AbouGalala Feras Moustafa

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    TRUE-TIME ALL OPTICAL PERFORMANCE

    MONITORING BY MEANS OF OPTICAL CORRELATION

    DISSERTATION

    Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor

    of Philosophy in the Graduate School of

    The Ohio State University

    By

    Feras M. Abou-Galala, M.S.

    ******

    The Ohio State University2007

    Dissertation Committee:

    Prof. Betty Lise Anderson, Advisor Approved byProf. George ValcoProf. Charles Klein ______________________

    AdvisorGraduate Program inElectrical Engineering

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    ABSTRACT

    In this dissertation we present a new design of an optical performance monitor

    (OPM) that utilizes optical correlation techniques to produce real-time measurements of

    optical link performance. We also introduce a novel design of temporal optical correlator

    that is based on the White cell. We show the advantages of our method over existing

    techniques and outline how our proposed device can be integrated in next generation all-

    optical Internet networks.

    We build and experimentally demonstrate a proof-of-concept design of an OPM

    using a White cell-based time-integrating optical correlator. The experimental apparatus

    is analyzed and measurements are compared to their theoretical values. Results show that

    our proposed technique produces the expected results with an error margin of less than

    5%. Additionally, we show a detailed power loss analysis (measured) and discuss the

    feasibility and scalability of our method. Measurements prove the design to be promising

    and that it can be scaled without large power losses (less than 7dB).

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    iii

    DEDICATION

    Dedicated to my father Moustafa, my mother Fatima,

    my brother Basil and my two sisters Hadeel and Haneen

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    ACKNOWLEDGMENT

    I would like to take this opportunity to thank everyone that helped me out and

    supported me throughout my course of studies. I would like to dedicate special thanks to

    my beloved advisor and mentor, Professor Betty Lise Anderson. Her support and

    continuous encouragement enabled me to be where I am at right now and played a big

    part in making me the person I am now. She was always available to answer questions

    when I needed answers, provide mental support when I was down, and above all be the

    happy and joyful person she is. Again, thank you.

    I would also like to thank all my peers who provided me great insight through our

    discussions and conversations. Special thanks to my optics group members, Dave Rabb,

    Dr. Rashmi Mital, Dr. Carolyn Warnky and Dr. Victor Argueta-Diaz.

    I would specially like to mention that I couldnt have got to this point in my life

    as a human being or as a professional without the support and encouragement from my

    parents and my brother and sisters. Their love guided me through any obstacles that I

    faced and made me a better person. Thank you.

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    v

    VITA

    April 22, 1978Born: Tripoli, Libya

    2000....B.S., Electrical EngineeringUniversity of Qatar. Doha, Qatar

    2003M.S., Electrical and Computer EngineeringThe Ohio State University. Columbus, Ohio

    PUBLICATIONS

    1. D. Rabb, B. L. Anderson, C. M. Warnky, F. Abou-Galala, "Binary White cell truetime delay: demonstration of micro-blocks and folded lens trains as delay elements,"IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 24-4, pp. 1886-1895, April 2006.

    2. B. L. Anderson, D. J. Rabb, C. M. Warnky, F. M. Abou-Galala, "Binary Optical TrueTime Delay Based on the White Cell: Design and Demonstration," IEEE Journal ofLightwave Technology, July 15, 2005.

    3. B. L. Anderson, A. Durresi, D. Rabb, F. Abou-Galala, "Real-Time All-OpticalQuality of Service Monitoring Using Correlation and a Network Protocol to ExploitIt,"Applied Optics, 42(5) pp. 1121-1130, March 2004.

    4. B. L. Anderson, F. Abou-Galala, D. Rabb, A. Durresi, "All-Optical Quality-of-SignalMonitoring in Real Time," Paper # 5247-8, SPIE ITCom conference and proceedings,September 7-11 2003.

    5. B. L. Anderson, F. Abou-Galala, V. Argueta-Diaz, G. Radhakrishnan, R. L. Higgins,"Optical cross-connect based on tip/tilt micromirrors in a White cell," IEEE Journalof Special Topics in Quantum Electronics, 9(2), pp.579-593, March/April,2003

    FIELDS OF STUDY

    Major Field: Electrical and Computer Engineering

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    PageAbstract ..iiDedication .iiiAcknowledgments .ivVita .vList of Tables .....ixList of Figures ........x

    CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................... 1

    1.1 Optical Networks ................................................................................................ 11.2 Optical Impairments ........................................................................................... 3

    1.2.1 Linear and non-linear impairments............................................................. 51.2.2 Attenuation.................................................................................................. 71.2.3 Dispersion ................................................................................................... 81.2.4 Noise ......................................................................................................... 101.2.5 Jitter........................................................................................................... 11

    1.3 Link Quality Measurement ............................................................................... 111.4 OPM: Existing Methods .................................................................................. 14

    1.5 OPM: Our Proposal .......................................................................................... 191.6 Physical Implementation................................................................................... 201.7 Routing Protocol based on OPM ...................................................................... 211.8 Document Organization.................................................................................... 25

    CHAPTER 2 THEORY.................................................................................................. 26

    2.1 Introduction....................................................................................................... 262.2 Principal of Correlation .................................................................................... 262.3 Optical Correlation for OPM............................................................................ 28

    2.4 Time-Integrating Optical Correlator (TOC) ..................................................... 292.5 White cell principle........................................................................................... 32

    2.5.1 Beam Propagation in the White Cell ........................................................ 342.5.2 White cell Imaging Conditions................................................................. 36

    2.6 White cell-based TDL....................................................................................... 372.6.1 White cell delay arm ................................................................................. 392.6.2 Design constraints..................................................................................... 402.6.3 Linear White cell-based Tapped Delay Line (TDL)................................. 44

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    2.6.4 Weighting elements and beam summation ............................................... 46

    CHAPTER 3 Simulations and Analysis........................................................................ 49

    3.1 Introduction....................................................................................................... 493.2 Impairment simulations .................................................................................... 49

    3.2.1 Attenuation and Dispersion....................................................................... 503.2.2 Modeling Noise and Jitter......................................................................... 51

    3.3 Simulation Results and Analysis ...................................................................... 533.4 Relating Correlation to BER............................................................................. 55

    3.5 Number of Taps in the TOC ............................................................................. 57

    CHAPTER 4 EXPERIMENTAL IMPLEMENTATION........................................... 59

    4.1 Introduction....................................................................................................... 594.2 Input System ..................................................................................................... 614.3 MEMS setup ..................................................................................................... 684.4 Impairment generation circuitry ....................................................................... 694.5 Linear White cell Design .................................................................................. 714.6 Output Optics.................................................................................................... 75

    4.7 Optical System Simulation ............................................................................... 79

    CHA