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Accident investigation

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  2. 2. ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION INTRODUCTION: Accident investigations determine how and why these failures occur. By using the information gained through an investigation, a similar or perhaps more disastrous accident may be prevented.
  4. 4. ACCIDENT can be defined in various ways. 1. Webster dictionary gives the following definition: events or circumstances that are not anticipated and planned The unfortunate events caused by negligence and ignorance events that occur by accident or due to an unknown cause
  5. 5. 2. Based on OSHA : Accidents means an occurrence arising out or in connection with work which results in fatal injury or non-fatal injury 3. The electricity supply act,447,1990: limiting accidents to electrical hazards 4. Atomic Energy Licensing Act, 304, 1984: accidents are related to the hazards of ionizing radiation. 5. Acts plant and machinery, 139, 1967,section 31: Provides accident must be reported as a result of loss of life, injuries that prevent a person from doing the work normally for more than four days, or who, caused serious damage to the machine or property
  6. 6. Notification of accidents Notification of accidents complaints (oral and written) made to the authorities and organizations (employers) itself, soon after the accident occurred. Information notified is limited to a description of the accident and its primary effect or as specified in the notification form relevant authorities accident.
  7. 7. Example question for notification are: WHAT is happen? WHERE the accident occurred? WHO is involved? WHEN the accidents happened? Several acts and regulations relating to occupational safety and health, there are set procedures for notification: oActs plant and machinery, 139, 1967, section 31; oOccupational Safety And Health Act 1994 (Act 514) oOccupational Safety And Health (Notification of accidents, dangerous occurrence, occupational poisoning and occupational disease) Regulation 2004
  8. 8. Based on those Act and Regulation, the requirements in the procedure to notify the accidents include: Who must make a notification information needed the period of notice must be made after the accident to whom (the authorities) the notice must be sent notification form to be filled
  9. 9. REPORTING OF ACCIDENTS Report of accident is the result of a full written report of the accident investigation. Report contains information accidents and their effects, causes and reasons they occur and recommended improvements weaknesses and shortcomings, so that the same accident not reoccur. Accident reports prepared specifically for employers and organizations but can be requested by the authorities if necessary.
  10. 10. ACCIDENT . 1. Employee inform to Health and Safety Officer/ Safety and Health Committee and Radiation Protection Officer 4.The employer also order a detailed investigation carried out by the acident 2.Conduct preliminary investigations and inform the employer. Using the approved accident notification form (if any) (INTERNAL ANNOUCEMENT) 5.Whistleblowing accident report completed discussed in Safety And Health Committee.Recommendations are discussed directly by employer 3. The employer notify the authorities. DOSH also set a notification to be made within 7 days after the accident (EXTERNAL ANNOUCEMENT) 6.The employer/ chairman of the Safety And Health Committee send the accident report/ fill a special form of accidents report prepared by the relevant authorities Health and Safety Officer/Safety and Health Committee and Radiation Protection Officer Employer / Chairman of the Safety And Health AUTHORITIES (Occupational Safety And Health Department and Atomic Energy Licensing Board)
  11. 11. THE CAUSE AND FACTOR OF ACCIDENT Domino Theory - At first security practitioners believe that the accident was caused by physical conditions or equipment used machine - 1930, H.W. Heinrich suggests that humans are the cause and the cause of an accident - According Heinrich, an injury caused by a fixed and logical sequence of the factors that complete - There are some factor: 1) legacy and influence and social surroundings, which leads to 2) an error was the reason 3) actions and / or which result in unsafe conditions 4) accidents that can lead to 5) injury
  12. 12. Various theoretical reasons Accidents where a slip caused by stepping on oily floors and smooth, superficially can be concluded due to the oil. However, when investigated in detail, it may be a simple accident caused by the negligence, lack of cleanliness of the workplace, lack of light in the passage, a former oil leaks were reported and others. accident can be explained by the theory of reasons that joined randomly to cause accidents.
  13. 13. Combine theory Although the cause of the accident can be explained by the domino theory or the theory of a variety of reasons, to perfection explain the accident, both these theories have to be used together with combine both theory. Combine this theory can be accepted to explain the cause and the cause of the accident because a lot of the evidence shows that the accident was caused not only by the sequence of events related causes, effects and interactions between elements such as:
  14. 14. 1 ) Employers and Commitments - Employer as captain in a ship. Successful or not the ship was sailing to its destination depends on the ability of the master. - Constitute such a situation in all workplaces. employers who provide work activities, and they are also capable of forming desired workplace atmosphere. - Action Employers ignore safety and health at work is also influenced by factors external forces. For example: 1) law 2) productivity 3) production schedule
  15. 15. 2) Employers and Employees - Behavior, attitudes and the way they work to determine a safe environment at work.
  16. 16. 3) Materials and Equipment - Alone or interact. - Can cause and effect in an accident (interact). - Material can be used for making equipment. - Material not according to specification of use, toxic or flammable can be dangerous. - Other than that, materials, equipment can also cause accidents. - If the equipment was damaged, regardless of size, misuse can result in accidents.
  17. 17. 4) Installation and Maintenance - The operation and life of an installation depends on how the installation and maintenance. - To resistance steel structure is influenced by weather conditions, the site where it is established, maintenance is performed and so on.
  18. 18. 5) Environment - Can interact with materials and equipment and influence the way employees do their work. - If the area is too light / dark, cold / hot, noisy / quiet can affect workers and equipment. - The place is too noisy work can disrupt the health of workers through hearing loss and changes in behavior and mood of workers to be negative.
  19. 19. System of Accident Investigation All accident investigation should be planning before accident occur. After that the accident investigation should submit to the authorities. The stages of accident investigation should include as follow: 1.)Inform accident occur. 2.)Investigate the accident. 3.)Report is prepared. 4.)Discussion is carried out regarding conclusion and recommendation. 5.)The recommendation is follow-up.
  20. 20. Objective of accident investigation are as follow: 1.) Is a responsibility -Employer make sure employee work in healthy and safety environment by giving information to employee hazard that exist in working environment as well as recommend to them suitable ways to prevent accident.
  21. 21. 2.) To determine the causes of accident and to avoid it happen in future - Can learn from past mistakes and make sure not repeat by knowing the actual reason accident happen and use the suitable mitigation to prevent it from happen again. 3.) To comply with acts and regulations of safety and health -Is important so that can know the reason accident happens, able to obtain latest information to form new guidelines and easier for compensation procedure if comply with acts and regulations
  22. 22. Planning of System of Accident Investigation 1.) Planning Before Accident 2.) Planning After Accident
  23. 23. Planning Before Accident 1.) Carry out the basic notification, investigation and report accident Before accident is fully investigate, the content of investigation can be told to the authorities. 2.) Improve the procedure of informing and investigate accident The procedure of informing and investigate accident should include the type of accident that must informed, the person who the organization need to inform, the person who ask to investigate and the person who take action against accident report.
  24. 24. The procedure of inform to safety and healthy officer should include what is happening, when is happening, where is happening and impact of accident. Act 514 1994, Section 32 states that the procedure of inform to safety and health official is a must. Employees can complain about the accident that has tendency to happen too according to Occupation Safety and Health Act 1996 Section 3.
  25. 25. 3.) Explain the role of Investigator. Act and regulation states that only the person who is trained can be the investigator. Certain accident need a lot of investigators that specialize in a lot of fields. Investigators can search for information of causes of accident, conclusion of accident and recommendation. Investigators can also give the psychology information of employees and getting information of procedure as well as