A Japanese Grammar - Hoffmann

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A

JAPANESE GRAMMAR,

JAPANESE GRAMMAR.BY

J. J.

HOFFMANN,SCIENCES, ETC. ETC.

MEMBER OF THE BOYAL ACADEMY OF

SECOND

EDITION.

LEIDEN,

E. J. BRILL.

1876.

533

The work

is

published in Dutch also under the

title of

JAPANSCHE SPRAAKLEERDOORJ.

J.

HOFFMANN.LEIDEN 1868.

And

in

German under the

title

of

JAPANISCHE SPRACHLEHRE.LEIDKN 1876

JAAI 2 8

B66

^C 7/

?

HOMAGE TO THE LATE

J.

J.

ROCHUSSENL. L.

D.INDIA,

GOVERNOR OP DUTCH

EAST

MINISTER

FOR THE DEPARTMENT OP THE COLONIES, MINISTER OP STATE

FOR THE LIBERAL AND ENLIGHTENED MANNER

IN

WHICH HE

HAS PATRONIZED THE STUDY OF THE CHINESE AND JAPANESE LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE.

E F

.A.

O

TO THE FIRST EDITION.

The Grammar of the Japanese language which accompanied with,

this Preface ,is

is

simultaneously published in the English and in the Dutch languages,

an

original

work, not a remodelling or an imitation of any other works of thatexisting.

stamp at presentliterature,itsit

As

the result of aor book

many

years' study of the Japanese

describes the

writtenits

language,

as

it

really exists in

ancient, as well as in

modern forms.

It also contains the author's

own

observations on the domain of the

spoken

language, whichand

his intercourse with native Japanese in France, in

Engelandto

especially in the Netherlands has afforded

him ample opportunities

make;

opportunities,

which have been the more valuable to him, in as much as that

they brought him in contact with people belonging to the most civilized and the

most learned, as well

as with those of the inferior classes of Japanese society.soil

Thence he derives the right, even though he has never actually trodden theof Japan, to embrace the

spoken language

in the range of his observations,

and to

treat

it

in connection with the written language.is

The author

convinced that,is

all

he has quoted from Japanese writings,relies

whatever their character,

genuine: he

upon

it it

himself, and trusts thatis

the experience of others, unprejudiced, will find that

so.

Within allits

regard to the

mannerit

in which he has conceived the language, and

phenomena

treated

analytically

and synthetically, he believes

it

to

be in consonance with the

spirit of this

language, simple and natural, and,

his daily experience confirms this,

thoroughly practical.

PREFACE.This method of his, was made

known

in general outline ten years ago,J.

whenCTJR-

he published the Proeve eener Japansche Spraakkunst door Mr.TIUS,

H.

DONKER

and thes.

seal ofR.

approbation was affixed to

it

by the judgment of scholars,

whereas Mr.tion:

BROWN, who, in 1863, published the very important contribu-

Colloquial Japanese or conversational sentences

and dialogues

in English

andthe

Japanese, not only founded his Introductory remarks on the Author's

Grammar, onits

method, but with

a few exceptions, followedto

it

in

whole extent.

The Grammar, now published,followed by a treatise

lay

claim to completeness, ought to befor

on the Syntax, the materials

which are prepared.

It

will be published as a separate

work, and be of small compass.

By

these aids, initiated in the

treatment

of the language, the student

may,

with profit,

make

use of the Japanese-Dutch-English Dictionary, for the publi-

cation of which the author has prepared all the materials necessary,

and by so

doing he will have at his disposal the most important means of access to theJapanese literature.LEIDEN, May 1868.

THE AUTHOR.

NOTICETO THE SECOND EDITION.Asthefirst

edition of this

Grammaris

published in 1867 by

commandE. J.

of His BRILL,

Majesty's Minister for colonial affairs

out of print, the publisher

being

now

proprietor of the Chinese types,re-issue.

acquired by order of the Dutch

Government, has resolved on a

The Author has found no inducement

to alter or

modify the matter of thisless

work; only a few words have been occasionally inserted, others of

importance

removed in ordergrammaticalrule.

to

get

room

for

a

new

instance

more

fit

to

elucidate the

There are also some notices added, as on page 157 concerning

the Introduction of the Western Calendar, and page 172 some words about the

new

Gold-currency.

PREFACE.

Some

other additions are to be found in the ADDENDA to the book.is

The paging

of both editionsof words treatedL.

the same; the second, however,for

is

accompanied by a REGISTERis

on in the work,

which the Authorused this

indebted to Mess*8as

-

SERRURIER and w. VISSERING,

who have

Grammar

a basis for

the study of the Japanese language.

The Author, being now engaged in printing the Japanese-Dutch and Japanese-English Dictionary mentioned in the Preface to theinJ.

first

edition,

is

happy

recommendingC.

to

the student the valuable Japanese-English Dictionary of,

HEPBURN, Shang-hai 1872, and the Dictionnaire Japonais-Fran^ais

public

par LEON PAGES, Paris 1868.LEIDEN, 26 July 1876.

THE AUTHOR.

CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTIONPage1.

I-,.-.

a.b.

The Irova

in Fira-gdna

22.

Connection of the Japanese with the Chineselanguage.

Synopsis of the Fira-ffdna-ch&mcters mostin use

The

necessity of uniting to the12.1.

22.

study of the Japanese, that of the Chinese

Written

,

or book language

29.29. 30..

language2. 3.

A. Exclusively Chinese2.

On

the writing of the Japaneseof the written and the spoken

Chinese dialects in Japan Chinese text with Japanese translation.3.

Introduction

82. 34.

language of China into Japan4. Application

B. Books written in the Japanese language.C.Style, a.6.

of the

Chinese

writing, to the4.

Old Japanese

85.38.

writing of the Japanese language5.

New

JapaneseGeneral conversational

The Japanese writing a. The Kdta-kdnab.

proper.6.

13.

Language spoken.language and dialects

89.

The Fira-gdna

6.

Epistolary style6.

42.

The Japanese phonetic systemA. Systematic arrangement of the 47 sounds ,expressed by Chinese and Japanesesigns

7.

14.15.

On

the parts of speech

42-

Kdna7.

Glance at the arrangement and connection of

words in Japanese

44.

B.

The Irova

in

Chinese characters and in9.

Kdta-kdtia signs7.

Repetitionsigns.

of

syllables.

Stenographic11.

ETYMOLOGY, NATURE AND FLECTION OP WORDS.CHAPTERMilI.

IN-

Stopsof sounds,. .

8.

Remarks on the Japanese systemand the expression ofit

with our letters

12.18. 18.$1.

AS49. 49.

9.

Doubling of consonants by assimilationAccent and rhythm

...

The rootRadical or primitive wordRadical in composition

10.11.

2.;j.

The Japanese running-hand Fira-gdiM.

49,

CONTENTS.Page.l.;.

A. CoordinationB. SubordinationI.

50. 50. 50.

b.c.

Local

68,69.69.69. 69.

ModalCasual and Instrumental Dative of the person Dative of the thing

Genitive subordinationObjective subordination.1.

(1.

II.

e.

directindirect

50.

/g.

2.

50.

Terminative

70.70.

III.

The

radical form, as definition before50.

V.

To, Nite,

Decharacterized by Yori or by.

adjectives

VI. Ablative,

Euphonic modification$ 4.

50.51.in

Kara.

.

71.

GenderA. Gender logically includedparticular

namesB.1.

51.prefixes

CHAPTER

II.

Gender indicated by theand

MeKoand

51.8.I.

2.3.

Gender expressed by Ono and Meno. 52.

Qualifying

nouns, which serve as pro74.

Byand

Me, old-Japanese Ki52.

nounsA. For,,I"

Mi

74. 74.relations to

C. Application of the ideas of male and fe-

B. For the person spoken to53.

male to objects without sexD. Chineseof sex$ 5.

Particular

names of human

expressions for the

distinction

distinguish the person concerned 53.53. 53.II.II.

77.

Pronouns proper , formed from the adverbsofplace

NumberA. Singular B.I.

Wa, A, Ka, Ko,

To, So,79.

Daa.b.

(Do), Idzu

Plural expressed by repetition of the

Immediate compounds with

Wa ...(ku),

80.

nounII.

54.

II.

Immediate compounds of the other adverbsofplace

Plural expressed by nouns used adjectively

with

Ko

Tsi, 80.

which

signify

a

quantity,55. 55. 56.II.c.

Tsira and Isutsi

generality1.

Da-ga, Wa-ga

.82.

Japanese formsChinese formspluralas

II. d.

Pronouns possessive, formed from radicalfixing

2.

words indicating place, by

suf-

III.

Thewords

expressed

by

collectiveII.e.

NoRe

83.

Ra, Tomo (domo), Gara,

Substantive pronouns , formed from ad-

Sara, Nami, Tatti, Siu, Gata and Nado, usedas suffixes56.

verbs of place, by suffixing1)

.

.

.

.

85.

Ware,

2)

Are, Ore,

3)

Kare, 4) Kore. 86.87.

IV. Plural expressed by adverbs, whichunite the idea of multitude to the predicate verb,

5) Sore, 6) 7)III.

Tare (Dare), Tore (Dore), Idzure. 88..

Mina, Nokordzu, Koto59.

Determinative and reflective pronouns.A.1.

89.

gotoku$6.

Onore, onodzukdra

89.

IsolatingJ7,

of thert, ba

noun by the

suffix r\,

va;60. 61. 01.62.63.

2.

Mi, Midsukdra, Waga-mi ....borrowed from the Chi2.

89.

wa;

B. Expressionsnese:4.1.

$

1.

DeclensionI.

Sin,

Zi-sin,

3.

Zi-bwi,93.

Nominative. VocativeAccusativeGenitive1.

Zi-zen

II.

IV. Expressions of reciprocity: Tagaini, Ai. 95.V. Pronouns indefinite: Tito, Aru-fito,no.

III.

Mo-

Ga, no index of the subjectGenitives suffixes

....suffix

64.

Dare mo and Nanimo followed by95. 97.

2.

No,

Na

and Tsu 66.

a verb negativeVI. Relative pronoun Tokoro

IV.

Dative

and

Terminative.

The

Ve

(ye).

67.

VII. Interrogative pronouns derived from Taor To, vulgo

Thea.

suffix,

Ni, as sign of the..

Da

or

Do

97.

Dative or Ablative.

.

68.

1.

Nani, what?

98.

CONTENTS.Page.2.

Page.

Ikd, how?

101.

24. Definition of adjectives by adverbs ,

whicha. .

Interrogative pronouns with the suffix,

denote102.25.

the

presence

of

a

quality in

moVIII. Arrangement of the personal pronouns inthe conversational language

higherThe1.

degree. Absolute comparative

130.

relative or real comparative.

102.

Attribution of a quality in

equal

de-

gree

...................higher

131.

CHAPTERTHE9.

III.

2.

Attribution of a quality in a

degree

ADJECTIVE.$

26.

The The

absolute superlative

Distinction between the attributive and predicate formsI..'

27.

.................. .......... relative superlative ..........excessof a quality.

132.134.135.

105.

28. Expression of the

136.

The adjective

in the written lan-

guage.A. Joined to a noun substantive B. Adjectives in1.

CHAPTER105.

IV.

ki.

NUMERALS.29. 30.

a.

Ki, termination of the adjective,used as attributive105.

The ancient Japanese The Chinese

cardinal

numbers

.

137.

b.

Adjectives

in

ki,

used as nouns106.

cardinal numbers

141.

concrete2.

31.32.

The ordinal numerals

142. 143..

The termination The same,

ku, as adverbial form.

The

iterative

numerals

isolated

by the suffix va. 106.,

33.

3.

a.

Si , form of the adjectivedicate

as pre-

34.

The doubling or multiplying numerals. The sort numbersThedistributive

144.

144.145.

106.. .

35.$ 36.

Measures, weights and coins.$45. Measures of length46. Superficial measures

ni-siki.

166.168.

19.

.

beki

20.21. Adjectives

naki with the negative prefix

$47. Measures of capacity$,J.JJo/'/7/t

//i/,

-Japanese

Grammar

J A-,-

j->

j j

Jbi >^rt

^r

A

/'

M/ /

A,

of dis- or trisyllabic words byfor,

thus, for instance,

^ stands

for ^>

yay

Q

iro-iro,

As stenographic signs,

for

some Japanese words that frequently occur, in

connection with the Kdta-Mna, the following are to be remarked:

Hi f r

i

k

to

5

sake.

-

for y*

^^,

J3^~\j

y> ^:Hs5fi

,

fo&i,

time.

_y

/ ^T

*oH

,

time.

^(^)

^(

tama.

Stops.

As

stops,

only the,

commais

and the point

(

or

.)

occur in Japanese.

The use of themalso at

however,

left

wholly to the option of the writer.

Some

use

the beginning of a new period, and thus begin that with a point,

while others with the same object place a somewhat larger ring,there.

Q

or a

A

The comma

"

(

)

stands on the right of the letter (for instance

^)

,

while

the repetition signstance ^, kuku).

is

placed on the diameter of the column of letters (for in-

The

principle of separating the words from one another in writing,

is

,

for the

most part

quite lost sight of in writing with the Kdta-kdna

,

and the Kdna signsofit

of a whole period are written atthat for an unpractised person,

equal distances. The consequenceis

is,

who

not already pretty well acquainted" withhas to divide somefifty

the Japanese,successive

it

is

very doubtful

how heWith

or a hundred

Kdna

signs into words.shall

a view to perspicuity and not to requireis

from the reader that heoffered

be already acquainted with the period which

him

to read, to enable

him

to read

and understand

it, it is

in the highest

degree desirable that our method ofthe Japanese,as it is

separating

the words should be applied to

done by the author of

this

grammar.it

If the

method of

separating word for word were adopted by the Japanese,step in the

would be a great

improvement of

their writing-system.p.

Note.

For the sign of quotation see Addenda

349.

12

INTRODUCTION.

8.

REMARKS ON THE JAPANESE SYSTEM OF SOUNDS, AND THE EXPRESSION OFIT

WITH OUR LETTERS.

To promotecharacters,LEPSIUS.

the unity necessary in the reduction of the Japanese to

Roman

we have adoptedthis

the

Universal or Standard alphabet, by ROBERT

As

alphabet enables people of various nations to reduce to their,

own

graphic system,

the words of a foreign language

,

in a

manner systematic

,

uniform

and

intelligible to

every one ; and as

it

has been adopted by the prin-

cipal philologists in all countries, as well as. by theSocieties, its application to the Japanese

most

influential Missionary

language will be welcomed by every one,

who

prizes a sound

,

uniform and

,

at the

same time very simple system of writing.character the following signs borro-

In reducing the Japanese text to

Roman

wed from the Standard alphabet have beena.i.

adopted.

a open as heard in the Dutch vader;i

English father, art;

Jap..

y

.

pure as heard in the Dutchlong;short.,

t'eder

;

Eng. he

,

she

;

Jap. -f

i.

i

Jap.

$~

.

1u.

i

u pure

as oe heard in the.

Dutch goeA,

;

Eng. oo in good poor,,

o in lose ; -

Jap. ^7

At the beginning ofwu.

a word

it is

frequently pronounced with a

soft labial aspiration, asii,

short, silent u.e close,

e.

e as

heard in the Dutch bgzige

,

meer

,

geven

;

Eng. a in face

,

no-

tion5. e

;

German

in

weh

;

Jap.

2;

short.

e.

e

open as heard in the Dutch berg

Eng. a in hat

;

French

e

in mere ,

elre;o.

German Bar,as

fett.

o close

heard in the Dutch Jong, gehoor;.

Eng. borne;

German

Ton6.

;

Jap. ^,

kawa, kiwa, ktiwd, for which ^/ *7the contrary the syllables \^n',

ty *7,

,

written.

On

^7

,

vu,is

^\,

ve, ifc

ro,

whenever

a vowel precedes reject the aspirate, andas aw (aw),

y"f

]^

pronounced as?l

at,

y

y

*\ aso e*c -

ae

->

T ^ as,

a

i

ll as

"?

^

as ?M > *?

^

^7as

*>

>jj"

^

as

The

aspirated labial }^

y?

,

in |^is

}>

,

/^d man sounds,,

like a ftii or

fwihi,

whistled with the mouth, and

easy to be pronounced.,

In the Yedo,

on the contraryit is

,

the h often occurs as a palatal aspirate

which whenever

pressed through the closed teeth, forms a sound quite strange to Euroit is

pean ears, whichtravellers,

not possible to express with our

letters.

What

former')

GOLOWNIN, MEYLAN and others have said about

this

sound

is

now

confirmed by our observation; and

we have only(fit6

to add that in the

mouths of some from Yedo the word ]^ y*evensto. w/s v

or hit6,

man) became

Since for the syllables )^

,

\^

,

,

^JT

two forms of writing have nowis fol-

come into

existence, in proportion as one or the other pronunciation

lowed, one with /, the other with h, the question becomes important, whichof the two forms of spelling deserves the preference. If Japaneseis

to be

written

according to

the accent of Ye"do, then, naturally, the h must beits

adopted, just as, to let the dialect of Zeeland enjoyoofd

rights, Olland

and

must be written

for

Holland and hoofd, or, not to do injustice to the

Berlin dialect, Jabe, Jott and jut must be written for Gabe, Gott and gut.If,

however the pronunciation most generally in vogue, with the exception

1) ,,Nois,

European," says GOLOWNIN,I have practised atit

,,will

succeed in pronouncing the Japanese

word

for ,,fire,"it,it

it

Ji.

two years,

but in vain.

As the Japanese pronounced

seemed to

be fi , hi, psi, fsi, being pronounced through the teeth; however we might wring and twist our tonguesinto

every bend, the Japanese'Marine

still

stuck to,

their-.

,,not right."" bei

Begebenheiten des Capitains von der

Riusisch-Kaiserlichen

GOLOWNIN

in

der

GefangenschaftJ.

den Japanem in den Jahren 1811,p. 30.

1812 und 1813.

Aus dem Russischen

iibersetzt

von Dr. c.

SCHULTZ. 1818. Vol. II,

INTRODUCTION.

17

of Y6doadopted.1.

,

that of

Miyako be preferredlast,

,

then must the h be put aside and

/

We

do the

and that

for the following reasons:

The Japanese

philologers themselves have,,

at all times, characterized,

the consonant of their series of sounds )^

\^

^

,

>"\,

jfc as labial,

and

made2.

it

equivalent to the labials of the Sanscrit.signs, fixed

The Chinese Kdnaall

upon

to represent this series of sounds

,

are

sounds which, after the Chinese pronunciation, begin with a

p

or

an /, whereas the sharp aspirated h of the Chinese words, justthe Sanscrit,is

as the h of

expressed by k, and

~)j

-f

,

kai

is

written and spoken for

the Chinese hai.3.

In Japanese,

as

in

Dutch and English,

the

sharp

/

between two

vowels passes over into the soft v or w, and beside the older written form~J]

~)]

A ^

i

~}]

"\i

~Jj

*J?

,

for

which we must write kava, kave, kavo, that of

,

~}j

2

i

~Jj

17

i

kawa, kawe, kawo, has gradually come into vogue.

4.

From

the beginning Europeans,

who had

intercourse with the Japa-

nese, generally wrote

/J.

and not h; thus the Portuguese missionaries, andCARON (1639); also morelately, E.

their contemporary, FR.p.

KAEMPFER (1691),

THUNBERG (1775),

TiTsiNGH

l

)

(1780),

andh

others.

All wrote Farima,

Fauna, Firando, Fori.

In

this century the

first

appeared, because then

Europeans came more frequently in contact with interpreters and natives ofYddo.If

now we

adopt the

7i,

then will

all

connection with what was forhistory and geography of

merly done for the knowledge of the language,

Japan be broken

off,

a door opened for endless confusion, and for thousandsshall

of Japanese words

we

have a double spelling.v,

b

,

impurereans,

,

from the sound arisen from the blending of n with

which the Co-

whenever they write Japanese words in )t, tf,

their character, express>

by

mp (nH).py.

7i***>I

tf?> b

'

bi ^

bu

be > bo -

A%

If

i

7*1 "^i *K> P (Ij;

pi P M

p*i

py.

The Dutch

English y,

in yard;//"

sake (strong drink) as sdkke.,

Since

with regard to the correct indication of the quantity of the syllablesis

the Japanese graphic system

defective, it behoves us to keep it in view the

more

carefully, because the accentuation,is

provided

it

be based on the pro-

nunciation of Japanese,pronunciation.

an

indispeiisible help in the acquiring of a correct

INTRODUCTION

r.

21

Hitherto the only European

,

whoa

has paid attention to the accent of Japaneseprinciple,,

words, and expressed

it

after

fixed

was,

E.

KAEMPFEE.,

From,

his,

manner of writing

it

might be gathered

that

3y

dragon

and

^yl

pine-tree

are pronounced as tats ands mats, thus withas

an a long,,

'Y*?, S-l'visited

and ^f-'^-f

ydmma, mindto andit,

tatsbdnna. Later travellers

who have

Japan and writ-

ten books about

have been either unable or unwilling to follow his example, andreaders in uncertainty with regard to thearrival of natives of

thereby havepanese.

left their

rhythm of Ja-

Only recently, since the

Japan in Europe, have

our linguists had the opportunity to hear Japanese spoken by Japanese, and soto

become acquainted with the rhythm peculiar

to that language.

Availing our-

selves of this opportunity,

we have

already been able to publish the reading of ap. 350.

1 Japanese text ) supplied with a continuous accentuation. See Addenda II

If

we

cast a hasty glance over

what has previously been

said,

with regard toit

the Japanese phonetic

system, the writing, the pronunciation,is

will

appear

most

clearly,

that the Japanese phonetic systemit,

very defective.

It does

not

satisfy theitself,

requirement of being able, with

to write the Japanese languageits

as it is

spoken,,

let

alone the possibility ofall

being applied to foreign

languages.glish,

The Japanese

with

their attempts to writeeffect

Dutch French or En,

after their ^Tana-system,

have been able to

nothing

else,

than -

caricatures of those languages.

From

their

defective

syllabic-writing are the Japanese behind not only thealso,

Western nations, but other Asiatic peoplesneighbourswriting,

and even the Coreans,

their

who

rejoice in the

possession of an original,

and simple character-

not borrowed from the Chinese.

With regardoff.

to the writing of foreign

languages, the Chinese alone are worse

Thesions

intricate, often equivocaldifficulty

writing with which Japanese

is

written , occait,

more

for

those,

who have not grown up with

than the

study of the languageturn comes next.

itself,

witness the Japanese running-hand, whose

l) Thfversion.

Grand Study

(To,

Hio or fiaigaku). Part. I, The Chinesec/utracter,

text withJ.

an interlinfary JapanfteLeiden, 1864.

Part. IT,

Reading of the Japanese text in Roman

by

HOFFMANN.

22

INTRODUCTION.

11.

THE JAPANESE EUNNING-HAND FIRA-GANA.

a.

The Irovd in Fira-gdna.in Fira-gdna- writing,

The Irovdwith Chinesesigns,

as

it is

learned in schools and, in connectionconsists

running-hand,

is

generally in use,

of the following

which are derived by abbreviation from the Chinese characters placed

next them.

Aka',

31$TJr

?J, wi^), no

;

,

sa

fa(ha),va

M^LIjf

J

,

yo

|J|

^

,

ki3

^,fo(ho),vot,

4^'

&ku

V9^'j^>,

Jf i,

reso

^-{j^

{

,

^^^

me

fe (he),

ve

A"^

,

y^, ya,

/SL, mi,

jt

^V)

,

to

p]

6

,

tsu

^ ^g-j*

makefu

ne,

/

y,

^ ^J;fc

si

^*,^/\,

efl

ri

^

J\

',

na

^>

^j,

(hi),

vi

B

L,

ko

^

&.

Synopsis of the /Ym-^a'na-characters most in use.the Fira-gdna- writing confined to the 47 or 48 signs cited,it

Werenot,

wouldto

with a slight exercise in writing with the pencil, be more

difficult

learn, than the Kdta-kdna.

But the

desire for fariety,

change and ornament, hasto read Fira-

rendered this writing so abundantly rich, that to

make learning

gdna

texts

possible,

a

synopsis

of

these

signs

has become an absolute ne-

cessity.

Withowesits

the synopsis,origin.

we

give at once the Chinese character to which each sign

INTRODUCTION.

23

SYNOPSIS OF THE JAPANESE

FIRA-GANA.

Bf

KI.

u.

KO..B

c r T T

T

T

24

INTllODUCTION.

TA.

*

tsi.

TSI.

su.

t X

^

T

SO.

TO.

i-jfc

t

k

k

INTRODUCTION.

25

?r

/

Ahi

as

X

NI

-

=t=

1

1

KR

;?

Jt 17?

.

*

N0

-

^

7) 7>

ft

^T

26

INTRODUCTION.

71

ft

MI.

*H

19>

Y0.3 >>

MAV

_ i7

V-

=

>

*^

>

la

tKU-

RE. w

wo

-

?

"V

28

INTRODUCTION.

The synopsis of Japanese running-hand

characters, given

on the precedingis

in reading Japanese books and manuscripts, pages, collected by ourselves

de-

serving of remark on

account of

its

correctness.

As we

appreciated

its

being

submitted to the criticism of a clever Japanese,

we, some years ago, sent a1 ),

few proof impressions, to a respected friend in JapanMr. MATS MOTO

on whose invitation

was

so

kind as to undertake the revision and correction of

one of them.

This impression being returned to us,strict

we wereit

enabled to submitit is

our synopsis to a

revision,it

and

if

we have given

a place here,

with the conviction that

will

be a faithful guide in the deciphering of Fira-

gdna

texts.

To becomeforbasis,

familiar with this .writing, the Chinese character should be takento write with a pencil theit.

and attempts made at learning

more and

more sketchy Fira-gdna forms derived from

By

following this practical way,

the student will most quickly become so conversant with this writing, as to beable to read without hesitation a text written init,

provided the printing of

it

be not too bad.

In the Fira-gdna writing the

letters areis

more or

less

obviously

attached to

one another. The waysome Japaneseliarities

in which thisit

done will be best learned by copying,

texts

2),

in which

will at once be discovered

that some pecu-

in the

manner of attaching them

are only the natural results of a quick

handling of the pencil.

Thepure toya,I

stops (*),

and the signsoundsis

,

by which in the Kdta-kdna the change frome.

impuregu, "^

indicated, are used in the Fira-gdna also,

g.

^Tit is

dzi,

^?

dzu, J^l

ba,

^

bu,

etc.

The point, which in the Kdta-Mna, placed under a

letter

shows that

repeated, in the Fira-gdna runs together with the letter into one stroke. Opposed 2k ^ * to laid and tada, are the Fira-gdna forms

The

repetition of

two or three

syllables is

shown by

/

.

1)

w.

j.

c.

HTJYSSEN VAN KATTENfiYKE, Knight,

Commander

of

the

Naval-detachment

in

Japan in

1857, 1858 und 1859.2)the

The Japanese Treaties, concluded at

Tedo in 1855 with the Netherlands, Russia, Great-Britain,

United States and France.

Fac-simile of the Japanese text.

The Hague, MARTINUS NIJHOFF. 1862.

INTRODUCTION.

29notice

As stenographic abbreviations come underfor

3l|

koto (sake).

f)

,

/y

for

*|||

yori.

12. WRITTEN OB,

BOOK LANGUAGE.

Books among the Japanese are written either in the Chinese, or in the Ja-

panese

language.

A. Exclusively

Chinese

are scientific works, intended for literate persons,

who make

use of the Chinese written language, just as formerly our learned

men

did of Latin.

To

this class of

books belong

,

among

others

,

the oldest Chro-

nicle of

Japan (Yamdto-bumi or Nippon-ki), in which the pure Japanese words,

such as the names of persons and places, are expressed phonetically with Chinese characters, the Japanese Encyclopedia

Wa-Kan

san-sai dzu-e, the Chronicleetc.,

Wa-Kan

nen-kei, the Japanese

Government- Almanac,

while furnishing the

books, which are written for the general public and in Japanese, with at least a Preface in Chinese,is

still

considered to be in good taste.

Amongtionschiefly

the pure

Chinese texts must also be reckoned the Chinese translaoriginally

of

Buddhist

works,

written

in

Sanscrit,

which translations,

imported from China, are

hummed by

Japanese Bonzes in a peculiar Chi-

nese dialect.

That a Chinese text can be read aloud with a Chinese pronunciation

(koyd)

by

literate

Japanese

is

a matter of course, for, with the Chinese character, theyits

become acquainted withdialects;

pronunciationsentences,

also,

and

this according to certain

but

that

whole

when

read aloud, according tolisteners,

the

pro-

nunciation

of the

characters,

are intelligible to

we have),

constantly

doubted and now, uponChinese text withto itsisits

the authority of a learned Japanesesignsis

dare deny.

The

ideographic

there, to be apprehended according

contents and,

for the Japanese, the translation into his

mother tongue

included in this apprehension.

The apprehension and

translation of a Chinese

1)

Mr. TSUDA SIN-ITSI-ROO.

30text

INTRODUCTION.

is

therefore very justly called its

reading (Yomi)

or

Wa-kun (^fl

j||l| ),

the

reading in Japanese. Respecting the Chinese dialects, which have been here mentioned,following ought to be added.

the

In Japan the pronunciation of threehave beenadopted,1

dialects of the

Chinese written language)^|

which are(in the

called

after

the

Chinese dynasties

Han,

^i.

U

and

Jjtj

Tang

Japanese pronunciation Kan, Go and Too), Kan-

won (g!*e.

^f),

Go-won

(^^Dits

and Too-in

(0*^)till

or Kara-koto,

dialect of

Han,

U

and T'dng.,

The dynasty of Han

which had

seat in the country of

Ho-nan-fu thus,

on the borders of the Hoang-lio, nourished from 202 B. C.dynasty of U, settled on the Yang-tse-kiangtuated, existed from 222till,

220 A. C. Theis

where at present Nan-king

si-

280 A. C.

The dominion of the dynasty of Tang

embraced the period between 618 and 906.If with

the Japanese

it

be accepted, that the said dialects were not local

dialects existing

next one another, but changes which the Chinese language has

undergone in the lapse of ages, then the introduction and continued existenceof those dialects in Japan would not be without importance in the knowledge of the old Chinese language.writing,it

But

since,

with the defective Japanese Kdna-

is

impossible to represent any Chinese dialect faithfully, those dia-

lects too, that

have wandered to Japan losethe question of their

all historical

value,

and we therefore and the

confine ourselves to

introduction

into Japan,

use

to

which they have been applied.thefirst

On

point the Japanese works at ourfirst

command do not

shed

suffi-

cient light.

As the

teacher of the

Kan-won,

^^ ^which

Piao Sin-kung, a

scholar from the country of

Han

is

mentioned, with the addition, that he camethis

to Fakdta in the country of Tsikuzen; but the time at

happened we

do not find recorded. Such also

is

the case with the introduction of the Go-won,,

which

is

attributed

to

*flj||

^(

Kin

Li-sin

and another Bonze from the

country of U.atfirsta).

As both had

settled

on the island of Tsusima, the Go-won was~?jjfjj

also

called

Tsusima-won

2^

^ -&

^) or the

Tsimmanian pronun-

ciation

With regard

to

the

second point,

it

may

be assumed as certain, that the

1)

The Japanese Encyclopedia XV, 33

verso.

Fak-buis-zen under

Kan-won and Go-won.

INTRODUCTION.

31

Go-won was the

dialect, in

which the Bonzes read the Buddhist writings, imit

ported from China, and that

still,

with a few exceptions,

is

in vogue

among

them, whereas the Kan-won, the use of which was, in virtue of an edict published

by the Mikado1

as

early

as

792, made obligatory in the study of the

Chinese language

),

prevailed in the

domain ofIII.

science,

and penetrated into the

whole profane

literature.

See Addenda

In the Chinese- Japanese dictionaries the pronunciation of each wordgiven in both dialects and that,instancesfirst

is

found,

in

Kan-won, and then in Go-won. In thet$J *,

^

T or

^

-^ ^

and

I$J

* or ^

? and $ are

placed as

Kan-

won

,

^

and

I 1 v

i *as Go-won.

*

The

dialect of

T'dng (Too-in), as

it

has been fixed by means of the Kanaofficial

writing approaches more nearly the ordinary Chinese

language (Kwan-hoa),

than the two otherThisdialectis

dialects,

but

is

just as unintelligible as they, to a Chinese.

found mostly in works about China, used in the description ofit is

the names of places, and

also said to be used

by the monastic order of the

Five

hills

or convents"

(

3fl

|_L|

Go-san) at Miyako.dialects

WeWa-Tcun.

close this digression

on the threeis

with a quotation of the spe-

cimen by which the differenceToo-in.

shown in

te Japanese Encyclopedia.Too-in.

Kan-won

&

Go-won.

Wa-kun.

O

Kan-won.

Go-won.

f

^

ani otitono gotoku, mala, ivdlcu , fibiki no Japanese translation: Tatove va Flats no koevaffotosi,i.

zivakomago nofinals

e.

The two

dialects, to use

an example , are like brothers. It

is

also said:

The assonances or

are like sons and grandsons.

I)

Wa-nen

kei oder

GeschicMstabeUen von Japan, aus dent Originate

iibersetst

von

i.

HOFFMANN.

32

INTRODUCTION.

Chinese text with Japanese translation.In Chinese there are books written, which contain a

complete Japanese

translation

at the side of the text.is

There are also some, in which the Japanese translation

incomplete, and

of words are explained. In this case are only here and there words or fragments

found either only the principal ideas translated, or merely the terminationalinflections

given.

It

is

supposed

here,

that the Japanese reader

knows thetoit

signification of the Chinese character and the word correspondinghis

in

mother tongue, or not being acquainted- withall

it,

he resorts to a Chineseis

Japanese dictionary, to supply

that, in

which the translationit

deficient.

Wereto

the construction

of the two languages alike,of each Chinese

would

suffice

simply

representat

the significationsideis

character by

a Japaneseas

wordChi-

placednese.

the

of

it,

and to read Japanese in the same order

But there

one point, from which the two languages diverge; to wit,its

the Chinese verb has

objective (complement, regime), whether a simple

noun

or a substantive phrase objective,

after

it,

the Japanese has

it

before.

To

give an instance,

the Chinese construction

requires

one to say:

He

reads a

book: he desires to go home;" on the contrary, the Japanese:

He

a book reads;

he homewards to go desires."

Thus in the reading aloud of the Japanese translation of a Chinese sentencea transposition, a skipping over of the Japanese wordsas the case in question occurs. This transposition isis

necessary, as oftenleft-hand-side

shown on the

of the Chinese texttranslationis-

the

right-hand one being occupied

by the Japanesewords

by numbers or equivalent

signs. This, transposition of thei.e.

called

^jjftt'pjl?

^

IV

Geki-toku-suru

,

against

(the order) in

reading,

or also Kaytri,

turning back, and the transposition-signs Kaydri-tenor

marks

of going backwards.These marks are1)

the hook, ^, which indicates the transposition of two words following eachotheras

^

,

05 5

*

i

inotte

korewo - korewo motte (thereby)

;

2)

the Chinese ciphersskips over

-,

=,-(1,2,3) when

the translation of a character

two or more characters;J:,

3)

the signs

f,

T

(above, in the middle, beneath), whenever the parts of

a sentence, that have been already marked, must be again skipped over;

INTRODUCTION.

33

4) the cyclical signs

,

z,,

Pa

for a further skipping over.

The

ciphers

and signsc-,

cited

may&,

occur in connection with the simple transit;ffi,

position-sign , thus:

&,

B]

ife,

&, &.

Aof the

practical indication of the use of these signs will be found in our edition

Grand Study

(Ta-Aid), a few lines of which are subjoined as a specimen

of Chinese text with a

complete

as well as a

fragmentary

translations in

Japanese,

CHINESE TEXT.

1

,

with a complete translation in Japanese.

2, with a fragmentary translation in Japanese.

jHhi

"^T

^

2 AE &*5*

-/FT

in'

r^\

,,Tfc

{J

fc,^7ffii

O

*Bif

Jfc,

Tffi

r

ffij

B5

BB

-*.

I

in Japanese: Reading of the translation

Dai-Gaktino mitsiva mei tokuwo akirakanirttni arl; si-sen ni todomarti ni ari.

siirtiniari;

tamiwo

ardtftni su-

Todomartikotonotsi

wo

sitte, slkauslte notsi

sadamartikoto

ari.

Sadamatte, slkauslteYastiu-

yoku sidzuka

nari.

Sidzuka ni

site,

slkausr^ notsi y6kti yasusi.3

34sikauslte notsi yokti

INTRODUCTION.

site,

omdnbakaru.is

OmOnbakatte

,

slkaustte notsi yokti

u

1

).

If,

as here, the Chinese textis

in the standard form written in full, then

the

Kdta-Mna

used for the interlinear translation in Japanese, whereas the

Fira-gdna accompanies the Chinese running-hand.B.

Books

written in the

Japanese

language.

In these, the national writing, whether Fira-gdna or Kdta-kdna, forms the

chain, in which a larger or smaller number of ChineseIn thiscase thesidestyle,

.characters are

inserted.

the Chinese characters represent ideas, for which the reader, inat the

meaning of the Chinese character has not been already expressedit

of

in

Japanese writing, must substitute Japanese words and connectinflectional forms, also

them with thecharacter.

which the writer has placed

after the Chinese,

Here

the

Kdta-kdna accompanies the Chinese standard- writingIn this

and the Fira-gdna the Chinese running hand.literature

style the whole Japanese

proper

is

written.

A

Japanese text without an admixture of Chinese

ideographic signs, women's letters excepted, has never yet come under our notice.

To exemplify what has beenstyle.

said,

we

subjoin a few lines written in

this

In the one specimen the translation in Japanese will be found writtenit is

next to each Chinese character, in the otherchiefly in official

left out;

the latter happens

documents.

o-*-

O

#5t*

3

^ *

y

1)

Translation.

The way of the Grand Studyit

consists in illustrating illustrious virtue,

it

consists in reno-

vating the people,

consists in resting in the highest excellence.

The

point where to rest heing

known

,

the object of pursuit

is

then determined

:

that being determined

,

a calm unperturbednessthere

may

be attained.

To

that there will succeed a tranquil repose. That being attained,

mayJ.

be careful deliberation, and that deliberation will be followed by the attainment (of the desired

end

.

LEGGE, Chinese

classics. Vol. I. 220.

INTRODUCTION.

35

Reading of the Japanese

text.

Nagasaki oyobi Hakodate no minato no foka, tsugini nosuru ba-slyoki-gen yori akubesi1 ).

wo sano

The frequent use made of Chinese ideographic

signs in this style of writing

has for consequence, that even people of the lower order are more or less ac-

quainted witheducation,

it

and

,

appreciating a sort of knowledgeuse ofit.

,

which pleads for a good

make ample

We

possess written communications from Jastile,

panese

work-people

which,

written in the prevalent epistolaryletters.

contain

more Chinese characters than JapaneseItfirst

stands to reason that, to understand texts written in this style, in the

place,

an acquaintance with the Japanese language

is

necessary, since the

logical

connection between the parts of the proposition and the ideas indicatedis

by the Chinese charactersC. Style.

expressed in Japanese letters, thus in Japanese.

Just as every living language the Japanese too hasturies,

,

during the lapse of cenis reflected

undergone change and had a gradual development, which

in

a litterature of

more than a thousand

years.

This

is

not the place to investigate

those changes or to indicate specimens of different periods.direct

We

desire merely to

attention to the difference which exists between the old and

new

Japa-

nese language, written as well as printed.a.

Old Japanese.Ftiru-koto,is

The old language,

an idiom

free

from foreign ingredients,

that has been developed freely and independently in the isolated Nippon. Originally

the language of the ancient Mikado-dynasty, that was settled in YamdtoC.,

660 years B.

and therefore

also called Yamdto-kotobd or the

language of Ya-

mdto, this idiom had, with the political, intellectual and spiritual power of that dynasty obtained supremacy over the other dialects of the empire and was, forages long, the general written language, expressed at one time in Chinese, and

then again in Japanese writing; butdeclined,

when

at last the

power of

this

dynastythis old

and

lost its direct influence in theits

government of the empire,

language shared

fate:

it

was superseded by a new idiom, and supplanted in

1)

That

is:

Besides

the Ports of Nagasaki and Hakodate, the places mentioned beneath shall be openedArt. 2 of the Netherlands-Japanese Treaty of the

at the following periods.

18^ August, 1868.

36the politicalforgotten.its

INTRODUCTION.

life,

but by no means driven from the mouths of the people, orvehicle of

As the

an extensive

literature,

and

chieflyits

by the power ofis still

this language has kept poetry and of the old religion,it,

stand, and

held in respect, since the literature founded oncient civilization ,still,

as the expression of

an an,

and as the witness of a past glorious in the eyes of the nation

finds its admirers ;is

and the old

service of

Kamis which,

still

lives

on among

the people,

rooted in this language.,

Considered from a philological point of view

the Yamdto-kotoba

is

the mirror

whichposes

reflectsits

most

faithfully the

being of the Japanese language, the most ex-

organic structure, and sheds a clear light on the grammatical forms

also of the

new

idiom,

now become

prevalent.is

The student of the Japanese language, who

not

satisfied

with the mecha-

nical learning of grammatical forms, but wishes to penetrate into the

knowledge

of their origin and being, must, in the etymological and grammatical treatment of that language, take the Yamdto-kotoba for basis, following, in this respect,the example of the Japanese themselves

who,

to be able to lay

any claim

to

li-

terary proficiency, apply themselves to the study of their old language and read

the old authors

and poets, and sometimes even imitateliterature is rich in,

their versification.less rich

The Japanese

works in the Ftiru-koto, but not

in philological resources

chiefly in dictionaries , in

which the old or pure Japa-

nese languageare the

is

illustrated

by

citations of the sources.

The

principal

sources

works on mythology and history, the oldest of which are those which 7 have been designated with the name of the three records" ^n^

(^*^Q^

^f

lg> 3 San-bu fon-siyo). *"*1.

^

Original

account of the old events of former times,

"f^^

W^

ip^^^JCfMUMAKONO

ffit* Sen-dai ku-zi

fon-ki" executed by SIYAU-TOK. DAI-SI and Sogano

STJKUNE,

by order of Mikado SUI-KO, in 10 volumes, beginning with

the god-dynasties, and extending to 620 (the 20th year of the said Mikado).2.

The

Book of

antiquity,

FUru-koto-bumi or

~^

3

^.^

jf^l* Ko-zi-ki,"

written by Oho-ason YASU-MARO and presented to the Mikado GEN-MEI in 711 or

712, 3 volumes.5th

It begins

with the mythological times and reaches to 597 (the

year of the Mikado SUI-KO).3.

The

Japanese

book,

Yamdto-bumi

or

J

^

2Jf

^^^E*

Nippon

siyo-ki" completed by TONERI NO SIN-WOO and Oho-ason YASU-MARO, in 720, in

INTRODUCTION.

37l

20

volumes,

beginning

with the creation and ending with the year 697

).

These works, executed before the introduction of the Japanese Kdta-Mnawriting, are, as appears from the copies, that

we havepartly

of them, generally writat the side ofthis is

ten with Chinese writing, partly ideogrophic,

phonetic;

which

is

found the reading in Japanese expressed with Kdta-kdna, butlater time.

an addition of

As

a specimen

we

here subjoin the

first

Unas of the

o0* 0*

mi

45*

ft*

*

ft

Reading: ^OT^ tsutsino fazimeno toki taka-mano farani ndrimdseru k ami no mi-navd Ante no minaJka-

nusino kami, isugini Taka-mi-musubi no kami, isugini Kami-musubi no kami,vd minafitori garni ndrimdsite, mi-mi

Kono mi fiuirano kami

wo kdkmi-tamdviki.mi-naka-nusi no kami , Taka-mi-musiibi no kami, and Kami-musubi nosolitary

Translation:

The

three gods

:

Ame no

kami, at the time of the creation of Heaven and Earth existed in the high expanse of heaven, weregods and hid themselves.

As

sources for obtaining acquaintance with the FUru-kotQ

,

the topographical ,

physical and historical descriptionslected

(^.^ db

^

nB^

Fuu-to-ki) of Japan, col-

as

early as 713

come further under

notice; the laws

and precepts edited

1)

Ofin

this

work

I

have made ample use in the elaboration of an historical treatise, which appeared in,,Nippon-Archiv" under theQuellen bearbeUet.style, inis

1839

TON SIEBOLD'S

title

of Japan's Besiige mil der Korntehen Halbinsel

tmd mil China. Nach JapanischenIt

might be expected, that the;

which these annals are written, would be characterized by una-

dorned simplicity

but the opposite

the case.

The

oldest Japanese proseis

is

completely subservient to courtly

manners;

it is

verbose and diffuse, and any one, unless he

penetrated, like the

authors themselves , with

the divine worship,

which they display towards the prince andlies

his house, will discover but too soon that

behind the richness of courtlike expressions

hid

poverty of ideas.

38in three different periods

INTRODUCTION.

(En*

^5 ^titd),

Jy^^

San-dai kdku-siki} of 820, 869-

and 907;collections

-

-

Historical narratives

and romances

($fy^

Intfft

Mono-gatdri}',

of Lyric

poems

(

^*

as well as the

Bundle of Ten thousand

leaves;

Epic poems and Melo-dramatic pieces (Jll^philological

Man,

or mai) etc.

As

aids towards illustration of the Ftiru-koto deserving of men-

tion are:

^p

^n/

^b

Wa-mei-seo, or explanation of Japanese names, collected by(

MINA-MOTONO siTAGAVU

^

j||| )

,

a famous poet,

who

died in 986. 20 volumes.

There are editions of 1617, 1667 and 1851.

M

;

w*/

u koto no

bdsi, or

Ladder to the old language." 1765.,

3M** 'JP*

W^" PI \/=5*

^fl^ >>t* ^ Ga-gen 7Iv 3. 18^*2^

siyu-ran or Miydvi-koto-atsume

View

of the

correct language,"#* fl~H

by ISI-GAVA GA-BAU. 1812.

^* -j|^.

^ia.

Every one, who

for the first time hears a Japanese harangue,little

is

struck by the

continual repetition of the

word wa, which pronounced in a sharp andoff the

high tone and followed by a pause, breaks

equable flow of words, in

which the speaker then proceeds in

his ordinary tone of speaking.little

On

a hearer, not

acquainted with the language, this

word with

its

resting point

makes the

impression, that the speaker would emphasize what he has just said, and separateit

from what,

follows.is

And

that impression

is

correct.

Wa,

*7

,

in the book-

language )\isolate

va,

an emphatic

suffix or rather

an interjection, intended tofollows.

some word or saying, and

to separate

it

from what immediately

We

do the same,

when we

raise the voice at

some word and,

after a pause,

continue, speaking in our ordinary tone.

Va

or

wa

therefore

is

used, in the

first

place, to separate the subject

from

the predicate, as in(jewels

Tdmavb ydmaydriit

idsu,

= the jewels

||

mountain out come

come out of mountains); andit is

may not

cause surprise when, on that

account,

understood as characteristic of the subject and consequently asstrictly considered,it is

the sign of the nominative, which,

not.

It is indeed

joined to the subject, but not exclusively, and serves to isolate every other relation, every

dependentas to,.

case.

The

isolating

power of va

finds its equivalent in,

expressions like

with regard,

to, .quant a Fr.

quoad, quod

attinet

ad

,

Lat.

,

wat

.

.

aangaat

Dutch.it

Whenever va

isolates the subject,

answers to the Chinese

^

tse,

which

has the signification of a

definite

something" and passes for a relative pronoun.

As

a euphonic modification of va,

)Y ba

also occurs.

The

subject

and the predicate are not always separated by va, but how neappears from the instance quoted, which,

cessary this separation sometimes is,

with the omission of va,

may

also signify:

jewel-mountain from come,"

i.

e.

be produced from a jewel-mountain.

Examples:nari, the lion

>j|jj}j^

v"

^'^Wall

H/t^^

^pt:

^" 9

i

Sisiva fdku-ziuno tslyauis

is

the head ofisn'^t

brutes, or: as to the lion, he

the head etc.nari',

^f% ^ox,

^ ^ E0is

^

lif

^

^" 9

Usiva tawo tagavesu tsikuanimal.

as to the

he

a field-ploughing

domestic

l^f ^ ^K^

^P J

~^

**

>

Oso va

sui-tsiu ni

sumu = the,

otter in (the) water lives.

CHAPTER

I.

NOUNS. DECLENSION.

7.

61

DECLENSION.7.

The relations of one nounby

to another word, or1

its

cases, are expresseddefi-

by

suffixes,

particles (Teniwova or Tsukd-zi)

),

which generally have a

nite signification, and, arranged, according to our declension, are limited to the

following.

Nominative (subject) and Vocative.Accusative (object direct)Genitive

.

.

^7

wo

.

Jf ga (pronounced

nga,

I'M),~J]

among

in-

exact writers oftenQualitative Genitive

ka.

JS

no, old- Japanese alsotsu, originally tu.

-}-

na and

y

Dative and Terminative

ve, he or

X ye, e

(wards).

Index of the relation of the Place,ni,

Means and InstrumentAblative

7"

te.

.

^3})

nite,

7*~ft

de (pron.

tide).

yori,

y

kara (out, from).

;7 wo alone, which indicates an object directof declension,signification.itis

is

characterized as a real form

the other inflections belong to the suffixes, that have theirIf,

own

notwithstanding, they are here already cited and illustrated,

for

the

behalf of those,

who do not

willingly dispense with the ordinary

declensions.

Explanation.I.

NOMINATIVE. The primitive form of a noun

is

at the

same time that of theIn imitation of former

nominative, which thus has no inflectional termination.

grammarians theristic

suffix

)^ va, vulgo *7 wa, has been considered as a characteis

of the Nominative, but as this suffixalso

merely an isolating particle, which

may

be of use with other cases,

it

must not be longer considered aa a*).

definite characteristic of the

Nominative

(subject)

1)

See Introduction,altaische

$

14. 3. pag. 42.

2) ,,Keine

Sprache hat einen Nominativ."186.

H. STEINTHAL,

Ckanuitrutik itr ha*pU*f)ditktit*

Typen det Sprach bauet , I860, pag.

62

CHAPTER

I.

NOUNS. DECLENSION.

7.

VOCATIVE. The poet sometimes stretches or doubles the final sound of a nounto

,

make known,

that his feelings are thereby

affected,

or that he invokes the

object.

This emphatic prolongation of sound, by which the vocal-harmony comes

into play, belongs properly to the interjections,

and has the same

effect as

our

exclamation

!

or Oh!

Hdna,

flower;

Mnaa!torii!(

(^f

^(

7)

o flower! oh the flower!

Tori, bird;

,(^ J

^}

o bird!

Mi,

three;

mii! (lEl

To, four;.. .

y6o! yowo!...

u;

uwo!occurs,i.

As exclamation ^, wo

e. g.e.

in Irova nivoveto tsirm%ru'w6 = the colour,

with the smell corruption o!

oh!

that the colour with the smell should

vanish!Besides, 37suffix

Yi

just as in

German: Feuerio! Mordio!,

is

used as an emphatic,

and

,

added to the simple root of a verb

strengthens the Imperative

e.

g.

To wo akdyo, open the door!n. ACCUSATIVE.placed before theg.

If the object direct of a transitive verb is

indefinite,falls

it is

verb in the primitive form and the logical accentgrass to

upon

the verb'

e.

Kusd kari,=it is

mow.

If the objectat the

is

definite (Accusais

tivus definitus),e.

characterized by

wo and

same timeIfit is

accentuated,

g.

Kusdwd

karu, = grass (or the grass) to

mow.

to be brought outis

with emphasis as the subject of conversation, then the accusative

isolated

by the

particle va besides,

and the formis

wova

is

obtained, which for euphony

passes over into

woba, and

frequently pronounced oba.

Examples. Tori-odosivd

tori

kedamonowd oddsu mono

ndri, the

scarecrow

||

is

-something that frightens birds and beasts.nari,

Uw6

tdru

amivd uwow6

toru

gu

= the

fish

catching-net,

is

a fish catching-net.

- -

Midzu kumi, waterKefurinotokdro o

scooper.nobdruwo

Ikdno midsuwo kumu, to scoop the water from a pond.miru, to see the

mountingJ

of the smoke.

Kamird mkumu

ba

mdtte simowo ts&kgu koto nakdrechief, they

),

with that which people disapprove of in their

must not charge

their inferiors.(

In the book on the Middle- Way

f|l

^

Cap. IX) after what a

man may un-

J)

The Grand Study (Dai Gaku), X,

8.

CHAPTERdertake of whatis

I.

NOUNS. DECLENSION.

63but

great has been

summed up,

there follows as antithesis:

he cannot keep therectly expresses

Middle-Way," which the Japanese translation very corwdb* yo| ife Tsiu-you if it were: >7Vm-youwfr, kortwo

>^*K*. Iff* *'**/$* v/*Tf Beffect,-

kusu bekardzu. It would have the same

- but the Middleyokusu bekardzu WayTsiu-yousaying:

-

wa

cannot,

it

is

plain, pass forrtava nite

that can one not keep." The form an accusative. On the other hand the

Muma sar^woba

korewo sibdru, = the horse and the apecontains an unnecessary repetition of the

with a rope (one) binds them fast,"

object, characterized as accusative. If the fluous; if the kordwo remains,

wo ba

is

perserved, the kordwo

is

super-

Muma sdruva

must remain, the wo beingtsuku, to build a wall

superfluous.(or

The use of

ivo

in

Kai-henwo isi-kabewo

on

along)(

the seaside, deserves notice.

Nipponno bu-naiwo riyo-kau-suru men-g!yopermission to travel

H

$^^R ft^SlctT^^^S^)'Japan1

through the inland of

).

The Accusative employed here

indicates a continuous motion

which we

expressIII.

by means of along, through.GENITIVE.1,

~}f

ga, nga,

na(^),sets

in pronunciation sharp toned, cha-

racteristic of the genitive relation,

forth the object as something taken inthe.

a definite senseof gais

,

and has the

effect

of of

The

genitive subordination byit

means

considered disrespectful;

thence the speaker applies

only to himself

and to persons and things of which, having higher persons in view, he makesnoofcase.

One

says, indeed,is

Wdregd

or Watdkusigd,

= of the

I, of,

me, and Are go,

him

;

but ga

not used with those nouns and pronouns2).

with which respected

persons are addressed or indicated

Examples.bailiff ofis

Ko

va Misima-agata-nusi gd oya nari, this

is

the progenitor of thewart, this god

the district of Misima.

Kono kamivd N. N.ra gd oya

the progenitor of the N. N.s.

Flt6 mina Sukunegd kau-rikiwozo kan-zi keri, each admired Submit* strength.

1) 2)

Netherlands and Japanese TreatyThis

I.

al.

3.

RODKIGUEZ

also

must have meant, when he, accordingla troisieme persoiine,

to theet

French edition f 7,la

sy:

,/

s'emploie cotnme proiiom de

pour

les inferienr*,

comme prouom dele

praniirc,

par humilite." Let the misprint

coin me pronom" be altered

to

,,apre$" or ,,pour

pronom," and theis

agreement with our assertion will be found.in Alcock's Japanese

A

pronoun, ga

,

does not exut.

The ame mistake

met withis

Grammar

of 1861

p.

18, where we read: ,,f y,first

n of the genitive in noons,

used aa a pronoun in the third person for inferiors, and in the

person

u

a term of humility."

64

CHAPTER

I.

NOUNS. DECLENSION.

7.

Kai-mongd dake, the peak of theto the

sea-port (Kai-mon

is

the

name

of the entrence

bay between the provinces of Odsumi and Sdtsuma).sdki, the cape of the

Sagdmino Miura gdin the province of

Sagdmian Miura(

,

the cape of Miura,

SagdmL

Amegd

sitd

^

~~J\ )

,

under the heavens

the

sublunary world.

FU6wo

nai gd sironi su, to estimate others at the value of

nothing, te consider others of no value.

Kdru, being

so,

Kdrugd

yuejii,

=

forki-

the reason of the being so, on account of the state of

affairs.

Watdkusigd

mono, the dress of me.~Jf

Ga, no index of theparticle

subject.

The

ga

is

also

considered

as

an emphatic

definite characteristic ofit

the subject.

Now

the question arises, if a particle, which, asis

most evidently

appears from the instances cited,genitive, can also be one of the

an emphatic

definitive characteristic of theis

nominative. The answer

negative.

The

cases,

in which ga

is

considered as an emphatic nominative termination, are capable ofits

a conception, which leaves to this particle

value of a characteristic of thereasons,

genitive, and besides places in aeffect, whichis.>

clear

light the

why ga

has that

ascribed

to

it

as

an emphatic

characteristic

of the subject.is

An

instance will

make

this clear.

Speaking of an undertaking the question

proposed:for it."

Is there

MONEY

for it?"

and whichis

is

answered by:

There

is

money

Now

inis

the question

money

the subject,first

which

after the

Japanese

arrangement,isolated

placed first and, as a subject

brought into conversation,there is" lo-

by va or wa. In the answer, on the contrary, the predicateand the subject

gically has the greater weight,

money," as subordinate

attributivega.

definition, precedes the predicate, as

genitive, emphatically characterized byto:

The answer:

There

is

money" changes

of

money

the presence (is)"

*).

The

question sounds in Japanese:

Kanew& drimdmkd?y?,

the answer: Kanegb, drimdsu.

Another instance consisting of the words

day, and kuretd, become dark.||

Toi.

the question:e.

/7wa

kuretakd? = the day (as to the day)thei.

has become dark?

has the

day approachedbecome darkis,

end? as answer, follows: Fig& kuretd = thethe day

day's having

e.

has become dark

3).

1) It

must be kept in view thatthe snbject exists.is

in Japanese

no congruency, properly 80 called, of the predicative15 A. p. 44.

defi-

nition with

See Introduction

2) This instance

taken from the ,,Japansch en Hollandsch Woordenboek van den Vorst van Nakats"

1810, letter/.

CHAPTER

I.

NOUNS. DECLENSION.

7.

65

The Shopping-DialoguesE. g. pp. 1 and 2:

are rich in instances, which plead for this conception.

The buyer.

I

have come to buy something = WatdkusiTrb kai mononi maitta.whillis

The

seller.

What

you buy ? = Naniwo

kdi ndsdrft

'h-wamdsftka?

dri-

Thedrimdsu.

seller.

Yes, gold-lacquered goods are at

hand =

Hei. Maki-ye

monoga

Question:

ko

samagatavra, ikdga de irasertire mdsuka?,

your children,the youngest child

how dois

they do?

- -

Answer: S&dno ko ga sugure masfan

1

),

not quite well.Thereforeis

come down

is,

snows" Yukigo, furn or furi-mdsu, = of snow whereas Yukiwa, furu - with respect to the snow, it is comingsaid rightly forit

down, would be asnow. The sameis

definition

which attributes

come down," thetsuki-mosta9

predicate, to the

the case with Fokdno

fundg&

),

there

is

another

ship arrived, properly the arrival of another ship has happened, whereas

Fokd

no fund-w& tsuki-mdsta, would signify:ject

another ship --isto. which

arrived," the subis

now

being

another ship" the ideais

the most importance

attached,

and on which the attention

firstis

fixed.

The degrading of the

subject to attriin the

butive genitive of the predicateAltaic languages3 ),

a phenomenon, thatalso,

commonly occurs

and in the Chinese

plays an important part. Thus, to

choose a classical expression, the saying [gj

^ ^ fyis-{{^ *),

Hoei

tee!is

:in

y\ means

Hoei

is

(or was) a

man, Japanese KwaivB,9ficfl^i

flto to nari.

Hoei

here the subject

brought under consideration, of which somethingsaying of CONFUCIUS:

said.

On

the contrary the

^**

-*+

.*,

*\l^s \/J

+.

\}

A|

U **

Japanese JTwoi'fft/ttrftd

from now.

Y y

3).

9

,

Kunini tau-tsiyakuno

fi yori,

from the day ofFusi-

the arrival in the country

Fusi-yamava Wun-zenga

take yori takdsi,i.

mountain

is

out of the peak of the

warm

springs high,

e.

the ^wsz-mountain

in higher than the peak of the

Wunzen.e.

Korewd

sore-yori takdku drimdsu *),that.

-

this

from that out high

is,

i.

this is higher,

than

Yori,oki yori no

subordinated by means of no to another substantive:

Kono misakiva

mmte

nari, this cape is a

mark

(medte) out of sea.

Kara, indicating rather thethe

direction,

from which any

thing

comes

3

),

as

German

her, occurs in the written

language seldom, and only in old comis,

pounds, as in Oki kara, out of sea, andguage. Kore karayotte).(

rather peculiar to the spoken lanfor that reason (= koreni

fj|j

^),

thence,-

-- Sore kara, so with.fil

^

also therefore,

jfc^ ifl^

$

^?

v% % ?4

H^),

?

mj

3

*

f

"t"1f

^> Tehon-girega drimdsu kara, korewo Goran-nasarehand (drimdsu), pleasesee this.

since

(kara)

there

are patterns at5

Age-masu kara uke-

tori-gakiw6 kudasare

),

after (kara) delivery (agemasu) please, give a receipt.G

Kon-nitsiwa yohodo 6s6i karatoo late (yohodo-6s6i),

),

miyau-nitsi kaheri masiyoo, as (kara) to dayto

it is

I will

come back

morrow.to shoot,

Remark. Yori, verb continuative, derived from yi (#),

from which,

amongroot,

others ya, arrow, and yumi,

bow,ni,

derive.

(Kara seems

to belong to the

ki,

come).

Preceded by a local

yori,

means

to have its point of de-

parture in;

Kore-ni yoreri, from that flows forth.

Koreni

ytiriti

or yotte, in

consequence of, therefore.

1)

The Treaty between the Netherlands and Japan, I,

5.

2) Shopping- Dialogues

,

p.

35.

3)

pn"

;fjjj

-^j^

-Hip.

.

Wa-gun

siwori , under Kara.5)Ibid. p.14.

4) Shopping-Dialogues,

23.

6)

Ibid. p. 41.

II.

PRONOUNS.\

8.I.

The Pronouns

in Japanese are:

Nouns which

express a quality.

II.

Pronouns demonstrative, whichits

point out something, either a person

or thing according to

relation to the speaker.

They

are

all

subject to the ordinary declension, and which the genitive suffix,

no, are used as pronouns possessive.

The

distinction

of

three grammatical persons1

(I,

Thou, He) has

re-

mained foreign to the Japanese language(the I), as well as that to

).

All the persons, that of the speaker

which or of which

he speaks- (Thou, He), are

on-

sidered as contents of the proposition

and thus, according

to our peculiarity of

language, in the third person, and etiquette, having in view the meaning of

words expressive of quality, has to determine, which person, by one or anotherof these wordsis

intended.

Etiquette distinguishes only between the

I,"

and

the

not-I,"

it

abases the one,

and

exalts the other. Thus,

it

is

the meaning.us.-,

which in

this sort ofit,is

words comesindicated.

first

under notice,

Mon*

the

that

i-ti-

quette makes of

1)

Therefore,

as

it

will

be seen hereafter,

the

verb

has no ronjiigational snfnxc*,

which tend to the

expression of this distinction.

74

CHAPTER

II.

QUALIFYING PRONOUNS.

8.

With

respect to the

use of the qualifying pronounsdiffer

especially, the written or

book language and the conversationalI.

from each other.

Qualifying nouns, whichI":

are used as pronouns, are,

A. For the

MYatsu-k6(

fjf?), pron.

Yakko, = house-boy,

valet, servant; belongs to the old

written language. -- Yatsii-kare

(^^^i^),valets,

valet,

your servant.

Yatsu-bara (^Jj} ^j^'l), the

we

subjects.

The Chinese^j^*7'

j^,

yfi,

Jap. gu, unintelligent, in compounds, as:,

^^^- ^t~l.v*

Gu-nin

the unintelligent

man

,

I.

*

ppt^ CX

'

Gu-sa. the unintelligent.1

Jj?k^

-^-^' Gu-sau, the unintelligent herb^Tgr,

),

the

I" of the Bonzes.

j^

^*

Gu-rauGu-sin,

,

the unintelligent old man.

jeB^"

A^^? *^

my

heart.

B. For the person spoken to,1.

THOU:originally Na-motsi,;

Nandzi (|^^), formerly Ndmiidzi,, , ,

having a name,,

name-having

name bearing renowned honoured

plural nandzira

nandziga-tomo-

gara. It belongs to the writtenliterate persons address

language and to the solemn

style,

Nobles, and.

one another with Nandzi.to

f^

.

^fc

.

^

.

ffi>

Tdmi tomoni ndndziwo miru, the people look upNandzi fitoga me wo2.tsukete oru,

you together, or every one looks up

to you.

you have attracted the eyes of the people.,

Imasi

(

^^

)

,

shortened m&si

= present

,

leaves.

it

uncertain

,

whether a

person speaks to his betters or inferiors. J|5 ~f3.

Sanaa

(^^^

^j||^

= the look, appearance, shape, ^9l^)> vulgo San,is

e.

g.

Mindtono sdma yosi, the shape of the harbourwell,

beautiful, the

harbour looks

was, originally, as a characteristic of modesty, applied by the speakersinceis

to himself;

the middle ages, however,

conceded to a person beyond the

speaker,

it

now

generally used as an expression of respect and at presentIt is subjoined to;

answers to our4. "gimi(

Sir, Mister."*J~),

nouns and pronouns.,

^"

Sir

,

Mister

Kimi-samato

(

^" ^ ^| *")NN.

vulgo Kimi-san

ho-

nour, lordship.5.

N. N. kimi-samaye,(-=f*^

Mr.

Te-maye

^0

"'),

vulgo Te-mai, Te-mee, = at hand, indicates the per-

1) Corporal, only to vegetate from the example of the Lotusplant,

but to make the

spirit free,

is

the

duty of the Buddhist's

life;

thence the clerical (Bonze) considers himself as an herb.

CHAPTERson spoken

II.

QUALIFYING PRONOUNS.

8.

75

to.

Plural Te-maye-Wsi, vulgo Te-maird, Te-mee-tatsi. Te-mdye-sdnm .

vulgo Te-mdye-sdn, the gentleman at hand (present), you, Sir; plur.sdma-ydta.

Te-maye-

On, O ($P**"), Kiconversational languagethe person, to6.

(

J|*), Son

(1p|^ *.

honorary adjectives, used in thestyle as

and in the epistolary

pronouns possessive, of

whom

or of

whom

spoken.J^J.

On, O ($P**,,

abbreviated

f^.

/.

(^. tj v^),.

as given

by

Japanese authorsour

an abbreviation of ~fc

60 , 6ond , great , sublime , answers toit is,

His or Her Highness" referring to a prince;

however, prefixed to the

names of things or matters that haveapplied by the speaker torespectall

reference to

any person in honour, andhis

beyond himself, for which he wishes to makeo before substantives

known. Thus the presence of on or

and verbs, makes

known, without the help of another pronoun,reference to a person

that the things or matters have

beyond

the speaker.e,

As

a Japanese element on or oYeilo.

is

compounded with Japanese words,the honoured side,

g.

0-Y4do, the princely

D-kola,

Your honour.,

0-mi, the honoured body, Your-selfI shall

0-iw,-

Your

eye.

0-meni kaMri-matfyoo0-ide, yourrise.

appear before your eyes.

"-

.

your name.

-- Y6ku 0-ide nasard,0-agdri nasard, =

may your

rise

happen = be

welcome! -- 0-agdri, youron!forif

rise.

may yourwish, the

rise

happen, comeexpression-

0-negdi, your wish.

0-negai~tn6.se ,let

may you

common

you plase."letter,

-- 0-mise,etc.

me

see! -- On-tdd&unt, your inquiry.

">

-

bumi, your

In old- Japanese the place of On,

is filled

by Mi, thence J//-XWo, sublime

mountain. port; Mi-koto, Highness; Mi-ydma, chief 3 7. Go, the koye of O, is generally prefixed to Chinese words. It fjlpprincely,"

means

but from politeness

is

also

used towards other persons beyond the

speaker.

Go-won, your favour.Go-yon, your use. ~ ... n~ *.,,-, y 0ur wntmg.^

-r,ii>,

your look.your friendly

,

t;,,-k,ni-i.

-,.--? at ^9

feelings.*"

5

>

Go-sen before you in your,

-'

,

^1 ?

'

Go-'Qu-**"'

*

~ y ur con

venation.presence.

Go-za, sublimei

seat.

'

G" **"*

sitiou.

y ur permission.

76

CHAPTER

II.

QUALIFYING PRONOUNS.^), vulgo 6-mai

8.

8.

O-maye, 6-mae

(fjljj^

~jjft

,

from the honorary ois

aiid

ma-ye

or ma-ve, - look-wards, thatspeaker,

is

before, thus something that

present before the

or as by

him imagined present and honoured, = Your Honour. Thecall

lower classes of functionaries and small peoplesdrna , omdesan.

one another omae and omde-

Formerly by 0-mae was meant the place before tbe prince; thence;

Omaeve maim,

to step before the

Emperor.9.

Npn

II, 4,

r.

lH'*, Ki, noble, honourable, =^

you" in genuine Chinese compounds,

as:

p 7

'

Ki-kokn-K"'-/M i

!

your country.t

'

y ur?

wn

-

your

care.

f Ki-ken ^/'

your

district.

^lz2Jr I* ^>>>^I

7

Ki-fau, ki-foo, J your an^ ^o'

T'

-Ki- ^,

Ki-koo, ki-koo-sama, the noble Lord, your Lordship.

^,

Ki-tf'd-ff

,

your house,

f'

Ki-

letter.

Ki-fyu, ki-hoo, your

side.

j7 s/j/o,

ki-so,

your writing.

Ki-foo sama.

^, Ki-mei, your10.

command.

^

*

HI

^ Ki-sama'

,

your Honour.

^

,

Son, worshipful, reverend, =

your" in Chinese compounds, as:i-kdk, the worshipful guest,

^

^"f,

Son-kun, the worshipful gentleman,Sir.

/

my,"%,

guest.

^

^ ^

3i

Son-kou, the worshipful gen-

Son-sau, the worshipful herb,

tleman, your father.

you, Bonze.^, Son-tai, your body, your person.

7,

^

Son-fu, the worshipful father,

your father.y

^- ^

Son-bo

,

your mother.

**,

Son-gaiy your limbs.

CHAPTER

II.

QUALIFYING PRONOUNS.

8.

77

f

^^ >y S'

n ~y u

i

your appearance.

^tS'

Y'

&

******

78One's

CHAPTER

II.

QUALIFYING PRONOUNS.

8.

own youngest

brother

Another's youngest brother.

J,

Ka-tei.

?, A-tei.%, A-slyuk.'

A-tsiu.

One's

own

son

is

:

Another's son

(

J^

^

^

s:

S* X lK

m

/?

-y. X HP ?, /'

,

(jrU-Sl.

/-,

^yj"

^

-f' ^, Rei-si.

^y ^ ~jHtj

^,

Siu-si.

^

-j\ 3

Ran-giyok.

One'sI i- t l

ownA.-4-i:

wife#.TV. .

is

:

Another's wife

(

^ ^uRei-sits.

s:

m.

lit.,

Kei-sai.Sen-sai.

^ ^ Sit

,

Nai-dziyo.Sen-sits.

>yc

v

^

,

-y

^, Sai-kun.#)is:

One's

own

concubine,

(

Another's concubine

Seo-seo..

.-

.

.

,

Kei-seo.Soku-sits.

/

^^7

f0l| 17"J

^^ ^y ^.

^Y fl|' &* Hf

Rei-tsnjou.Sei-tslyou.

'

One's

own

country and town

Another's country and town

ill

1 *^'

1

San-ken.ben-ri.Fei-ri.

3,

Ki-koku.

o

LI)

,

''

*

,

JHf

,

^'-^w.

t",

Ri-ken.

*it r

5B^

^'-^Kin-n.T7--

\

^

,

Kan-kiyqu.

Mprf

I) ',

CHAPTEROne's

II.

QUALIFYING PRONOUNS.

8.

79

own

dwelling place

Another's dwelling place

$S^ I^Y'!^l^

Kiiva-siya.

Ht^>>QE/7'

Kuva-sits.

^,>

Kau-tei.Kftra-tei.

/T ^iM

^,Toku-ro.>'*,

DJj8['

Ran-bau.

l^f

^>letter

Kan-siya.

One's

own

s:

Another's letter

'

"\T ^

^^ ?^

i

Sun-kau.Siyu-t6ku.

*,

Da-un.ASati-^an.

^" ^ B'a

5

it

^^M

f

'

? ft*.,f'

/.^ " c

3

J$

f), another

litsuru, toi.

remove

to elsewhere.

Yotoye ugok'mu,

not to remove to elsewhere,

e.

to stay firm at (or in) one's place.

Idzuku

('ffif 1.

s

||*^)> old- Japanese Idzuko, which place?

Some

consider

uas

an abbreviation of kuni, country, and consequently write ft'*country?

Q

*, whichis it?

kuniwd idzukude gozdrimdsu, your countryyour country?

which countryis

what

is

Idzuku no fitdzo, from what country

the

man?

-

Idzukuyd, whither?ydri kitazo,

Idzukuye m6, whithersoever,

to every-where.

Idztku

whence has he come? -- Idzuku yori m6, whencesoever, from every-

place whatever.

Idzuku ni

driizo,

where

is

he? Iy4ni aru, he*).

is

at home.

Idzwkunikd, or Idzukunkd, where? whither?idzukunkd yuku, whitheris

^-f

ft?

^7

*),

Uri

the ox going?originally

Idzukunzd,

-\

"J

"^

^X,

Idzuku nizo,

7*^=X,it

old-Japanese

Idzukonizo, -\y*i

^X,

from the elements, of which

is

composed, has theto our

meaning of

at

what place? where?", answers neverthelessalso,

>on whatto rtte

ground? why?"Doittite*).

and with

this

meaning

is

ranked with

A an

T

and

The

force of

Idzukunzd appears most plainly in the Japanese transla-

tion of the Chinese expression follow