Addressing the Needs of At-Risk Learners Through Effective Policy & Programming

  • View
    29

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Addressing the Needs of At-Risk Learners Through Effective Policy & Programming. Nonie K. Lesaux, PhD Striving Readers Comprehensive Public Meeting United States Department of Education November 19, 2010. Language Diversity & Literacy Development Research Group. HGSE. Framework. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Addressing the Needs of At-Risk Learners Through Effective Policy & Programming

  • ADDRESSING THE NEEDS OF AT-RISK LEARNERS THROUGH EFFECTIVE POLICY & PROGRAMMING Nonie K. Lesaux, PhD

    Striving Readers Comprehensive Public MeetingUnited States Department of EducationNovember 19, 2010

  • FRAMEWORKContext: The 21st Century AmericaPressing Issues: What Can We Learn From Recent Research? Designing Policies & Practices: How Can We Link What We Know To What We Do?

  • CONTEXT: THE 21ST CENTURY AMERICA

    1 in 5 children is the child of an immigrantOver 400 different native languages are representedThe immigrant populations growth rate is 3 times as fast as that for the overall populationLargest and fastest growing group of immigrants are U.S. born children of Latino immigrants 80% of immigrant population

    (Fry & Gonzales, 2008; NCES, 2006; US Census Bureau)

  • SUMMARY: THE 21ST CENTURY AMERICA Cultural, linguistic, and economic diversity is a reality for the nation as a whole

    For all settings and all programs serving children

  • FRAMEWORKContext: The 21st Century AmericaPressing Issues: What Can We Learn From Recent Research? Designing Policies & Practices: How Can We Link What We Know To What We Do?

  • TRENDS IN READING DEVELOPMENTThree developmental studies to inform instruction: Preschool to Early Adolescence (ELLs)5-year study, 4th - 8th grade (ELLs)Comparative study of ELLs and native English speakers (strugglers, 6th grade)

  • Letter-Word ID WLPB-R W Scores Age 4.5 Age 5 Age 6 Age 7 Age 8 Age 11 (fall preK) (spring preK) (kinder) (1st grade) (2nd grade) (5thgrade)National Monolingual NormsES: 0.5 0.1 -0.2 -0.2 0.1 0.04Absolute Rate of Growth National: 135 W-score PointsAbsolute Rate of Growth Sample: 145 W-score PointsMancilla-Martinez &Lesaux, in press

  • Productive Vocabulary WLPB-R W Scores Age 4.5 Age 5 Age 6 Age 7 Age 8 Age 11 (fall preK) (spring preK) (kinder) (1st grade) (2nd grade) (5th grade)National Monolingual NormsES: 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.3 0.9 1.0Absolute Rate of Growth National: 45 W-score PointsAbsolute Rate of Growth Sample: 60 W-score PointsMancilla-Martinez &Lesaux, in press

  • 1 SD below SD below average SD above 1 SD aboveLatent Reading Comprehension ScoreAverage Fitted Score1.64 SD5th Grade National Norms58Mancilla-Martinez & Lesaux, in press

  • THE GAP BETWEEN READING WORDS & COMPREHENDING TEXT Crosson&Lesaux, 2009; Lesaux, Crosson, Kieffer& Pierce, in press

  • STRUGGLING COMPREHENDERSIN MIDDLE SCHOOL Lesaux &Kieffer, 2010

    Chart1

    18.3219.17

    32.8921.71

    64.3356.93

    41.7841.56

    33.233.15

    Native English Speakers

    ELLs

    Percentile Rank

    Sheet1

    Reading ComprehensionOverall VocabularyWord Reading AccuracyWord Reading AutomaticityPassage Reading Fluency

    Native English Speakers18.3232.8964.3341.7833.2

    ELLs19.1721.7156.9341.5633.15

  • FOLLOW-UP WORK: BEHIND THESE SCORESThink-aloud protocol with a subsample from preK to early adolescence study

    The Dilemma:they appear to be active comprehenders, i.e., report strategy use and have clearly reasoned processes for finding informationthey dont bring the word and world knowledge required for comprehension.

    Strategies are a mechanism for leveraging background knowledge; Without the former, the latter is insufficient

  • Substantial Variability in Teachers Input

  • TEACHER TALK FINDINGSLanguage Minority learners benefited from teachers use of sophisticated vocabularyNative English speakers showed increases in vocabulary as a function of teachers use of complex sentencesTeachers use of sophisticated vocabulary significantly impacted students reading comprehensionBenefitted LM and EO learners equallyIn the absence of intervention the magnitude of this relationship is the same as many intervention results

    Gamez & Lesaux, under review

  • FRAMEWORK: EFFECTIVE STATE-LEVEL PLANS Context: The 21st Century AmericaPressing Issues: What Can We Learn From Recent Research? Designing Policies & Practices: How Can We Link What We Know To What We Do?

  • Guidelines for Effective State-Level Literacy Plans, Birth to 12th Grade KnowledgeBuildingreading writing speaking listening

  • Birth to 5, Family Literacy Programs: Revisit supported programs to determine effectiveness for literacy learning

    Focus on impact before focusing on reachReallocation of resources for depth

  • PK-12 Literacy Model:Supplemental supports for strugglers at all grade levelscloser match to daily instructional contentcloser match between reader needs & intervention (assessment-driven)

    Includes a plan to buffer summer learning lossCloser connections to after-school programs

  • Knowledge-Based Literacy InstructionKnowledgeBuildingreading writing speaking listening

  • Large problem spaces

    Small problem spaceslettersphonemesspelling rulesvocabularysightvocabularyphonologicalrepresentationsmeaningsyntacticstructureGenre featureslanguage structuresAdapted from Snow (2007)knowledgePROBLEM SPACES

  • HOW DO WE ACTUALLY DO THIS?With an integrated, knowledge-based approach, rather than one that simply promises to balance skills instruction

    need to further problematize the notion of balanced instruction

  • SHIFTING THE PARADIGMReading Instruction in the Service of Reading SkillsContent Learning

  • Shifting the Paradigm in all Learning Settings (cont)

    An increase in opportunities for academic productive talk, beyond providing responses

    A focus on academic language over conversational language-especially for ELLs-For newcomer ELLs, move quickly from basic/survival English to academic language

    BUT...educators and children need big ideas to talk aboutacross all settings and programTalk needs to connect to content learning

  • A Big Idea or Question Read Aloud (narrative & expository)Novel Study and/or Early ReadersExtended WritingStudy of Words that Represent Abstract ConceptsCollaborative Research ProjectDebate in TeamsKNOWLEDGE-BUILDING LITERACY INSTRUCTIONWhat makes a community?

  • ALIGNMENT WITH COMMON CORE STANDARDSAnchor Standards from the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts:Integration of Knowledge and IdeasResearch to Build and Present KnowledgeComprehension and CollaborationKnowledge of LanguageVocabulary Acquisition and Use

  • Knowledge-Based Literacy InstructionKnowledgeBuildingreading writing speaking listening

  • No longer feasible to rely on specialist/specialization models historically inefficient and ineffective, anywayuniversal design for learning (setting-level)

    Expand professional educationBirth to 5 settingsAfter-School & Family Literacy Middle & High School Teachers

    Fostering site-level instructional leadershipclear roles for administrators

  • Knowledge-Based Literacy InstructionKnowledgeBuildingreading writing speaking listening

  • In many cases, first state-wide indicator of childrens comprehension is 3rdgradeearly literacy assessments are mostly code-basedEven starting in preK is late!Partnerships with community & medical providersAssessment often focuses exclusively on children and students-significant reasons to need to assess quality of settingsIdeally within a statewide databasetrack development, including language and readingpromote program evaluation

  • SUMMARY: KEY POINTSIncreased intensity of many support services & standard practiceincluding summer & after-school Knowledge-Based Literacy instructioncontent goalsknowledge gaps rather than skills gapsprofessional development plansAssessments of language development should begin long before school startsPK-12th grade assessment systems include a significant focus on oral language

  • SUMMARY: SERVING AT-RISK POPULATIONSIncrease opportunities to build oral language skills, from an early age -assessment-supports link -community-school partnershipsFavor academic language over conversational English/basic communication -assessment & instruction -extended discourse through high schoolFormal plan for continued support for reclassified ELLs -universal design for learning

    **********Verbal explanations: Over a third of answer selections were based on mistaken conclusions. Why?

    Demonstrate efforts to make meaning from the text using comprehension strategies (e.g., searching for and locating information, inference-making)If students describe a meaning making process, using strategies commonly thought to faciliate comprehension, what happened?

    It comes down to: what do we mean by comprehension instruction?

    ****

    *

    appropriate instruction, often enough and for long enough?

    *

    *Content-based literacy instruction? knowledge-based literacy instruction?**Complex ideas reside in oral languageReading instruction as the job of the primary grade teacherEasier to measure code-based skills-Measurable GainsSense of urgency: glaring student needs and accountabilitylarger problem spaces are harder to teach and demonstrate progress; reading instruction stops at grade 3; disjointed curricula across the day and over the years.

    *Kno