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Abnormal Psych Psychological Disorders - · PDF fileAbnormal Psych Chapter 16 Psychological Disorders Psychological Disorders 1. Define abnormal vs. normal 2. Distinguish b/w methods

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  • Abnormal Psych

    Chapter 16

    Psychological Disorders

    Psychological Disorders

    1. Define abnormal vs. normal

    2. Distinguish b/w methods of deciding normality

    3. Recognize and use the bell-shaped curve showing normal

    4. Develop and analyze surveys to determine normal personality qualities and behaviors

    Psychological Disorders

    1. Normal/ Abnormal: Who decides?

    2. Group Survey Creation

    3. Individual survey Completion

    4. Results tabulation and presentation of results

    Psychological Disorders

    1. Quiz 16-1/ Developmental Review Sheets on Desk/ EC on Desk

    2. Calendar Review

    3. Developmental Test Review

    4. Abnormal Project

    HW: 16-2, Review U1 (Prologue & Ch 1)

    EC Due

    Psychological Disorders

    16-1 619-626

    Perspectives on Psychological Disorders: Medical Model, Pinel, Bio-Psycho-Social Perspective, DSM-IV, Diagnostic Labeling, Rosenhan

    z 1. Identify the criteria for judging whether behavior is psychologically disordered.

    z 2. Describe the medical model of psychological disorders, and discuss the bio-psycho-social perspective offered by critics of this model.

    z 3. Describe the aims of DSM-IV and discuss the potential dangers associated with the use of diagnostic labels.

    Psychological Disorders

    ! Psychological Disorder

    ! a harmful dysfunction in which behavior is judged to be:

    ! atypical--not enough in itself

    ! disturbing--varies with time and culture

    ! maladaptive--harmful

    ! unjustifiable--sometimes theres a good reason

    Psychological Disorders

    ! 5 Axes of the DSM-IV

    ! Axis I- addresses clinical syndromes & major disorders: schizo, anxiety dis, dis diag in infancy, childhood, adolesc, somatoform dis, sexual dis, delirium, amnesia, dementia

    ! Axis II- personality disorders; MR

    ! Axis III Gen Med Conditions relevant to understanding/ managing the disorder (Hypothyrodism-Depression)

    ! Axis IV-Psychosocial & Environmental Problems that may affect diagnosis, treatment, prognosis of mental disorders (housing, economic, family)

    ! Axis V-rep global assessment of persons level of functioning. (90 indicates minimal symptoms & 1 maximal ie. viol subj likely to harm others)

    Historical Perspective

    ! Perceived Causes

    ! movements of sun or moon

    ! lunacy--full moon

    ! evil spirits

    ! Ancient Treatments

    ! exorcism, caged like animals, beaten, burned, castrated, mutilated, blood replaced with animals blood, bloodletting

    Psychological Disorders

    ! Phillipe Pinel France early 1800s said madness was sickness of mind, not demon posession, unchained patients and talked to them

    ! Led to Medical Model in 1800s (hospitals replaced asylums)

    ! Medical Model

    ! concept that diseases have physical causes

    ! can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured

    ! assumes that these mental illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital

  • Psychological Disorders

    Cross-Cultural Analysis

    ! Environmental effects evident from cross-cultural analysis:

    ! Dep and Schizo present worldwide

    ! Anorexia & Bulimia Western

    ! Susto- Latin America; severe anxiety, restlessness, fear of black magic

    ! Taijin-kyofusho-Japan; social anxiety of appearance, blushing & fear of eye contact

    Psychological Disorders

    ! Today, mental health workers agree that disorders influenced by:

    ! genes

    ! physiological states

    ! inner psychological dynamics

    ! social-cultural

    ! circumstances

    ! Bio-Psycho-Social Perspective

    ! assumes that biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders

    Psychological

    Disorders--Etiology

    ! DSM-IV! American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and

    Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition)

    ! a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders

    ! presently distributed as DSM-IV-TR (text revision)

    ! 17 categories of mental disorders & neurotic disorders & psychotic disorders

    ! Most Health insurance companies require diagnosis w DSM-IV to pay for therapy

    Anxiety Disorders

    ! Anxiety Disorders

    ! distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety

    ! Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    ! person is tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal

    Anxiety Disorders

    ! Panic Disorder

    ! marked by a minutes-long episode of

    intense dread in which a person

    experiences terror and accompanying

    chest pain, choking, or other frightening

    sensation

    Anxiety Disorders

    ! Phobia

    ! persistent, irrational fear of a specific object

    or situation

    ! Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ! unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions)

    and/or actions (compulsions)

    Anxiety Disorders

    ! Common and uncommon fears

    Anxiety Disorders

  • Anxiety Disorders

    ! PET Scan of brain of

    person with Obsessive/

    Compulsive disorder

    ! High metabolic activity

    (red) in frontal lobe

    areas involved with

    directing attention

    16-2 Mood Disorders

    20

    Mood Disorders

    ! Mood Disorders

    ! characterized by emotional extremes

    ! Major Depressive Disorder

    ! a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities

    ! Dysthymic Disorder- less extreme than MJD, but longer lasting (the blues)

    41

    Major Depressive Disorder

    Depression is the common cold of psychological disorders. In a year, 5.8% of men and 9.5% of women

    report depression worldwide (WHO, 2002).

    Chronic shortness of breath

    Gasping for air after a hard run

    Major Depressive Disorder

    Blue mood

    Mood Disorders-Depression

    ! Major Depressive Disorder

    ! a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities

    ! Dysthymic Disorder- less extreme than MJD, but longer lasting (the blues)

    2343

    Dysthymic Disorder

    Dysthymic disorder lies between a blue mood and major depressive disorder. It is a disorder characterized by daily depression

    lasting two years or more.

    Major Depressive

    Disorder

    Blue

    Mood

    Dysthymic

    Disorder

    Mood Disorders-Depression Mood Disorders-Depression

    ! Canadian depression rates

    Mood Disorders

    ! Manic Episode! a mood disorder marked by a

    hyperactive, wildly optimistic state

    ! Bipolar Disorder! a mood disorder in which the person

    alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania

    ! formerly called manic-depressive disorder

  • 44

    Bipolar Disorder

    Formerly called manic-depressive disorder. An alternation between depression and

    mania signals bipolar disorder.

    Multiple ideas

    Hyperactive

    Desire for action

    Euphoria

    Elation

    Manic Symptoms

    Slowness of thought

    Tired

    Inability to make decisions

    Withdrawn

    Gloomy

    Depressive Symptoms

    45

    Bipolar Disorder

    Many great writers, poets, and composers su!ered from bipolar disorder. During their

    manic phase creativity surged, but not during their depressed phase.

    Whitman Wolfe Clemens Hemingway

    Bettm

    ann/ C

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    Georg

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    The G

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    Mood Disorders-Bipolar

    ! PET scans show that brain energy consumption

    rises and falls with emotional switches

    Depressed state Manic state Depressed state

    46

    Theory of Depression

    Since depression is so prevalent worldwide, investigators want to develop a theory of

    depression that will suggest ways to treat it.

    Lewinsohn et al., (1985, 1995) note that a theory of depression should explain the

    following:

    1. Behavioral and cognitive changes

    2. Common causes of depression

    47

    Theory of Depression

    3. Gender di!erences

    Mood Disorders- Suicide

    50

    Biological Perspective

    Genetic Influences: Mood disorders run in families. The rate of depression is higher in identical (50%) than fraternal twins (20%).

    Linkage analysis and

    association studies

    link possible genes

    and dispositions for

    depression.Je

    rry Irw

    in P

    hoto

    gra

    phy

    51

    Neurotransmitters &

    Depression

    Post-synapticNeuron

    Pre-synapticNeuron

    NorepinephrineSerotonin

    A reduction of

    norepinephrine and

    serotonin has been

    found in

    depression.

    Drugs that alleviate

    mania reduce

    norepinephrine.53

    Social-Cognitive

    PerspectiveThe social-cognitive perspective suggests

    that depression arises partly from self-defeating beliefs and negative explanatory

    styles.

  • Mood Disorders-Depression

    ! The vicious

    cycle of

    depression

    can be

    broken at

    any point