 88Shadowsandhighlights Presentationandoutput 90Contactstrips 156Borders 92Dodgingandburning:Thetools I I 158Decorativeborders 94Adjustmentlayers I160Filmrebates 96Dodgingandburning:Landscapes 162Edgeburning 98Dodgingandburning:Portraits 164Flippingthe image 100Dodgingandburning:Reportage 166Printoroutputsharpening 102Generalsharpening 168Printers 104HighPass andSmartSharpening 170Neutralblackandwhite 106SelectiveSharpening I 172CMYKoutput 108Edgesharpening I 176Blackandwhiteinbulk .110CreativeEffects:182Outputfortheweb DigitalImageWorkflows 112Toning 114Split toning 116Duotones 118Ameasuredtone 120Classictones 122Calotypesandsalted paper prints186GlossaryandFurtherReading 124Handcoloring188Index 128Infraredeffects192Acknowledgments ma~------ -------- --INTRODUCTION Whenmy fatherheardI wasabouttobegin a second bookonblack-and-white photography, hethoughtbackafewyearstohissurpriseatseeingthefirstone.Afterall,hehadasked, doesn'teveryonewantcolornowadays? Justasthemovingpicture,evenwiththeadditionofsound,neversucceededin killingoffstillphotography,decadesofcolorhaven'tprovedfataltoblackandwhite.If anything,theymadeitseemmoredistinctiveasanartform,cruciallyseparatedfromthe worldofcolor.Artformsarenotnecessarilysweptawaybytechnologicalprogress,but accumulateandhappilycoexist.Infact,thearrivalofdigitalimagingseemstohavegiven yetanotherburstoflifeto black-and-white photography. Butthingsdomoveon,thoughts develop,needschange.Overa periodof justafewyears,digital captureofimageshasbecomeless the exceptionandmorethenorm, andtheneedisnolongerforhelp in makingone'swayfromthewet to thedigital darkroom.Wearein aperiodof reflection,andof maturingand establishing our digital photography skills. Thisbook'spurpose istooffer anup-to-date approachtoblackand-white digitalphotography whilestayingfirmlywithinitsrich tradition.Itisaimedatthe serious photographer,whetheryou're earningalivingfromyourwork orarean enthusiast whothinks carefullyaboutyourresults.All you'llneedisabasicfamiliarity withPhotos hopandthedesire tomoveforward. Thebook'sfirst sectionisabout thepicture-takingprocessand emphasizesshootingincolor,not usingyourcamera'sbuilt-inblackand-whitesettings.Aswellas keepingopentheoptiontoproduce bothcolorandmonoversionsof thesamescene,thebeststarting pointforatop-qualitydigitalblack-and-whitepictureisthewellcomposed,well-exposedRAW imagefile,withallitscolor informationintact.To paraphrase AnselAdams,thedigitalcolorfileis thescore,andtheblack-and-white imageisits performance. Thesecondpartlooksat convertingthosecolorfilesto black andwhite.Therearetoomany alternative techniquesto listhere, andsomearementionedmoreso youmayrecognizethemasold andobsolete when yousee them advocatedinwebforums,in recycledmagazinearticles,orby thecamera-clubbore.Placingthose methodsintheirhistoricalcontext meansyoucanthenappreciatethe 6ADVANCEDDIGITALBLACKANDWHITEPHOTOGRAPHY advantageof newertechniques thatfullyexploitthecolorimage's datatoproducethebestpossible black-and-white rendition. Thesection'skeyobjectiveis toshowwhereyoucanexercise creativecontrolduringtheblackand-white conversion.Onceyou start exploiting the colorimage's channeldata,thespecific choice ofconversionmethodbecomesa secondarymatter.Thisstepisless about overallimage contrast,which canberesolvedlater,andmuch moreabouthowacertain combinationofchannelvalues changesthepicture'sgrayscale tones-and whatthattellsthe vieweraboutitssubject. INTRODUCTION Theconversionstepisallabout tonalseparation,distributionof grayscaletones,andimage balance.Contrastisaseparate step,andisdiscussedinthethird section.Aswellascontrolling overallimagecontrast,youmay wantto lightenordarken,or "dodgeandburn"selectedareas, andapplysharpening.But,asatthe conversionstage,itisallverywell toknowthemodern,versatile equivalents ofthewetdarkroom's dodgingandburning.Onceyou knowwhatisachievable,thenitis mucheasiertounderstandwhy youmightdeploythosetechniques. The fourthpartofthebookshows anumberofmore creative effects. Nowadaysitishardtodrawany lineondigital manipulation,but herethelimitisbroadlythe canonoftraditionaldarkroom work.Toningliesfirmlywithin thatscope,asdoessimulating lithprints,solarization,orpinhole cameraeffects.Butoneor twoother techniques arealso included,suchas simulating infraredfilmphotographyand line art-nothing tooweirdor offbeat,however. Thefinalpartofthebookis aboutpresentationandoutput. Ablack-and-white imagecanbe damagedbyhighlightslyingclose the picture's edge,so thissection covers borders and techniques such asedge burning.Sharpening,for printorweb,iscovered,asare specializedblack-and-whiteinksand CMYKconversion.Thesectionalso addressessolutionsforoutputting entireshootsasblackandwhite-ApertureandLightroomarenow viablealternativestoPhotoshop for high-volumework. Some photographers onlywork inblackandwhite,othersonly withcolor,butdigitalphotography allowstherestofus tohave the bestofbothworlds.Ifthisbook achievesevenits smallest objective,itwillconvinceyou there'salotoflifeinblackand white.Why limit yourselftocolor? To downloadexampleversions of theimages in this book as layeredPSD files,check the URLonpage 4. BLACK AND WHITE MODES There'saveryobviouswaytomakeblack-and-whitepictureswithyourdigitalcamera: chooseitsblack-and-whitemode.Notalldigitalcamerashavesuchafeaturebutthe numberisincreasingallthetime,andit'snowunusualtoseeanewcameramodelthat shipswithoutmonochromesettings.Moresophisticatedoptions,likefilterandtoning presets,arealsobeingaddedandtheseprovidethephotographerwithanotherlevelof creativecontrol. Whilesuchoptionsareniceto have,theyshouldn'tbethe decisivefactorinyour choice ofanewcameraifyouwant toconcentrateonblackand white.Moreimportantarecore picture-taking featureslikethe ability tooverrideautomatic exposure settings,therangeof ISOsensitivity,andevenasmall, on-cameraflash.Theyare however useful if you needto deliver blackand-whiteversionsquickly,and theresultscan bevery good. THESACRIFICEOFCONVENIENCE Youcanmanageperfectlywell withoutthese built-inblack-andwhitemodes,andtherearesome prettygoodreasonswhy,atleast mostof thetime,youmight choosetoavoidthem. Onerelatesto fileformat.If youset your cameratoa blackand-white modeandsaveyour picturesinJPEG format,youare losingforeveralotof valuable imageinformation.Most enthusiastandallprofessionallevelcamerascansavepictures tothememorycardaseither RAW formatfilesoras JPEGs. RAW isthecamera manufacturer's proprietar file formatandcontains everybit of rawdatacapturedby thesensor,whileJPEGisa "lossy"formatthatisdesignedto minimizefilesize.Whileitcanbe readwith nospecialsoftware,and isready to print straightfromthe memory card,JPEG'ssmallfile sizecomes atthepriceof losing "unnecessary" imagedata. Sowhenyouchoosethe JPEG-onlyoptionand seta monochromemode,yourcamera processestherawdataand outputsablack-and-whiteJPEG, discarding allthemegabytesof color information.You cannever makeacolor printfromablackand-whiteJPEG.Whilesomemay bewilling toaccept thislossof versatility,thatdiscardedcolor informationisactuallyevenmore valuablethanyoumightatfirst think.Withit,youwouldalmost certainlyhavebeenableto produceabetterblack-and-white image later onyour computer.For the black-and-whitephotographer, that'saheavypriceindeed. 12CAMERAWORK-CAPTURINGTHEBLACKANDWHITEIMAGE Above:Settingyour camerato shootin blackandwhiteisgreatwhenyouare need tosend JPEGs toclients orfriends quickly. Buteventhoughthe JPEG+RAWoption doublesthenumber of filesyouhaveto manage,retainingtheRAWfile'colordata meansyouwillalwavsbeabletoproduce colorandblack-and-whiteversions. ModeOptions JPEGRecordsastandard8-bitimagefromvourcamera,defaulton man V compacts BlackandWhite JPEGProcessestheimageinthecameratoBlackandwhite, discardingallcolorinformation.Itislikelvtobe asimple conversion. RAW Raw+JPE Savesa16-bitcolorimagewithallpossibleimageinformation and additionalcamerasettingdetails Savesbothaprocessed JPEGforspeedandaRawfilewith allthedatadescribedabove. BlackandWhiteRawSavesallthe data ofan ordinaryRawincludingcolor,but displavs a simpleblackandwhiteconversionasapreviewItisstill allowsallthefinetuningpossiblefromastandardRaw. BLACKANDWHITEMODES13 SHOOT RW ANDIN COLOR Foralltheconvenienceofdigitalcameras'black-and-whitemodes,thebestchoicefor today'sblack-and-whiteenthusiastistoshootincolor.Theprincipleissimple:color images-andespeciallyRAWfiles-containthemaximumamountofinformation,sowhy limit yourselftoanyless?Neverthrow awayin camerawhatyoumightneedlater. Evenifyourarelymakecolorprints, there'sanobviousadvantageto keepingyouroptionsopensoyou canmakecolorormonoversions whenyou please.Ifyousetyour cameratoa black-and-white JPEGonlymode,that chanceisgone foreverbecauseno colorinformation issaved.The camera willprocess theimagevirtuallyinstantlyandsave only a grayscale imagetothecard. THEBENEFITSOFRAW Ifyou likeyourcamera'sblack-andwhitemode,try settingit totheRAW option. ARAW file contains all theraw data capturedby the sensor andis consequently much larger than a JPEG.You willstillseeablack-andwhiteimageon yourcamera'sscreen orwhenyou transfer the pictures to yourcomputer,butthisisonlya preview thumbnail that thecamera adds totheRAW file,alongwithone ormorelarger previews.All theraw dataremains inthefilesoyoucan process inmonoorcolor. 14CAMERAWORK- CAPTURINGTHEBLACKANDWHITEIMAGE Qualityiseverybitasimportant as flexibility,and thewaytoproduce thehighest qualityblack-and-white printis toshootincolor,usingRAW mode,andthenconvertthe picturein thedigitaldarroom. Wearenot talkingPhotoshopor computerwizardryhere.Itis vital to keepemphasizingthatthereisso Caption:Using the RAW option in your camera's black-and-white mode gives you a standard grayscalepreview image,concealing the color information. muchmoretotheartofblackand white thanturningdownthecolor saturationandmakingagrayscale image. Thesamecolorphotograph canhavemanyblack-and-white interpretations,allresultingfrom creative choicesmadewhenyou seethepictureonyourcomputer screenandexercisecontrolover howitisconvertedfromcolorto mono.Youmightdecide toapply cerain conversion settings because youlikehowtheyheightenthe contrast,ormoderate it;orhow they darkenthesky,lightenaskintone, orchange where the shadows and lightermidtonesaresituatedinthe frame.Somechoicesare deliberate, whileothersmaybeaccidental-at first-andhappento workoutwell. Notsurprisingly,alargepartofthis bookisdevotedtoshowingexactly howthatcanbedone. Byshooting incolor,orsavingin RAWformat,itisyouandnotthe camera'sdesignerwhocancontrol exactlyhowyourcolorimages look whenconvertedtoblackandwhite. Below:UsingRAW means biggerfiles andmorepostprocessingwork,buta singleadjustmentlayerinPhotoshop canalmostalwaysproducea better monochrome result than your camera' black-and-whitesetting. SHOOTRAWANDINCOLOR15 WHAT WORKS IN BLACK AND WHITE Eventhemostexperiencedanddedicatedblack-and-whitephotographersoftenquestion themselvesaboutwhatworksbestinblackandwhite.Afterall.doestheblack-and-white enthusiastreallythinkdifferentlywhenheorshelooksthroughtheviewfinderandpresses theshutterrelease?Isitpossibletoseeinblackandwhiteatthatpoint?It'sahighly contentiousquestion,and-ifyou'llforgivetheobviouspun-it'sonetowhichthereare noblackand whiteanswers. Attheextremes,somepictures areinherentlymonochromewhile othersareallaboutcolor.A colorless,wintrysceneisinevitably blackandwhite,whileasunset's gloryisall aboutthesheerbeauty ofwarmcolors.Butthevast majorityofscenesandalmostall subjectmatterliebetweenthose points.WouldCartierBresson's pictureshavebeenanyless arrestingif theyhadbeenincolor? OrMapplethorpe'snudesanyless striking?Perhaps,butthepointis certainlyarguable.Indeed,thinking ofthe latter,near theendofhislife Mapplethorpeproducedbeautiful studiesofflowers,someincolor andsomeinmono,anddeciding betweenthemisaverytoughcall. Andthinkingbackto that imaginary wintrylandscape,might itsstrength not liemoreinitscompositionthan initsabsenceofcolor?Inshort, awell-composedpicture,with interestingsubjectmatter,willbe greatinblackandwhite,ifthat's whatyouprefer. Takingthepoint further,think ofAnselAdams'sClearingWinter Storm.Itisagloriousblack-andwhiteimage,withacomplete rangeoftones,andsuperbly printedto emphasizethestorm andrevealinterestingdetail throughout the frame.It'sperhaps theblack-and-whiteicon.Butyou cannowparkyourcarcloseto Adams'sviewpoint,andmany photographershaveproduced finecolorversionsof exactlythe samescene. Alternatively,consider Steve McCurry'sequallymemorablecolor photograph-apicturesoiconic onebarelyneedstosayit'stheone oftheAfghangirlfromtheNational Geographic cover. The picture works partlybecauseof thewonderful greenofthegirl'seyes,the complementaryredsofhershawl, 16CAMERAWORK-CAPTURINGTHEBLACKANDWHITEIMAGE andthegreensshowingthroughits holesandinthebackground.But thoseeyeslooknolesshaunting, andnoristhephotographanyless perfect,inblackandwhite. Below:ClearingWinter Storm by Ansel Adams COLORORBLACK ANDWHITE? Fortoday's digitalblack-and-white photographer,shootingincolormeans you arenolongerrestrictedbythetype offilmthathappenedtobeinyour camera whenyouraisedittoyoureye. Youcanconsiderthepictureatleisure onyourmonitorand-byquicklycycling throughthecolorchannels-present yourselfwiththreeoftenwidely differinggrayscaleinterpretationsto helpyoudecideifyourpictureworksin blackandwhite. It's notanavoidanceofresponsibility todoubtthat there'sanyrealanswerto whatworkworksbestinblack and white,nortoquestionwhetheronecan really"see"inmono.It'sactuallymore liberatingforthosewhosepreference happenstobeblackandwhite.AsI havealreadysaid,awell-composed picture,withinteresting subjectmatter, isperfectforblackandwhite.Justgo out, shoot those color images,andset aside philosophicalniceties. Right:Awell-composed picturewillwork equallywellincoloror black and white. Above:Aclassic gritty subjectfor blackandwhite. -----WHATWORKSINBLACKANDWHITE .'TONE AND CONTRST Formorethanacentury,blackandwhitewashowwedepictedourworldandrecorded events.Firstthroughphotography,andthenreinforcedbyfilmandtelevision,wehave learnedtoacceptblackandwhiteasbeingrealistic.Ofcourse,itisn't-realityiscolor,at lea?titwasthelasttimeIlooked.Onceyoushakeoffanyideathattheblack-and-white imageneedstobefaithfultothesceneyoureyesobserved,it'snotabigjumptotreating itassimplyacompositionin grayscaletones. Shadesofgrayareallthatis availablein black and white,so muchoftheskillliesinmanaging thegrayscale composition and positioningblocksofsimilartone aroundtheframe.Filmusersdo thisbeforepressingtheshutter, placingcolored " contrastcontrol filters"overthelens.Onefilter maydarkenthesky,perhapstoo much,whileanother maybalance theskyandkeylandscapedetail.In thedigitalera,thosemanipulations of tonalor brightnessvaluesnow happenonthe computer,butyou areguidedby thesameprinciples. Withonlygrayscaletonesat your disposal,contrast playsa greaterrolethanincolor photography.Overallimage contrast is obviouslysomething thatconfrontsyouthefirsttime youseeyourcolorpictureinblack andwhite,eitherworkingoniton yourcomputeror,ifyouused the camera'sblack-and-whitesetting, whenyou reviewthecaptureon itsLCDscreen.Thelastthing youwanttoseeisamassof indistinguishableshadesofgray, while highcontrastcanbe soharsh andunflatteringthattheresultis morelikeagraphicspecialeffect thanaphotograph.Acceptable contrastusuallycontainstrue 18CAMERAWORK blacksandwhitesandarangeof tonesinbetween. Tonal contrast inkeyareasof thepictureiseverybitasimportant astheimage's overall appearance. Thislocaltonalcontrastrequires specialattentionandaneyefor detail.Twoneighboringimage areasmayhavehadverydifferent colorsinreality,butmaylook identicalinblackandwhite.That maybe desirable,forexampleif you wishto showfewer skin tones, oritmaydiminishtheinformation thepictureconveysaboutits subject.Shootingincolormeans youcan fine-tune theblack-andwhiteconversion,andexploitthe colordifferencessotheimage areasarerepresentedindistinct grayscaletones.Tonalseparation, bothoverallandlocal,isjustone of thewaysinwhichtheblack-andwhiteconversionbecomeslessa routine,andmoreakeypartof yourcreativeprocess. OcIL1 !c1LLl-lAbove:Thecolorimageis partlyaboutcomposition,tone andform,butisalsoabout color.Hereadeepblueskyis a keypartofthisimage. Below:Imagecontrast needstobeconsidered inoverallandin localarea terms.Thisversion' overallcontrastmaybe acceptable,butlookat thesphinx'headdress. Itsyellowandblue stripesareidentical grayscaletones. Lef:Therearemanywaystomakea pictureblackandwhite.Thisversion hasalotof punch,andtheviewer nowunderstandsthattheheaddress containsdifferent-coloredstripes. UDC3CDEC Refresh jI5\UU

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LDDL\ VIEWLD3RDEl.RGB

IcXD3RCECVEWPll LD3RREl5 VEW'bRDWStatistics bUU|IE 'LH\IfP D3UPMean:149.70level: StdDev:51.79Coun\: Median:12.Percentile: Pixels:327680CacheLevel:2 Above:Photoshop'shistogramshows statisticsabouttheimage'sbrightness andcontrast.Here,standarddeviation shows how widely bri ghtness values are dispersed-inotherwords,indicates contrast-andcanbeusedasan indication whenyou areprepari ngasetof images. TONEANDCONTRAST19 DIGITAL BLACK AND WHITE EXPOSURE Howdoyoudeterminethecorrectexposurefordigitalblackandwhitephotography? Black-and-white film usersoftenspeakof"exposingfortheshadows,"whichensuresthat printabledetailisrecordedinthenegative'slightestareas.Filmusuallyhassufficient dynamicrangetocapturehighlightdetail,too.Digitalexposure,forcolororforblackand white, istheotherway round, more akin toshootingcolor slide filmwhereyoumakesure youexpose thehighlightscorrectly,leavingthe shadows to resolve themselves.Knownas "exposingtotheright,"fromtheshapeofthe image's histogram,thisensuresthatdetail is recorded inthemost valuable part of thetonalrange. Onecanonlyrelysomuchon modernmeteringsystemsand cameras'autosettings.Butdigital capturebringstheabilityto check yourexposureinthe field.There aretimeswhencheckingtheLCD screenmakesyou misstheaction, buton the wholeitisanenormous advantage forthephotographer.As wellasconfirmingthatyoupressed theshutterat therightmoment andgottheshot,italso letsyou checkthatyousettheright exposure.JustasPolaroid instant filmwasusedtoassessand correctexposure,so youcan reviewthedigitalcaptureonsite, makeadjustments,andreshoot. Thisinstantfeedbackcanalso speedupthelearningprocess, HIGHLIGHTCLIPPINGWARNING sothenexttimeyouareintricky lightingsituationsyougetthe exposureright firsttime. ----Mostdigitalcameras'LCD screenshavetwomaintoolsthat helpyou setthecorrectexposure. Thehighlights alertis usuallyan optionalsetting that makes burntoutimageareasflashonscreen. Whileitis agreatquickwayto seewherelargeareas ofthe pictureare sooverexposedthat nousableimagedatahasbeen .captured,itdoesn'tgiveyouan accurateideaofhowmuchto reducetheexposure.Butthat 20CAMERAWORK-CAPTURINGTHEBLACKANDWHITEIMAGE quickindicationisvaluableenoughthat manyexperiencedphotographerskeep thissettingactivatedallthetime. Opposite:Thereareplentyofexceptions wheretheshot isnotharmed byblown highlights.Sometimesit'smoreimportant tocapturetheaction. Below:Digitalcamerasoftenhaveoptional highlightsalertsthatflashtowaryou whenimageareasmaybeoverexposed. Right:Asinglethin spikeonthefarrightof the histogram indicates lotsofpurewhite pixels andareasthatlackany detail.It'notnecessariy damaging,butisa valuablewaringof potentialproblems. ~~~ ~Above:Wherethey appeardeliberate, largeexpansesofwhiteneedbeno more distracting than thepaper on whichthepictureisprinted.Studio shotsmaywellbenefitfroma completely overexposedbackground. Thesecondtool,thehistogram,isfound not justonthecamera's LCDscreenbutalsoinPhotoshop,andatmanyotherpointsin thedigitalworkflow.Itshowsthedistribution ofbrightness values inthe picture-black (or0)is attheleft,andwhite(or255) is atthe right."Exposing tothe right"meansthatthehistogram's far-rightextremewilljusttouchthechart'sfarright.In other words,onlytheverybrightestpixelsintheimagearepurewhite, whichmeansthesensorhasrecordedplentyofdetailthroughout thehighlightareas.Ingeneral,youareaiming toavoid spikesat eitherendofthescale.Aspikeat theleftwouldindicatelotsof pureblackpixelsand underexposure,whileoneat the right would mean thatthecapturecontainslargeareasoffeatureless whiteandmaybeoverexposed.Itdoesn'tnecessarilytellyou precisely howmuchyoumaywantto adjusttheexposure,but youcaneasilyseewhetheryoumightneed justasmall amount or something muchmoresignificantlikeacouple ofstops. DIGITALBLACKANDWHITEEXPOSURE21 EXPOSING TO THE RIGHT Black-and-whitephotographyhasalwaysinvolvedwhatwenowcall"shootingforpost processing."Thecolorfilmorslideenthusiastusuallytriedtogetitrightin-camera,and maywellhaveobjectedtosubsequentmanipulation.Howeverithasalwaysbeen fundamentaltothecraftofblackandwhitethatthepicturewillbefullyrealizedinthe darkroomandthatyourfirststraightprintsarenotexpectedtobethefinishedarticle.This meanstheblack-and-whitephotographeroftenexposespicturesnotforhowtheyappear straightfromthecamera,butinanticipationofwhatcanbedoneinthedarkroom.This principlenowappliestodigitalcolortoo,especiallytoRAW,soyousettheexposureto captureasmuch important imagedataaspossible,thinkingaheadtohowyouwillbeable touseitlateronthecomputer.Inthissense,notmuchhaschangedsinceAnselAdams wroteofthenegativebeingthecomposition,andtheprintbeingtheperformance. Nowhereisthistruerthanwiththe highlighttonesandtheconceptof "exposingto theright."Thisisa well-regardedwayof judgingyour exposurebyusingthehistogram onthecamera'sLCDscreen.So youtakeashot,checkthecamera's alertsandthehistogram,andadjust theexposure.Theaimistogetthe histogramascloseaspossibleto therightsidebut withoutmaking thehighlightsindicatorflashor causingaspikeatthe255 brightnessvalue.Thismaximizes thenumberofbrightnessvalues recordedbythe sensor,means morelightreadingsarebeingused torecordshadowdetail,andso keepsdigitalnoisetoaminimum. Right:Theproperly exposedfinal image providesthe viewerwithvisible detail in theshadows and thehighlights. 22CAMERAWORK-CAPTURINGTHEBLACKANDWHITEIMAGE USING THEHISTOGRAM Thekeytothistechniqueistocapture allthehighlightdetail.Sometimesthis meansyouneedtoincreasethe exposureand somakethe overall picture look toobrightontheLCD.Whilethis is easy to correct whenyou examine the picturesoncomputer,it doesmeanmore postprocessingwork,aburdenwhich youmay ormaynotwanttoshoulder. Overexposingalsomeanskeepinga closeeyeontheshutterspeed-the slowershutterspeed increases therisk of camera shake ormight blurthemotion of movingobjects. Whenthehighlightsalertflasheson theLCD screen,orthehistogram'sright edge isa spike,itisanindicationthat youmaywanttounderexposeto Topandabove:Aspikeontheleftofthe camera's histogram indicates underexposure andpotentiallossof interestingdetail in the image's shadow areas. protectyourhighlights.Again,thiswill meanthepicture'soverallappearance lookswrong,inthiscasetoodark and with shadows denseandblockedup. Italsomeanscommittingmoretime topostprocessing.LevelsandCurves adjustmentscanstretchoutthe shadows,andworkingin16-bitmode mayhelpdealwithanyposterization (unevengradationsinareasofsmooth tone).Thereisalsoagreaterrisk of digitalnoise.Thebenefits,though,are thatunderexposuremeansafaster shutterspeed-andmostofall,you retainallthatvaluablehighlightdetail. Toprightandabove:Aspikeonthe histogram'srightindicates thatthebrighter areasofthe imageareoverexposed.The clouds behindthebridgeareareasofpure whiteandcontainnovisibledetail. Above:"Exposingtotheright"meansthe histogram justtouchestherightside. EXPOSINGTOTHERIGHT23 THE SHADOWS ~~-~~~~~~~ ~~+-~-~~~~~Ideally,anexposureshouldcapturedetailinthebrightesthighlightsandinthedeepest shadows,andgivetheviewerafullrangeoftones.Butdigitalsensorsdonotyetmatch thedynamicrangeoffilm,letaloneofblack-and-whitefilm,andscenesfrequentlyexceed therangeofbrightnessthatsensorscancapture.Whenit'sachoicebetweenretaining highlightdetailand sacrificingtheshadows,there'sonly one loser-you dowhatittakesto keep thehighlights fromburningout. 24CAMERAWORK-CAPTURINGTHEBLACKANDWHITEIMAGE Lef:Untilrecently,war photographywasmainly blackandwhite,andharsh and grainy,too.Here,a purplishtoneechoes19th centuryprintcolors. DIGITALNOISE WhenpreseNinghighlightdetailmeans youhaveto underexpose,other problems can creep in.Themoreyou underexpose, theworsethesignal-to-noiseratio becomes andthemorelikelyit isthat random noise willbecomevisible, particularlyintheshadows.Likegrain withfasterfilm,noiseisthepriceyou payfortakingtheshot inpoorlight. That'snottosaythereisnothing youcando.Somecameras havean optionalnoisereductionsettingwhich appliesspecialprocessing before writing theimageto theflashcard; thiscanbemostusefulwithlong, tripod-mountedexposures. Oncethepictureisonyour computer,RAWconverters likeAdobe CameraRawhavenoisereduction options-Luminosityslidersaremost likely tomakethebiggestdifferenceandtherearespecialistprogramsand plug-inslikeNoiseNinjaandNoiseAware thatcantarget noiseintheshadows and ignore it in othertonalranges. Sometimes you maysimplydecide to lettheclip theblacksalittlemore aggressively thanusualinPhotoshop. Intheend,shadowscan obscureall sortsofsins. Right:Thereisanimmediatelossof impact whenapicturehasno trueblacks. Below:Shotdeepinsidea19thcentury fortress,atestshotshowedIwould need to underexpose byastoptoholdany detail inthehighlights. Right:If youdoalotof low-lightphotography considergettingaspecialistnoise reduction program suchasNoiseWare,which ofer more sophisticatedfeatures thanPhotoshop'filters. Profile:, Automatic ViewFrequency:!High 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% O% O- Self-learning:! Learn&Apply -Y -Cr -Cb THESHADOWS25 DRWN TO THE BRIGHT LIGHTS Highlightsplayahugeroleinblack-and-whitephotogra phy. Thisisn'tjustduetotechnical concernsaboutabsenceofdetailinimageareas,itisaresultofbehavioralfactorsinthe viewer.It'sallabouthowwetypicallyexaminetheblack-and-whiteimage .Whileblacksandshadowtones "anchor"theimageandgiveit "body,"theyareoftenoverlooked. Itisonlythetrainedeyethattries todistinguishtheirsubtletiesand anydetailtheymayhide.Usually, andparticularlyinblackandwhite, theeyelandsonthepicture's shadows,butisthendrawn straighttoitsbrightertones,asthis iswhereoneexpectstofindwhat isinterestingaboutthephotograph. 26CAMERAWORK-CAPTURINGTHEBLACKANDWHITEIMAGE Failuretorecordthehighlightsin theoriginalcapture,orlosingthem inthedigitaldarkroom,isusually veryobvious.Blownhighlightsare featurelesswhiteholesinthe picture,attractingtheeyeand immediatelytellingtheviewerthat somethingismissingfromthe originalscene.Itoftencausesa lastinglossofconfidenceinthe picture'sveracity. Lef:Thefinalimagemakesuseofits bright areaswithoutbeingoverpowering. Additionallvanimageborderand judicious cloninghasremovedtheharmful distractionof burt-outhighlights. GETINGHIGHLIGHTSRIGHT Fromthemoment you releasethe shutter,tothetimeyousendthe picturetothe printer,youneedto remainsensitivetopotentialproblems. Gettingitrightin-camera-"exposing totheright"-isagreat wayto start andencouragesgoodhabits suchas checking your camera's histogram.You also needtotakecare throughout the post processing work.Trtodevelop routine working practicessuchas checkingfor anyclippingintheLevels andCurvesadjustmentsby holding downtheAltJ\keywhenyoudrag thewhite-pointtriangles. Well-renderedhighlightsalsohave powerfulcompositionalvalueinblack andwhite,leadingthe vieweraround the frame.Inthe picture shownhere,the eye tends to movealongazigzag-shaped path,starting fromthe foreground and thenfollowingthe streamintothe distanceand to thehorizon,before noticingthebrighterareasof thesky. Sometimesthisintroductionof movement is subconscious,simply howyouhappentoobservethe scene, butit isalsosomethingthat canbe exploitedas partofthe composition. Thereis anotherreasonwhythe positioningof highlights aroundthe frameisparticularlyimportantinblack andwhite.Ahighlightwillbe especially noticeable and potentially harmfulifit liesclosetothepicture'sedge.Paper isalsowhite,andsuchbrightareascan easilyblendintothesurroundingpaper, makingthepicturelookas though notches havebeenchoppedoutof its rectangular shape.Theeyemayfollow such highlightsand beledoutofthe frame,soone solution is toaddablack borderormounttheprintinablack matte.Youcanalso clone awayor burn in these damaging patches of brightness, or cropthepicturemore tightly.Mostof all,doafinalreviewofthe imagebefore sendingittotheprinter. Above:Theeyeisimmediatelyattractedto blownout highlights,andinterpretstheimageaccordinglyThis sceneisnolongeraboutagrmmarshlandlandscape, butconfusestheviewer-theremaybean explosion on the horizon,or astrangelypositioned sunrise. Above:Highlightsguidetheeye around theframe. Lef:Evenvery smallareasofblown highlightsmay damagetheimage whentheyare positionedcloseto theedges.Here,a brightareaof skyis likeanotchchopped outonthe picture' leftside. DRAWNTOTHEBRIGHTLIGHTS27 -~~INCREASING DYNAMIC RANGE Whereascenecontainsaverygreatrangeofbrightness,sacrificingtheshadowsmaybe one option,butitisn'ttheonly one.Ifthe camera ismountedon atripod,another approach istotakeamatchingpairof images andmarrythemlaterinPhotoshop. EXPOSINGTOTHERIGHT "Exposingtotheright"can easilycaptureanimagethat, forallits wonderful highlight detail,isunusablebecauseof theproblemsintheshadows. Onceonyourcomputer screen,theblacks maywell be indistinguishablefromthe darkest midtones.You might tryboostingthe shadow contrastwithCurves orLevels, orPhotoshop'sShadow/ Highlightsadjustment,but therewouldalways be a danger of posterizationproblems.Even ifyouworkin16-bitmode,you couldendupdoingall sortsof laborious masking and other workto rescue shadow detail. REGROUPING Anotherpostprocessing workaroundistomaketwo differing conversions of theRAW file,andsandwichthemtogether. Alternatively,AdobeCamera RawandotherRAWconverters nowhavesliders for"filllight" whichcandetectshadow areas andlifttheirbrightnessand contrast.Soinstead of sandwichingtwo conversions. morecanbe achieved inthe RAW converteritselfatasingle pass.Butyouarestillworking with limitedimage dataabout the shadows. Above:Thisframewas"exposed tothe right."Itshighlightdetailisgreat,butthe standingstonesareindeepestshadow. I 28CAMERAWORK-CAPTURINGTHEBLACKANDWHITEIMAGE Lef:Itisoftennotanoption to liftthebrightnessof shadowsin an imagethat wasunderexposedtoprotect highlights-thedigitalnoise canbe horrendous. Lef:Asecondframe is exposedtorecord shadowdetail.This receivedanadditional threestops. ~-~~ +BRACKETING Whileblackandwhiteoftenletsyouget awaywithblockedshadows,agreat solutionistoblendbracketed exposures.With the cameraonatripod, meterasusualandshootapairof shots ofthescene,changingonlythe exposurebetweenframes.Oneframe is"exposedtotheright,"withthe highlightsfully capturedand the shadows lefttolookafterthemselves.The otherisusuallyexposedaccording tothecamerameter,blowingoutthe highlights.Thetwocaneasilybe matchedup inPhotoshopbyholding downtheShiftkeyasoneimageis dragged onto the other(or using the Photomerge tool). The final image containsthehighlightelementsfrom one,andthe shadowsfrom theother. Thedynamicrangeisatleastasgreat asfilm,and nordoesit challenge too manyscruplesaboutmanipulation. ID Sharpening Darken Black&White Shadowcontrast Overexposed Left:Thekeytothefinished image isin the bottomtwo layers.Theskywasmasked outoftheoverexposed frame, allowingthecorrectly exposedskyto showthrough. Below:Sandwiching exposuresincreasesyour camera'sdynamicrange,and providestheviewerwith interestingdetailthroughout theframe. INCREASINGDYNAMICRANGE29 I COLOREDFILTERS:NOT FORGOTEN Weareonlyadecadeorsointothedigitalera,andonemisconceptionisthatcolored lensfiltersmightstillbeusefultoshootblackandwhitewithadigitalcamera.Thisisa mistake.Foronething,we'vealreadyseenthatyouhavealotmorecreativechoiceif youconvertthecolorimagetoblackandwhiteoncomputer.EvenifyoushootinRAW format,afilterwillgiveyouanimagewithastrongcolorcastthatisverylikelytorestrict whatyoucandoattheblack-and-whiteconversionstage,andwillcertainlypreventyou frommakingstraightcolorprintsfromthesameframe.AndifyouareshootingJPEGonly,thenthere'snochanceatallofmakingacolorversionsincethecamerawillonly savetheblack-and-whiteimage.Evenifyouneveractuallymakecolorprints,whythrow awaytheversatilitythatcolorcaptureprovides? LENSFILTERS:COLORCASTS Newcomerstoblack-and-white photographyareoftensurprisedtolearn howintegralcoloredlensfiltershave beentotheart.Madeof opticalglassor resin,the filter allows light ofthesame colortopassthroughthelens,while interruptingothercolors.Thisprinciple givesthefilmphotographer lotsof control.Forinstance,aredfilterblocks greenandblue,andsoitmightbeyour choiceif youwantedtodarkenhowa blueskyappearsinblackandwhite. Alternativelyyoumightscrewagreen filterontothelensif yourintentionwas tobrightenfoliageandmakemore tonesapparentinalandscape. Experiencedblack-and-whitefilm photographerswouldtypicallycarry aselectionofvariousfilters-reds, oranges,yellow,blues,andsoon-and entirebookshavebeenwrittenon the subject. 30CAMERAWORK-CAPTURINGTHEBLACKANDWHITEIMAGE Lef:Ahugevariety of coloredfilters is available forcontrastcontrolwith black-and-white film. Lef:An orange filter woulddarkenskies andmakeclouds standouton blackand-whitefilm,but inthe digitalageit removescolor,leaving thismuch information toworkwith. Right:Acolorimage canbeeasily convertedtoappear asifshotonblack andwhitewithan orngefilter FILTERS:RAWALTERNATIVES Anotherreasonwhycoloredfiltersare notsuitablefordigitalphotography relatesto howdigitalcamerascapture images.Thesensorconsistsofagridof light-sensitivecells.Theseareusually laidoutinpatternsoffour,two ofwhich recordgreenbrightnessvalues,and one eachforredandblue.Inthecameraif youare shooting JPEG,or lateron computerforRAWfiles,thiscapture datais"demosaiced"to agridwhere eachcellor pixel hasred,green,and bluevalues.Broadlyspeaking,acolored lensfilterwouldblocklight fromsome ofthelight-sensitivecells,so aredor bluefilterwouldmeanthatonlythreequartersofthecellswerebeingused, whileagreenfilterwouldcutthatto half.This is often enoughtodegradethe imagequalityandatworstcancause bittyartifactsinsmooth-tonedareas. But mostofall,itissimplynot necessaryfordigital.Theunderlying principlesoflightfiltrationare unchangedandstillrelevant.It's just that they applynotwhenthe lightenters thelens,as withblack-and-whitefilm, butlaterwhenyouconvertthepicture to blackandwhiteandmanipulatethe red,green,andbluechannel values.If youareshooting JPEG-only,thisoccurs as thecameraprocesses thecapture data andcreatesthe JPEG,but ifyou areshootinginRAW format,the conversionstepoccurslaterinthe digitaldarkroom.Coloredlensfiltersare no longerneededforshootingblackand whitewithadigital camera,butifyou canfindacopyof AnselAdams'sclassic TheNegative,takealookattheuseof coloredlensfilters-theunderlying artisticprinciplesremainrelevantand translate directlyintothelanguageof thedigitaldarkroom. Above:Digitalsensorsconsistofagrid ofphotocells,eachsensitivetoone color channel. Above:InPhotoshop,makethepictures blackandwhiteandzoomrightin.The orange-filteredimageismuchnoisierthan therawcolor version. [email protected] III Black&White I @ iiBlack&White Backgrund Above:ShootinginRAW and incolor allowsmuchmorecreativeflexibilityFor thefinalimage,twochannelfiltrations wereusedtomakethepictureblackand white,likeusingyellowandredlensfters fordifferentpartsoftheframe. COLOREDLENSFILTERS31 .~..~m.m..FILTERS FOR DIGITAL BLACK AND WHITE Afilterisoptical-qualitymaterial,usuallyglassorplastic,whichisplacedoverthelensand affectshowlightreachesthefilmorsensor.Glassfilterstendtobemoreexpensiveand screwdirectlyontothelens,meaningtheirthreadordiameterhastomatch.Resinor plasticfiltersslotintostandard-sizeholderswhicharethenattachedtothelensusing adaptersfor each thread size,sothis ismuch more flexibleifyouhaveafew lenses.Some lenses,likeultrawide-angles,onlytakegelatinfilterswhichslideintoslotsattherearof the lens.Thereisawide varietyoffilterstochoosefrom. Aswe'veseenonpages30-31, colored lensfiltersbelongtothe filmera,sothat'sawholelotfewer lensfilterstoweighdownyour camerabag.Butwhat filtersremain valuableforthedigitalblack-andwhiteshooter? FILTERS:GRADUATED "Neutralgrads"arefiltersthatare graduatedfromgraytoclear.Thegray halfdarkensthatpartofthesubjectby 1-3stops without altering itscolors. Thisis usefulwhentheskyis brightin relationtothelandscapeanditletsyou renderdetailinallareaswithoutoverexposingor"washingout"thesky.It is perhaps worth havinganeutral graduatedfilterjustincase,butif you areusingatripod,itmaybeaseasyto bracketacoupleof shotsandmatch themup laterinPhotoshop. 32CAMERAWORK FILTERS:NEUTRALDENSITY Neutral density filters simplycut downalllight entering thelens, "neutral" signifying thatthey affect allwavelengths uniformly. Sincelesslightisreaching the sensor,youneedtokeepthe shutteropenlongertoachievea correctexposure,sotheirbiggest useisa creativeone.Theyallow youtouseamuchslowershutter speedthanyouwouldotherwise. Whiletheneutraldensityfilter remainsuseful,there'salimitto theamountyoucancarryandthe polarizingfiltercanbeafine substituteinmanycircumstances. Itiseffectivelya2-2.5-stopneutral densityfilter.Touseit,setthe lowestISOvalue,stopthelens downto122,andattachthefilterthiscanoftenbe enoughto produce motionblurringorwaterand other movingobjects. Below:Useaneutraldensity filterand asmallaperture toblur water-this exposurelasted 2secondsat 122. FILTERS:POLARIZING There'slittledisputethat,for filmor digital,polarizersare byfarthemost usefulfiltersandit'sworthspending alittlemoreforgoodquality. Thepolarizingfilterisactuallya pairoffiltersthatpreventunpolarized lightfrompassingthroughthelens. Reflectedlightisun polarized,sothe filter means thecamera captures fewer reflectionsoff surfaces suchaswater, glass,polishedwood,andleaves.As a result,theseobjects'colorsarericher andmoresaturated.Sunlightalso reflectsoff particles like mistand haze, sothe polarizing filtermakesskies bluerandmakesclouds standout. Thestrengthofpolarization changes as yourotatethefilter'stoplayer.Itis Above:Thepolarizingfilter remainsasusefulin digital as itis in fimphotography. Right:Thepolarizingfilter capturesrichercolorsand usually makes iteasierto rendermoredetailinthe black-and-whiteimage. alsoaffectedbythetypeoflightandby itsdirection,beingstrongestwhenthe filterisat90degreestothesun. Sometimesthecolor saturationeffectis overpowering,orthefiltercancutout attractivereflections,soyouneedto decidefor each shot whetheritshould beusedandtowhat degree. Thelossof reflectionscanbe particularlyimportantforblackand white.Withoutthem,colorsmaybe moresaturatedbutthatdoesn't necessarilyimprovethe picture's appearanceandisn'trelevantformono. There'salwaysadangerthatapolarized imagewillappeardull andlifeless. Polarizationcan maketheskylook unevenandthemakepartsofittoo dark.Thisissomethingtowatchoutfor, especiallywithwideanglelenses. Alsorememberthatbecausethe polarizingfilterreducesthelight reachingthesensor,yourexposure needstobelonger.Whilethecamera's meteringsystemwillhandlethisfor you,generallyyoulose 2-2.5stopsand forsome shots this willmeanyoumay have to useatripod.Itiseffectivelya neutraldensityfiltertoo. Buttheseare disadvantagesare minorbycomparisonwiththepolarizing filter's hugevalue.Manyphotographers gladlycarryonepolarizerfor eachlens threadsize. TIP Alwayswatchoutfordarkcorers whenyoushootwithafilter.Thismay indicatethatthefilterisvignettingthe imageandisunsuitableforthe lens. Lef:Thepolarizingfltereliminates reflectedlight.Cloudsstandoutmore inblue skies,andheredifferentshades havebeenbroughtoutinthesea. FILTERSFORDIGITALBLACKANDWHITE33 DIGITAL INFRARED CAPTURE InfraredphotographyhaslongbeenaninterestingcreativenicheIntheblack-and-white medium.Itshouldnotbeconfusedwithnightvisionorthermalimaging,whereheat emissionsarecaptured.Instead,theinfraredphotographerusuallyworksindaylightand usesalensfiltertoeliminatethevisiblewavelengthsoflight,sothesensoronlyrecords lightfromtheinfraredpartofthespectrum.Oneofthegreatthingsaboutitisthatafter thewarmearlymorninglighthasdisappeared,youcanswitchtoshootinginfraredand makethemostof sunthatisdirectlyoverhead. Anotherimportantdistinctionis thatherewearetalkingabout capturinginfraredlightdirectlywith adigital camera,not simulating the effectinPhotoshop.Asimulation, liketheonedemonstratedon pages128-131,startswitha visible-lightpictureandmakesit looklikeitisinfrared-turningthe sky near-black,brighteningfoliage, and soon.Infrared photography,on theotherhand,captureslightthat wecannot see,andsoitoften recordsthingsthatwould nothave beeninaregularphotographofthe samescene.For instance,infrared lightisn'treflectedoffwaterinthe atmosphere,somistissimplynot recordedintheinfrared capture, whichconsequentlyrevealscloud patterns anddistantobjectsthat would not have beeninthevisiblelightphotograph. Shootinginfraredwithfilm meantloadingandunloadingthe rollsincomplete darkness,often withyourhandsinsideachanging bag.Bycontrast,digitalinfraredis soeasyyoucanshootoneframe conventionallyandthenextin infrared.Thereareessentiallytwo choices:havingyourdigitalSLR modifiedsoit captures infrared,or seeingifyoucanuseyourexisting camerawithaninfraredlens filter. Thefirstapproachpermitsshutter speedshighenoughtohand-hold thecamera,butit'scostlyand meansdedicatingthecamerabody to infrared.Thesecond approach 34CAMERAWORK-CAPTURING THEBLACKANDWHITEIMAGE usuallymeansmuch longer exposuretimesandforcesyou touseatripod.Thisisn'tabad thing-itopensupfascinating creative opportunities toblur movingobjectslikecloudsand produceadistinctivedigitalinfrared style verydifferentfromfilm-based infraredphotography.Whichever approachyoutake,it'sfasterand muchmore satisfying toachieve the infrared look in-camera than tofakeitinPhotoshop. Below:Infrared captures are fundamentally different from visible-light photographs. Here the infrared exposure was so long it blurred the water and the boats.It also shows the power stationover the estuary that wasn't in the visible-light picture (below leftshot atthe same time. INFRARED:DIGITALCAPTURE Digitalcamerasarenot allequally goodat capturinginfraredlight. Infrared(lR)degrades thequality of the regular image,socamera makershave goodreasons toaddanti-IRfiltersto the digital sensor.Their effectiveness varies, not just between camera makesbut betweenmodels.For example,Nikon used tohaveless effective IRfilters thanCanon,andsoweregenerally betterforinfraredphotography,but morerecentmodelshavebeen trumpetedashavingreducedIR sensitivity.One person's feature is another'sdisappointment. Whileyourcameramanualmay specify your camera's infrared capability, it'seasy toworkitoutforyourself.Set yourcamera'sexposuremodeto ManualandusetheBulbshutterspeed soyoucanholdtheshutteropenfora few seconds.Then,indarkness,release theshutter andfireaninfraredremote control-like theone foryour TV-into thelens.ChecktheLCDand seeifthe sensor has captured animage. fOnceyouknow your cameracan .. captureinfrared,youneedan infrared filter over the lens. These are madeofglass orgelandblock light fromthe visible spectrumsothat only infrared wavelengthsreach thesensor. Manybrandsareavailable,andtheyvary instrengthandthewavelengthabove whichtheybegintopermitlight. Infraredlight'swavelengthisover700 nanometers,andthehigherthisvalue, thepurertheinfraredcaptureandthe lessvisiblelightwillberecorded. Thisinfraredfilterfitsintoafilter holderwhileothersareavailablewhich screwdirectlyontothelens. B Theinfraredfilterusuallygives photographsaweirdredorpurple color.Youcaneliminatethisin Photoshopor youmaysavepostprocessingtimebysetting yourcamera toshootblackandwhite. Ifyourcamerahasnoblack-andwhitemode,try settingacustomwhite balance.Howyoudo sovaries,so check your camera manual,butusually it'sacaseof shootingamid-gray subject throughthefilter.Onceyou'vesetup thepreset,thecamerawillcapturea black-and-whitepicture,thoughaslight colorcastoftenremains. Lef:The infrared image willoftenshowared or purple colorcast before imageprcessing. DIGITALINFRAREDCAPTURE35 DA INFRARED:DIGITALCAPTURECONTINUED aUnlessyourcamera bodyhas , beenconvertedforinfrared,'Hphotographyusuallymeansusinga tripod.Thisisbecausemostdigital camerasneedsuchlongexposuretimes forinfrared,oftenmnyseconds,and youcan'tholdthecamerastillforthat long.Equallyimportantisthefactthat theinfraredfilteris soopaquethatyou can'tsee tocomposethepicture,even ifyourcamerahasanelectronic viewfinder.Somountthecameraona tripod,frametheshotandfocus,and thenattachthe lensfilter. fIt'salsoagoodideatostopdown Utheaperture.Thisisbecause infraredlightfocusesataslightly differentpointtovisiblelightanda smalleraperture'sgreaterdepthoffield willcounteractthisdifference.Asecond aspectisthattherearegoodcreative reasons forsettingaslowershutter speedandhavinggreaterdepthoffield. At!1or!22, digitalinfraredexposures maylast30 secondsorlonger,soyou canblurwaterandmovingobjectsand thiscreatesadigitalinfraredeffectvery distinctfromfilminfrared.Herethe exposurewasaminute,givingthe cloudstimetomoveacrossthesky. Noticetoo howwellaLith effectworks withinfrared. .. IfyouuseanSLR,thereisa Udangerthatvisiblelightcanreach the sensorthroughtheeyepiece,and this caneasilyoverwhelmtheinfrared light.Somecamerashave aswitchto closetheviewfinder,oraddaneyepiece cover.Youwon'thavethisproblem|!yourcameradoesn't haveanoptical viewfinderandyouusetheLCDto composethepicture. 36 CANERA WORK-CAFTURING THE 6ACK AND WHITE INAGE[ Preview.. ------ 050817018335Great Wakering.dng jMetadata 'Ievwordsl FiI;rties IPTC(IIM,legac) I IPTCCore ''CameraData (Exif Exposure ExposureBias Value ExposureProgram ISOSpeedRatings :18.0satf/22 :+1 :Aperturepriority :200 D Digitalinfraredexposureis slightly trickybutit'seasytofollowa "plan-do-review"cycle.Foryourfirst infraredcaptures,usethecamera's automaticsettingtodeterminethe exposure,andthenreviewthecaptures carefullyontheLCD-thehistogram canquicklytellyouhowmuchyouneed toadjusttheexposure.Youwillprobably needtomakeafewtestsbeforeyou candecidehowit respondstoinfrared. Mostof the workisdonebythe timeyou press theshutter.Ifyou haveset acustomwhite balance,you may just needtodesaturatetheimage inPhotoshopandremoveanyremaining. colorcasts.Alsohotpixelsmaybe visible becauseof thelong exposure, butthesecan be fixedeasily with Photoshop'sSpotHealingBrushtoolor by usingAdobeCameraRaw 4'sspot healingfeature. Here,AdobeCameraRaw picked upmycustomwhite balancebutthis infrared capture stillhasaslight color cast.IcandragtheSaturationsliderto -100%andquickly make it pureblack and white. Digitalinfraredissoeasyyoucan takeone conventional image,adjust theexposure,addthefilter,and shootthenext frameininfrared. Youcanthenstackthetwoimages inPhotoshopandapplytheColor blendingmodetothecolorimage. It'satechniqueIliketocallthe "infrared sandwich." Below:Classicinfraredsubjectsincludevarious shadesoffoliage,andinterestingskieswith brokenclouds.Noticethatthedigitalinfrared picturedoesn'thavethe gloworgraininess typicalofinfraredfilmphotography DIGITALINFRAREDCAPTURE37 DESTRUCTIVE TECHNIQUES Photoshop'sblackandwhitefunctionalityhas" history."Everyyearortwo,anewversion oftheprogramprovidestoolsthatmakebettertechniquespossibleorpractical.Layersof tutorialsaccumulateovertime.Anoutdatedmethodmightberecycledinanew-looking website,oraconvincingcommentatorinanonlineforummightnotmentionheusesan oldversion,ormayevenbesostuckinanearliererathatheseesnoneedfortoday'sbest practice.Youcanspendforeverworkingoutwhatbelongsinwhicheraofdevelopment, what'soldandbestforgotten,andwhat's thebest way foryoutowork. Inthe followingpagesweare goingtotrytomakesenseof thisaccumulatedknowledge andexaminesomeofthemany techniquesfor rendering acolor imageasblackandwhite.The olderways stillproducequality resultsandwon'tbeignored,but theyalsohavedisadvantagesin GRAYSCALE Therearesomeverysimplewaysto makeanimageblackandwhite,and noneissimpler thanImage>Mode> Grayscale.Thischangesallpixelvalues inthefiletograyscalevalues. Photoshopexamineseachpixeland takes59%ofitsGreenchannelvalue, 30%of itsRedand11 %oftheBlue,so a dark bluishpixelwhichhasanRGB valueof 35:35:82willbecomes58.This ratiocomesfromanassessmentofthe averagecolorresponsivenessofthe humaneye,so theresultsarepretty averagetoo. Itisquick,andtheresultingfilewill takeuplessdiskspacesinceallthe color informationisdiscarded.Onthe otherhand,onceyou saveand closethe file,theimage'scolorvaluesaregone forever,soyoucanneveradjustthe black-and-white conversion.Inother words,thismethodisn'tveryflexible andgivesyounocreativecontrolover theblack-and-whiteconversion. termsofflexibilityandcreative expression.Wewillthenexamine howmoremodernmethodsexploit the information intheimage'scolor 40THEDIGITALDARKROOMl-CONVERTINGTOBLACKANDWHITE channels,usingadjustmentlayer andmasks,sothefinalimageis thebestblack-and-whitetreatment youcanachieve. Lef:Italian protest rallies oftenseem motivated more bV funthan politics. DESATURATE AnothereasymethodistouseImage> Adjustments> Oesaturate orCtrl/O+ Shift+U,whichsimply discardsthe image'ssaturationvalue.Youcan producethe sameresultsbyadding aHue/Saturationadjustment layer and draggingtheSaturationsliderallthe waytotheleft. LiketheGrayscalemethod,it's a "one sizefitsall"approach,butit also ignores how the eye responds to colors. Again,theabsenceof creativeinput meansthis isonetoavoid. GRADIENTMAP TheGradientMapmethodmaps amonochromegradienttothe image'sluminosityvalues.Firstreset Photoshop'scolors(0)andthen add aGradientMapadjustment layer. Adjusting theSmoothness slider controls how the gradient relates to imageluminosity,while other sliders changethegradient's brightness range.Ineffect,theGradientMap method letsthe useradjust image contrast whilealsomaking theimage black andwhite,and perhaps thatis behinditscultstatus on the forums that is otherwise hard to explain. While you canget decent results, you'realsoignoring the colorchannels andlosingtheircreativepotential. -.-:I Smoothness% e-:- 1 IQ Hue/Saturation Background GradientMap Backgroundf Above:Thedestructivemethodscanall producegoodresults buttheir"onesize fitsall"approachmeansthereisnoscope forcreativity.Theyare bestavoided. DESTRUCTIVETECHNIQUES41 DESTRUCTIVE TECHNIQUES MATCHCOLOR Althoughthistoolis reallydesigned formatchingcolors,likeskintones, acrosssanumberofimages,itcan berepurposed foranunusual destructivemonchromeconversion. Therearetwowaysthetoolcanbe taken advantageof,depending on theoutcomeyou'relooknigfor.The simplest,forexample,istouseit onlyin reference tothe image you're lH8QEDlCD5LU0D8DCE[ 0 LClCI lDlED5lVI r8dEI 0 CNEuUZESelectImage> Adjustment > MatchColor.Adialogwill appearwithtwodistinctsections, ImageOptions at thetopandImage Statisticsatthe bottom.To usethe existingcolorfromtheimage,simply slidetheColorIntensityslidertothe lowestpossiblevalueandclickOK. R8QEl8l5llC5 U5E bElEClCD 0 bCuICE lC L8lCUl8lE LClCI5CUCE I===!;= 8EI :: = (L8 l85lC5 ...(o8VEol8l5lC5...Alternatively,if you're interested inusingthe colorfromanother image,thenbeforeyouclickOK chooseit fromtheSource drop-down. It's alsopossibletosaveyourfavorite statistics workingon,anddialdownthecolor intensity.Thatmightsoundidentalto desaturation,butinsteadofremovingall the coloraduotone-likeeffectis created,usingthe image's predominant colortocreatethetone.Theresultis dependantontheimageyoustartwith, butit canbequitepleasing. Thesecondwayofworknigwith MatchColor,at leastforourpurposes, 42THEDIGITALDARKROOM1-CONVERTINGTOBLACKANDWHITE istotakeadvantage ofits abilityto workfromothersourceimages.If, forexample,you'vefoundanimage withcolortonesthatyoulike,then simply select it and perform the same reduction oftheColorIntensity setting. Thistrickcanbe appliedtomorethan oneimage,givingthemmatching duotone-styleconversions. Lef:Theoriginalimage,whichhas ahighconcentrationofred. Lef:Theresultingimagefromthesimple ColorIntensity reductionmethod. Lef:Analterativetreatment,using thecolortonesfromthelakeimage. Lef:Thelakeimagehas amoresubtleblue/green feel,butthatstillhasan effectifconvertedusing theone-stepmethod. LIGHTNESS TheLightnessmethodinvolves switchingthe image'scolormode fromRGBtoLab,which recordsthe brightnessandthecolorvalues separately. Thecolorinformationis thenthrownaway,leavingjustblack andwhite.Liketheotherbasic methods,Lightnessisadestructive technique,changingpixelvalues permanently. Thecolorinformation remainsintheHistorypalette,but is lost when you close the file.Ifyouwant to fine-tune theconversion,youhave togobacktoyouroriginalphotograph. Lightnessalsoappliestothe fileasa whole,andoffersnoopportunitiesto use theindividualcolorchannelvalues tocontrol how individual tonesand areasareconverted. SelectImage>Mode> Lab Color. COLORBLEND Anotherquickconversiontechnique involvesadding aColorFilladjustment layerandselectingashadeofwhite throughtoblack.Thenchangethe layer'sblendingmodetoColor.This meansitsonlyeffectistorenderthe imageblackandwhite.It doesn't haveanyrealvirtue andIincludeit onlyforcompleteness. IColor LabCtrl+(., lightness a b [v]Opacity:llOO% ( Background E ActivatetheChannelspalette, deleteeithertheaortheb channel,andyou'redone.Alternatively, selecttheLightnesschannelandthen chooseImage>Mode>Grayscale, Right:Butof the basicmethods, Lightnessis probablythebest. Theresultingblackand-white picture isusually themost naturalorneutral renditionof the ori ginalscene' brightness.If that iswhatyouwant, don'truleoutthe Lightnessmethod. LIGHTNESSMETHOD43 CALCULATIONS UnderPhotoshop'sImagemenulurksthemysteriousCalculationscommand.Itsmain roleisinretouchingandcompositing,whereitisusedtomakesophisticatedselection masks,soCalculationsisnotsomethingmostphotographerswouldeverneedtouse. NonethelessCalculationscanmergethevalues fromuptotwocolorchannelsandoutput anew,black-and-whitePhotoshopdocument. Becauseyoucancontrolthemixing ofcolorchannelvalues,Calculations permitsmorecreativecontrolthan otherbasicmethodsoverhow tonesarerenderedinblackand white.Historically,italsomadethe mostoflimited computingpower anddiskspace,andpredates Photoshoplayers. Suchlimitationsarenowbehind us,andCalculationsis neitheras convenientnorversatileasmodern Above:Whenyouareexperimentingwith monoconversiontechniques,select imageswithavarietyofcolors,suchas thestronggreensandredsin thisrallv layer-basedtechniques.Thenew black-and-white document the command creates containsno color information,sochangingyourmind aboutthe color-to-mono rendition meansstartingalloveragain.Since suchfine-tuningissomucheasier nowusingothertechniques,itisn't immediatelyappealing.Calculations canproducegreatresults,butits awkwardnesscanlimityour creativeexperimentation. 44THEDIGITALDARKROOMl-CONVERTINGTOBLACKANDWHITE So whyisitcoveredhere? First,Calculationsisstilltouted oftenenoughthatit needstobe putinitshistoricalcontext.The secondreasonismoreimportant, andthatistointroducethe roleof channelsandcreativeblack-andwhiteconversion. Lef:Althoughitcan beawkwardtouse, Calculationsdoes offeradegree creativecontrol. Usingtheblue channeldarkensthe skintonesonthis man'sface,sothe photographercan conveythatheisa heavilytannedman. Italsotonesdown thebackgroundand changesthe emphasisof the composition. CALCULATIONSMETHOD s-..-ib1d.Zb1 ---..----...bO

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o MaSk...u.:.'--..--o ...a Choose/mg0 C/C/tOnSand godirectlytotheResultsectionat the bottom ofthedialogbox.Youneed to setthistoNewDocument,because whileCalculationsmaybe previewed intheworkingimage,itcanonlymake selectionsofchannelsthere.Also,the Layer drop-down boxes should in general beset toMerged,soanyretouching layersareincludedinthe process.Use theBackgroundLayerifthereareno otherlayers. Themostimportantcontrolsare twoChanneldrop-downboxeswhich enableyouto choosethechannelsthat Calculationsmergesintoits black-andwhiteoutputdocument.Forinstance, pickRedinonedrop-downbox,and Calculations'outputwillshowlighter skintones,becausetheredchannel valuesofskinarequitehigh.Choose Blue,andforthesamereason Calculations'monooutputwill render skintonesdarker.Tobring outmore tonesingreen,suchasinthe striped flaghere,you'dpickGreeninoneor bothChanneldrop-downboxes. s-..-1' b1...-'...c-.--.SIM:'::::~--.. | .. |

____..'lnUS""0.BeforePhotos hopCS3,you would haveclickedOpenImage aftermakingyourRAWconversion adjustments.Thatchoiceremains available,butthereis anew option that keeps therawconversioneditable: OpenObject. HolddowntheShiftkeyandthe Open Image button changes temporarily toOpenObject.To changeitmore permanently,clicktheWorkflow Optionshyperlinkbelowtheimage andtickOpen inPhotoshop as Smart Objects.ClickthisOpenObjectbutton andtheRAWfileissenttoPhotoshop's editingenvironmentasa"smart object",aspecialkindoflayer that contains therawdata. /hotoshooC535ma/tCb/ects canbettansfo/med. sha/oened. o/b|//ed-a||w|thoutdamag|ngthe|magedata.IWhywouldyoudothis?The obviousbenefitsareversatility andanon-destructiveworkflow. RegardlessofRAWconversionand specificblack-and-whiteissues,smart objectsareworthusingbecause they canbebig timesavers.Whenthey were firstintroduced,youcouldadd adjustment layersasnormal,butyou couldalsodo things like applyld|I>!an5!7!mtocorrectconverging verticalsandreverseorfine-tune those transformationswhenneeded. PhotoshopCS3wentfurther and introducedSmartFilters,which mean youcanalso apply filters likeUnsharp MaskorGaussianBlurtothesmart object,andchangeorremovethose settingswithoutdamagingtheimage. YoucanchangetheRAWconversion settingsofaRAWfilesmart object.Just double-clickthesmartobject's thumbnail in theLayerspalette.Thislaunches AdobeCameraRaw andafterwards Photoshopappliesanyfiltersandlayer styles.Since thesmartobjectcontains theRAWdata,you can saveyour work andadjust itonanothercomputeror sendthefileto acolleagueorclient. CANHA HAW AND SNAH OBdCS CONVERTING SELECTEDIMAGE AREAS Today'sbestblack-and-whiteconversiontechniquesrelyonadjustmentlayers.With enormousharddrives,there'snolongermuchpointinflatteningyourworkingfilesand losingthechancetochangeyourmind,tweakingorcompletelyreworkingyourblack-andwhiteinterpretation.Adjustmentlayershaveanotherbigadvantage,however,andthatis inenablingyoutomakedifferentmonoconversionsindifferentpartsofthepicture,using thechannelvaluesthatareright for those areas. Thisisimportantbecausewhen youbrowsethroughthechannels, onepartofthepicturemaylookat itsbestintheRedchanneland otherareasbebetterintheGreen. At worst,featuresmaybe unacceptableinoneorother channel.Theneweradjustment layertechniquesallowyoutohave thebestofbothworlds,whileolder "one-size-fits-all"methodslike Grayscale,Lightness,and Calculationsforcedyouinto uncomfortable workarounds.In black-and-whitefilmterms,these new techniques arelikehavingan infinite rangeofcoloredlensfilters, red-greengrads,yellow-redspots, andwhateverother"exotic"you mightneedforthesubject. To applymorethanonemono conversion,yousimply need additionaladjustmentlayerswith differentconversionsettings,and youusetheirlayermaskstotarget particularimageareas.We'lllookat anexampleof howyou dothis,and noteafewotherPhotos hop techniquesthatmakethework quickerand easier. Above:Intheoriginalimage,a polarizing filterturedtheskyarichblueandmade thegrassandtreeslook particularlv verdant.Onemonoconversionlaver mightnotbeenough. 62THEDIGITALDARKROOM1-CONVERTINGTOBLACKANDWHITE Lef:Thefinalimage.Youcanhavethe bestofbothworlds bVusingtwo-or more-maskedBlackandWhite adjustmentlavers.Onerendersthesky, theotherthetreeandtheforeground. CONVERTINGSELECTEDIMAGEAREAS63 CONVERTING SELECTEDIMAGE AREAS USINGMASKS iNormal[v)opaCi!V: Lock Od+IiFill: I Black&White Backgrund1 Preset:ICustom H ;. c:Reds -% 8 Yellows% 0Preview 8 Greens -0% 8 (vans -0% 8 Blues -% 8 Magentas -0% 8 DIint Hoe D' Saturation 0,.0 a Addyourconversionadjustment layer.HereIchosetheBlackand Whitetechniqueanddraggedthecursor alongwayleftintheblueareaofsky. Thisrendersblueasnear-blackin grayscale,but renderingtheskyinthis wayhasleftthe treeandforeground lookingverydull. Above:Paintontheadjustmentlayer's mask.Thisallowsyoutoconvertimportant imageareasusingdifferentblack-andwhitesettings. fPaintblackontoyourexisting Ii conversionlayer'smasksothose areaswillbeleftunaffectedbythe adjustmentlayer.Youcanuseanyofthe paintingtools,suchastheBrush(B)or theGradient(G).Here,Iactivatedthe Brushtool,usedthe[andIkeyboard shortcutstosetalargebrushsize,and thenShift+[tosoftenitsedges.Ithen painted black ontothemasksothetree andforegroundremainedincolor,ready forthesecondadjustmentlayer. 64THEDIGITALDARKROOM1-CONVERTINGTOBLACKANDWHITE PresetI Custom H :=..Reds: .% 8 Yellows:% 2 Greens: .% g evans: .% 8 Blues: .% 8 Magentas: .% Above:TheBlackandWhiteadjustment layerhasdarkenedthe blueskybutmade thetreeandfieldunacceptablyheavy. I Addasecondadjustmentlayer withdifferentsettings.Thereis noneed forthislayertohaveamaskitwillnotaffectanyimageareaswhich have already beenmademonochrome. HereIdragged the cursor tothe right across thetreeand foreground,causing Photoshoptosamplethoseareasand movethecorrespondingsliderstothe right,lighteningtheirgrayscalerendition.Black &White Black &... liII Block'Whit' Black & White Inthissortofwork,youoften needtocomparetheoutput withandwithoutyour adjustments. Youcanclicktheeyeiconnext to the adjustment layerandtoggleitsvisibility, butthatgetsmoreawkwardwhenone ofthelayersismasked.Anotherwayis todeletethemaskandthenUndoby pressingCtrl/O+Z. Alesswell-knowntrickisto Shift+click thelayer'smask.This temporarilydisablesthemaskso the adjustment applies to theentireimage area.Inthis example,whilethered X is present,youcansee howtheimage would look if only that layer were present.Shift+clicking themaskagain willswitch themask back on.To seethe layermaskonitsown,Alt/\+clickit. HI [Dic:DI --.[..-Above:Dragging theGreenandYellow sliders tothe right makes theforeground andthe tree are more luminousand springlike,butthesky andclouds look weak. TheGradient toolcanalso be used to paintthemask.Itsdefault behavioristo replace anyexistingmask, but youmaywanttoaddto a carefully paintedmask.Switchitsblendingmode toLightenorDarken-hereI chose Darken-and thendragtheGradient diagonallyfromthe bottomright. Whenthemonoconversionis donewithmorethanone adjustment layer,the transitionneeds tobesmooth.Forexample,myRed andGreen adjustment layers render the treeverydifferentlyanda join wouldbe obvious,evidenceof aBrushedgethat wastoohard. Youcanadjust themask'scontrast withregularimageadjustmentslike Levelsor smoothtransitionareasby applyingfilters like GaussianBlur.Make sureyou clickthemaskbefore applying afilter so youdon'tchangethe image pixels.You should see the mask'ssimple blackand white inthefilter's preview. a Youcanalsomove andstretchthe areaaffectedby theadjustment layer. TryusingEdit>Transform on themask,draggingthecornerpoints outwardsorreshapingitwithEdit> Transform>Warp. Thisemphasizesakey point-theversatilityof theadjustmentlayerbased conversiontechniques.Youmay startoffwithoneideaofhowdifferent areasshouldbe renderedasgrayscale tones,and thensave andclose yourwork, butyoualwaysretaintheopportunity tocompletelyrevisetheconversion andtheresultinginterpretationof yourpicture. CONVERTING SELECTEDIMAGEAREAS65 CREATIVE CONVERSION: PEOPLE Inthepreviouspageswehavelookedattoday'sbestwaysofconvertingcolordigital imagestoblackandwhite.It'sallverywellknowingmostofthetechniques,andit's essentialtodistinguishthegoodonesfromthosethatarenowlargelyobsolete.Butthe artofblackandwhiteisnotamechanicalprocesswhere"best"canbedetermined objectively.Thereisnoscientificallyperfectcontrastrangeorhistogramshape.Youhave choicesand creative decisions tomake. Thereisalotmoretoblackand whitethanturningdownyour TV'scolorsaturation,orpressing anautobuttoninPhotoshop.The monoconversionstepiswhere youmakekeycompositional choicesanddeterminehowyou wanttointerpretthedigital negative.Anumberofblack-andwhiterenditionscanbemadefrom thesamecolororiginal,changing thecompositionofgrayscaletones ortellingthevieweradifferent storyaboutwhatisdepicted.To seewhat thismeansinpractice, let'sexamineoneimage,focusing alotlessonthetechniqueandalot moreoninterpretingthepicture's subject.ThisisaprocessIcall creativemonoconversion. Lef:Thecolor originalshowsaweItannedmanwith a paleblueshirtbut theconversiononly needstopresent theviewerwitharealisticimage-not onethat isfaithfultotheoriginal. 66THEDIGITALDARKROOM1-CONVERTINGTOBLACKANDWHITE Above:Thefinalinterpretationofthis pictureisjustoneway to depictthe subject inmono. GRAYSCALE Ifyou merelywanttheblack-and-white imagetorepresenttheoriginal'stone, choosetheGrayscaleorDesaturation methods.Bothmethodsare quick,and Grayscaleproducessmalleroutputfiles andistheonlywaytoprepareapicture foratrueDuotone.Grayscale'srendition isrealisticandisclosetohowtheeye capturescolor(that's thebasisfor Photoshop'suse of59%green channel, 30%red,and11 %blue). Butmoreoftenthannot-andit's certainly the casewiththisportrait-the resultsareratherflat andlifeless.Do youreallywantto surrenderyour creative opportunities? LIGHTNESS Forinherentlyneutralresults,trythe Lightnessmethod.Again,youhave nocontrol-yousimplychoosethe commandImage>Mode>Lab and thendeletethe " a"channelfromthe Channelspalette.Whatremainsisthe image'sbrightnessvaluesalone,and theblack-and-whiteoutputisunaffected bythecolorspresent intheoriginal;any color information is discarded forever. TheLightness versionisusually the most faithful to the original colorpicture. Is accurate recording of brightnesswhat you reallywant to achieve? These methods sharea huge shortfall. They're destructive.While you are still working on thefile,youcanonly fine-tuneorreversethem by undoing subsequent work,up to the numberof Historstepsavailable.Once yousave andclosethe file,theconversionisfixed forever. Thesemethodswerefinefor an earliereraofcomputingandinearlier versionsofPhotos hop.Stickwiththem ifyou never changeyour mind later,but whyrule out that possibilityforever? CREATIVECONVERSION:PEOPLE67 ~ - ~~~-~~CREATIVC Forgetforamomentthecolorimageonthepreviouspage,asifyouhadneverseenit, andaskwhichofthesepicturesyoubelievefairlyrepresentsthesubject.Belowsitsa dark-skinnedmanwearingaverylightshirt.Inthenextshot,themanremainsheavily tanned,thoughhisshirtisdarker,whileinthethirdhisfaceislighterandlessruggedand theshirtdarkerstill.Withoutthecolororiginal,youhavenowayofknowingwhichIS "true."Eachiscredible,eachtellsadifferentstoryaboutthesubject. Theonlydifferencebetween these threeshotsis thewayIchoseto settheChannel Mixer,usingthe Blue,Green,andthenRedpresets. There'sjustasingleadjustment layer,no maskingordifferent conversionsappliedtoselected imageregions,andnoCurvesor Levels.Icouldhavedoneprecisely BLUE Thepixelswhichrecordskintoneshave lowvaluesintheBluechannelandhigher onesin theRed.Soifyouwanttomake skinlookdark,youmight useonlythe Bluechannelvalues.AddaChannelMixer adjustmentlayer,tickMonochrome,and settheBluesliderat100%andtheothers atzero.Alternatively,addaBlackandWhite adjustrentlayerandusethecursorto drag leftfror the face. Ineachcase,theBluetreatrent darkensskintoneandalsorevealsrore detailsandblemishestoo,soit usually worksbetterforsubjectswhereyou're aimingtoexpressageandexperience. Alsoconsiderhowtheirageis composedandwherethegrayscaletones arepositionedinthepicture.Heretheshirt isapaleblue,soitspixelshavehighBlue channelvalues,whichturnintoverylight grayscaletones.Thatmaybe desirablein some cases.Here,tomy eye,it unbalances thepicture.Withblackandwhite,the viewerisdrawnfromdarkareasto the highlights.Here,attentionisdrawntothe eyes,whichisgood,andthenstraight downtotheshirt;lessgood.Aselective adjustmentisonepossiblesolution. thesamewiththeothertwo adjustment layermethods-Black and WhiteandFilm/Filter-which alsoallowtheusertoexploitthe picture's channel information.It's notthetechniquethat matters so much,it'showyou use itto expresstheimage.PhotoshopCS3 introducedtheBlack andWhite 1*M THEDIGITALDARKROOMl-CONVERTINGTOBLACKANDWHITE adjustment,whichofferssixrather thanthethreetonesI'veexamined here,but thesearetheprimary colors.Theprincipleistochoose whichonetoemphasize,andthe extrathreecolorgroupsinCS3are reallyjustabonus. Preset:]s|c8&White w|th . i. tv I=OutputChannel|Gray

SourceChannels Red:+Green:+Blue:+Total:+140Constant:

+ Monochrome GREEN Becausethehumaneyerecords greenmore thanredor blue,youcanrendertheimage morenaturallyby choosingtheGreenFilter presetsinChannelMixerorBlack andWhite dialogboxes.InChannelMixer,thissetsthe Greensliderat100%andtheothersat zero. Withportraits,Greentendstobe somewhat averageandinthiscaseitistheleast interesting orattractive version. RED Redchannelvaluesare higherinskintones, sotomakethembrightergrayscaletones, picktheRedFilterpresetsinChannelMixer orBlack and Whitedialogboxes. TheRedFilterstyleproduces softer, moreattractiveskintones.Somemenmay wellappearinsufficientlybutch,too gentle, butitcansuitwomenandchildrenbetter thanablue-biasconversion. Aswellassubjectappearance,also considercompositionalimpact.Here,the blueshirtisnowdarkenedandishardly noticeable.Again,contrastthattotheBlue Filtertreatment.Ontheotherhand,ifthe shirthadinfactbeenbrightred,itwould havecontinuedtodistractfromtheface. CREATIVECONVERSIONPEOPLE69 CREATIVE CONVERSION:LANDSCAPES Nobookondigitalblack-and-whitephotographycanavoidprovidingarecipeforAnsel Adams-stylelandscapes.Norshouldit.Adamshimself,whodiedin1984,wroteabout howmuchhelookedforwardtoelectronicimaging,andhispicturesandwritingcontinue toinspireandinfluencemanyoftoday'sphotographers.Equally,suchadigitalrecipe shouldnotbeoverblown.Instead,itshouldbemoreastartingpointforexpressingyour ownstyleof black-and-whitelandscapephotography. Above:Ifthereisatypical Ansel Adams scene,itoftencontains strongskieswith clouddetail,asinthisshot fromoneofhis oldstampinggrounds,ZionNationalPark. Right:Thefinalimagehasstrongsky detailsandalandscapefulloftonal information.It'stheresultofusingthe black-and-whiteconversionasakey stepinthecreativeprocess. 70THEDIGITALDARKROOM1-CONVERTINGTOBLACKANDWHITE CREATIVELANDSCAPECONVERSION Above:AsimpleImage>Mode> Grayscale producesablack-and-white imagebuttheresultislackluster.Thered rockcanyonwallandthetreesbecome similargrayscaletones. a Thehardworkisn'tapplyinga particulartechnique,Channel MixerorBlack andWhite,orusing masks.It'sevaluatingthepictureand decidinghowyouwanttointerpretit in yourblack-and-whitecomposition.Film photographersoftentriedoutdifferent coloredfilters,attaching themtothe lensor sometimesholdingthemupto theeyes.It'sthesamethingwhenyou runthroughthechannelswithCtrl;G+ 1, 2,3,- (tilde);youget agoodideaof the scene'smonoappearanceandexpose yourselftoalternativetreatments. Above:Thesky contains lotsof pixels with highBluechannelvalues,soCtrl; +3 showsitasvery brightgrayscaletones,in factsopalethatclouddetail isgreatly reduced.Thecanyonwall becomesvery darkandthetreeslookdead.Soifyou wantedto brightentheskyanddarkenthe landscape,youcouldaddaChannelMixer orBlackandWhiteadjustmentlayerand choosetheBlueFilterpreset. Preset::...--

c:Reds:e- Yellows: -1 Greens:e-(yans:e-Bl.es: eISO% Magentas:- I% Dllnt "" SaturationD%D SoforatypicalAnselAdams-style Ylandscape,addaBlackand White adjustmentlayerandchoosetheRed Filter presetasastartingpoint.Then dragthecursoroverareaswhosetone youwanttomodify.HereIclickedinthe skyanddraggedleft,makingPhotoshop darkenthatarea intheblack-and-white rendition.Therockwallwasthen lightenedbydraggingthecursortothe rightinthatarea. Above:Ctrl; + 1showstheRedchannel. Likethe black-and-whitefilmuser'sred lensfilter,thismakestheskyverydarkand makesthecloudsstandout.Boththe canyonwallandthetreesbecomemuch brighterandareseparatetones.Pick ChannelMixerorBlackandWhite'Red Filterpreset. # ' Ii## Highpasssharpen # @ B Adamswasanenthusiasticand highly skilleddarkroomprinterand was amasterof dodgingandburning, brighteninganddarkeningselectedareas of the print.We'll seehowtodothisin Photos hoplater-for now,noticehow theworkhasbeendonewithCurves adjustmentlayers andgroupedtogether. CREATIVECONVERSION:LANDSCAPES71 TONAL SEPARTION We'veseentwoexamplesofthekindofcreativechoicesyoucanintroduceduringthe conversiontoblackandwhite.Inthosecaseswefocusedoninterpretation,onwhyyou controltheconversion,andhowits grayscale output mighttelltheviewersomethingabout thesubject.Eachtreatmentalsoaffectedthebasiccomposition-thebrightnessofthe man'sshirtunbalancingtheimage,orthedarkenedskydrawingattentiontothecanyon wallandthetree.So,forathirdexample,let'slookathowyoumightaddsome compositionalcreativity,andtonalseparation,totheblack-and-whiteconversionprocess. 72THEDIGITALDARKROOM1-CONVERTINGTOBLACKANDWHITE Above:Theoriginalimage.Theleaves differin brightness,butanimportantpart ofthecolor composition istheline between thewetbarkandthegreenmoss. Rig ht:Anyof thechannel-based adjustmentlayerscanproduceexcellent resultsandletyouchoosehowto composeyourblackandwhite.Inthisfinal imageit seemedimportanttoseparatethe leaves' tonesanddarkentheirbackground. CREATIVECONVERSIONS WITHTONALSEPARATION Above:TheBluechannelor BlueFilter presets(ChannelMixerorBlackandWhite adjustment layer)maketheleaveslook closeintone.Bluevaluesarelowin red andyel/owThere'salackoftonal separationthatseemstomakethe composition lessinteresting. Preset. Customkeds:Yellows.CreensCvans:8lues:Haentas:E: . .

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huSaturatlonAbove:EmphasizingRedineitherthe ChannelMixerorBlackandWhiteFilter showstheviewerthattheleavesdiffer in color.Theresnotasmuch tonal separation asintheGreen Filteroutput(right),and noticehowthelowerredleafisalsomuch brighter.Isthatdesirable?Theresno simpleanswer;itsforyou-thecreative performingtheconversion-todecide. a It'sworthaskingwhytonal separationplaysapartatthe conversionstage,Afterall,switching the imagetoGrayscale modemightbe "goodenough, "andmaskedCurves andLevelscan"dodgeandburn"key featuresandimageregions.Looping throughthechannelsmakesiteasyto discoveralternativeblack-and-white renditions,It'salsoquickerandmore versatiletousethecolorchannelsfor selectivemonorenditionthantobuild maskswhichtargetspecificareas,and itdoesn'tleavetraces.Youcanstill dodgeandburnaswell. The newBlackandWhite adjustmentlayeristhe most interactive of the tools,helpingmakecreative experimentationsimple.Startwitha preset-I pickedtheGreenFilter-and clickanddragthecursor ontheimage, movingtotherighttobrightenthearea intheconversion,orleft,asIamhere,todarkentheredleaf. Above:In thispicture,theGreenFilter presetsproducethemosttonalseparation betweenthekeyelementsofcomposition. Theredleafisnowalotdarkerand,since itislowerintheframe,thisseemsto anchorthepicture.Again,whateveryour preferredconversiontechnique,thisis where judgementrightlytakesover. '--.. ... .... D.+il!. Onesizerarelyfitsall.Whilethe UGreenFilterpresetworkedwell fortheleaves,Iwantedto darkenthe barkand moss,soIaddedanother adjustmentlayerandcarefullymasked outtheleaves. TONALSEPARATION73 SETING THE BLACK AND WHITE POINTS Convertingthedigitalpicturefromcolortomono,andfixingoverallimagecontrast,need tobeseenasdistinctsteps.Withoutpushingtheanalogytoofar,theblack-and-whitefilm photographerchoosesacoloredfiltertocontrolwheretonesaredistributedaroundthe negative,andsetsthefinalprint'scontrast bypickingtherightgradeof paper. Inthe digital darkroom,you don'thavejustoneshotat settingthemostpleasingtonal compositionandcontrast,and there'saverygoodcasefor not tryingtodoso.Contrast maynotbeirrelevantwhen youlookatthepreviewand adjusttheChannelMixeror BlackandWhitesliders,butit issecondary tousingthe creativemonoconversionstep tocomposeingrayscale blocks,andsecondarytofully interpretingyoursubject.You cansortoutthecontrast later. Noteveryphotograph needstocontainthefullrange oftonesfrompureblackto pure white,butitcertainly helps.Sofirstsettheblack andwhitepoints. Right:Aswellas setting the black andwhitepoints withLevelsorCurves,a black borderhelpsanchor thetonesinthefinal image. 76THEDIGITALDARKROOM2-FINETUNINGTHEPHOTOGRAPH TONAL RANGE:LEVELSORCURVES? Black&White1 Background ` {hanH6I.LI ____ v --|nu\ LCVC!5.a UntilPhotoshopCS3,settingthe blackandwhitepointsmeant adding aLevelsadjustmentlayer.Inthe Levelsdialogthereisahistogram,and beneath itarethreetriangles.Drag the white triangleto theleftuntilit reaches thefar-rightlimitofthehistogram(the edgeoftheshape).Thismakesthe image's brightest pixelswhite.Similarly, dragtheblacktriangletotherightuntilit reaches the histogram's far-leftlimit. AboveandLef:UsingtheBlueFilter presetexaggeratedBryceCan von : heathazeand,unlikeRedandGreen, italsoseparatedthehoodoofrom thebackground.Althoughtheoverall contrastrangewaslowerthis separation wasveryimportanttothepicture.Pure blacksand whitescanberestoredasa distinctstep. fWithPhotos hopCS3,youcanuse UtheCurvesdialoginthesame way.AswiththeLevelsdialogbox,drag thewhiteandblacktrianglesbelowthe histogram.BecauseCurves giveyouso muchmoretonal control thanLevels, it'slikelythatthiswillbethebetterway toworkfrom nowon. I Ahelpfultipis to holddownthe Alt/\keywhile youdragthe triangles.ThisworksineitherLevels orCurvesandmakesPhotoshop displaytheimageinclippingmode. Assoonasdetailbecomesvisible, youknowthe whiteorblackpointis mappedtotheimage'scontentand thoseareasare"clipped"andcontain no visibledetail.Especiallywiththe shadows,atinyamountofclipping anchorsthetonalrange,butlarge areasaregenerally unattractive. SETTINGTHEBLACKANDWHITEPOINTS77 OVERALL BRIGHTNESS AND CONTRAST Afterfixingtheimage'sblackandwhitepoints,thenexttaskistoreviewthebalanceof darkandlighttones-theproportionsofshadows,midtones,andhighlights.Brightness andcontrastsayalotaboutthepicture.Wetalkpositivelyofhigh-keyimagesandmight applysuchabrightpalettetoweddings,fashion,orchildren.Adarker,grittierrealism seemsmoreappropriatetophotojournalismorreportageimages,whileamoreeven spreadoftonescansuitlandscapeshots with realistic ornaturalaspirations. 78THEDIGITALDARKROOM2-FINETUNINGTHEPHOTOGRAPH Lef:Thefinalimagehasa slightly greatercontrast and remainshighkey,butCurves isavery versatiletool, offeringvery precisecontrast and brightnesscontrol. CURVES:BRIGHTNESS ANDCONTRAST Above:After settingtheblackand white points,youneed toassessand setthe overallimagecontrast. Addingcontrasttoapicture obviouslymeansmakingthe shadow tonesdarker andthehighlights brighter,andtheCurves adjustment layerisidealfor controlling this process. Drag downthelowerleftregionofthe curveanddrag upitstopright.Hereit isexaggerated,butits characteristic shapemeansthecontrast-increasing curveis commonly calledanScurve. Tobrightenallimagetones,click anywhereonthecurvelineand dragit upward,looking allthetimeat its effect onthe image. Aninverted U-shapedcurvebrightensalltones. Curves have a daunting reputation butaren'treally thatdifficult;a fewtricks cangetyoua long way.The principle behindtheCurvesdialogis thatthe bottomofthechart orXaxis shows the brightnessvaluesinthe underlying image.Thecurvemapstheseinput values tothe values atwhichtheywill be output,shownonthe left side orY axis. Ifthe chartdoesn'tmakesenseatfirst, keepaneyeontheInputandOutput valuesinthesurroundingdialog box. Hereadarkgrayvalueof60willbe outputas 80. I 1-a AreversedScurvemakes , shadowslighterandhighlights darker,reducing overallcontrast. fDarkeningtheimageis doneby Uclickingthecurveanddragging itdownward.So hereamidgrayvalue of200willbe outputas180.You coulddoexactlythesamebydragging thetopsliderintheBrightnessand Contrastdialogbox,orbydragging thegraymidpointsliderinLevels. Curvesaremuch moreflexible,as we areabouttodiscover,butfornow it'simportanttorememberthata U-shapedcurvelikethisdarkensall tonesfromshadows to highlights. __-ThebeautyofCurvesisthe subtletyyoucan introduce.The keyistothink firstinnaturalterms aboutwhatthe picture needs-in this case,averygentleincreaseinthe shadows'contrastandthebrighter midtonesandhighlights tobelifted alittle.So here the curve'sdip below the diagonal"neutral"lineisvery brief,andthenit runsgentlyabove. OVERALLBRIGHTNESSANDCONTRAST79 FINE CONTRST CONTROL Controloftheblack-and-whiteimage'sbrightnessandcontrastwouldbeaprettyblunt toolifyoucouldonlyadjusttheshadowsorhighlightsasawhole.Somepicturesbenefit fromadjustmentsthatchangethecharacterofjusttheverydarkesttones,liftingtheir brightnesssotheviewernoticesdetailinthedeepestshadows.Thehighlightsmight needtobepulledbackatouchsotheydon' tappearfeatureless;orpartofthepicture maycontainmidtonesthatlooktoosimilar,orwouldlookbetteriftheywerebrighteror darker.Fortunately,onceyouhave gotthe hang ofcreatingU-shaped curvesforbrightness controlandcontrast-increasingS-shapedcurvesit'seasytomovebeyondthisandtarget individualtonalranges. Above:Thefinishedimage.Theshadows aremoreinterestingthantheirprevious near-blackstate,whilethebrighter highlightsmakethevallev seemsunnier Noticehowthesky ismuchbrighter. 80THEDIGITALDARKROOM2-FINETUNINGTHEPHOTOGRAPH CURVES:INDIVIDUALTONALRANGES Above and Right:WhiletheGreenFilter presetrenderedthislandscapeasaflat anduninteresting blackandwhiteimage, thecreativemonoworkerneedstoutilize thefullrangeoftonesthattheimage contains.Thearches' shadowsaretoo deep,butelsewheretheconversion containsplenty ofusabledetail. a Thekeytofinebrightnessand contrastcontrolis tomove beyondSandUshapes,andadd extra pointstothecurvethat identifyand targetindividualtones.Holddown theCtrl/c keyandclicktheimage area containingthetone whose brightnessyouwanttocontrol.This makesPhotoshopsampletheimage andadda point onthe curve. + E Youcandragthispoint immediately orsampleothertones fromthe imageandadd more points tothecurve. HereIinitiallywanted tobrightenupthe darkestshadows,butleave thedarker midtonesandhighlightsunchanged,so thecurvereturnstotheneutrallineafter itsbriefupwardmovement. / Above:Curves cancontrolmorethan one tonalrange.Aswel asliftingtheshadows, thiscure brightensthehighlightsbut leavesthemidtonesrelativelyunchanged. FINECONTRASTCONTROL81 ADDING CONTRST SELECTIVELY Somepicturesonlyneedonecontrastorbrightnessadjustmentbutotherpicturesbenefit frommoreselectiveapplicationofcontrastcurves.Althoughthismayseemlikeanew development,itisn't:asdigitalloomedoverthehorizon,darkroomtechniquescontinued todevelopandvariablecontrastpapersappeared,enablingphotographerstoprinttheir work withvaryingcontrastlevelsindifferentpartsoftheframe. Thisvalleylandscapeisagood exampleofwherecontrastneeds tobeaddedinoneareaofthe picture.Evenbeforeopeningup the arches' shadows,thesky looked relatively lightandthe imageseemedunbalanced.The initialblack-and-whiterenditionwas improvedbyadjustingthe shadows,buteveryphotographer hasastyletoexpress,andforme thispicturewasalwaysmoreabout thestormycloudsthanitwas abouttheviaduct.Suchcreative interpretationofthesceneoften meansyouneedtoapplymore thanoneadjustmenttoits brightnessandcontrast. 82THEDIGITALDARKROOM2-FINETUNINGTHEPHOTOGRAPH Below:Thesky'scontrastisvery different in thefinalversion,butthiswaspossible becausethemonoconversionstage focusedonprovidingafulltonalrange ratherthanongettingoverallimage contrastright.Therewasplenty ofdetailin theskyandthiscouldbeexploitedtofully interpretthescene. CURVES:WORKINGWITHMASKS D Add extraCurvesadjustment layersto controlcontrast,targeting eachoneon specificpartsof theframe by paintingonto thelayermask.The Gradienttoolisuseful forthis,especially on landscapeswithobvioushorizons. Clickand activatethemask,thendraw theGradient acrosstheimage in a long stroke to smooththetransition between adjustedandunadjustedareas. E Subtlecontrast differences,like darkandlightcloudareas,are thereto be exploited.Double-clickthe Curvesadjustmentlayer,and,rather thanguessingwhere theirbrightness values areonthecurve,usethe cursor andCtrl/O +click eachside of the contrastedge.Thissamplesthe image andaddspointstothecurve,whichyou canthendrag apart toincreasethe contrast betweenthose tones. 1 I Lef:Comparedto therestof theinitial monoversion,thesky herewasrelativelv weak,but whatwas moreimportantwas thatitcontained valuabledetail and a completetonal range. Lock [j [j Whiteandblackpoints Black& White1 C Highpasssharpen BackgrundI fUseasmanymaskedCurves Uadjustment layers asyouwant, usingdifferentgradients.Ctrl/c+J duplicatesanexistingCurvesadjustment layer,soyou canquicklyseetheresult of doubling theadjustment effect. Agoodlittletrickistoswitchthe Curesadjustmentlayerblendingmode toMultiply.Thisislikeaddingtwo adjustmentlayersatonceandsaves ondiskspace,andyoucanalways useUndo ormoderate theeffectby reducingits opacity percentage. SELECTIVECONTRASTCONTROL83 LOCAL CONTRAST Contrastcontrolusuallyappliestothewholeimageortothoseareasdeliberatelychosen bythecreativephotographer.Butamoresurprisingapplicationislocalcontrastadjustment usingamethodborrowedfromsharpeningtechniques,andwhichissometimesknownas wideareasharpening. Theideaisthatyouapply the UnsharpMask filterbut with settingsverydifferent from thoseneededforsharpening. Thisprovidesacontrastboost thatissensitivetotheimage's contents,andthelocalcontrast increaseissubtleenough nottocompletely distortthe picture'soverallappearance. RightandBelow:Wideareasharpening givestheimageacontrastboostwithout unbalancingthepicture'soverallcontrast. 84THEDIGITALDARKROOM2-FINETUNINGTHEPHOTOGRAPH WIDE AREA SHARPENING [Brighten midtones @Eyes W levelsl a If youareusingPhotoshopCS3, wideareasharpeningcantake advantageofthenewSmartFilter feature.Selectthemerged layerand chooseConverttoSmartObjectfrom theLayerspalette,orpickthe/||le|.COnve(l lO|oma(t/||le($command. ThischangesthelayerintoaSmart ObjectsoyoucanapplytheUnsharp Maskorotherfilters andremoveor adjust themlater. Amount: % Radius pixels Ihreshold:1 0JevelS - " Layer s .= I NormalIv]Opacity: lock:[ _+ Q Fill: Eyes IBlack& Whitepoints Black & White E If youare usinganearlier versionofPhotoshop,wide areasharpeningneedstobeapplied to animagepixellayer.Duplicatethe background layer,orholddown the AIV"Ckey,andchooseMergeVisible. This copies allyourworkintoasingle layer.Youcanalwaysreducethelayer's op