A History of the Church

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A HISTORY OF THE CHURCH To the Eve of the Reformation

Philip Hughes

22-02-2011

http://www.ewtn.com/library/CHISTOR

A HISTORY OF THE CHURCH To the Eve of the Reformation by Philip Hughes Vol. 1: -711 CHAPTER 1: THE WORLD IN WHICH THE CHURCH WAS FOUNDED 1. THE ROMAN IMPERIAL UNITY 2. THE PAGAN RELIGIONS OF THE ROMANO-HELLENISTIC CULTURE 3. THE RELIGION OF THE JEWS 4. TENDENCIES IN THE RELIGIOUS WORLD OF THE FIRST CENTURY A.D.

CHAPTER 2: THE FOUNDATION OF THE CHURCH 1. THE FOUNDER 2. THE FIRST GENERATION NOTE A: THE END OF JEWISH CHRISTIANITY NOTE B: ST. PETER AT ROME

CHAPTER 3: THE FIRST CONTACTS WITH THE PAGAN RELIGIOUS WORLD 1. THE RELIGIOUS WORLD OF THE SECOND CENTURY 2. THE FIRST APOLOGISTS 3. THE GNOSTICS AND THE CHURCH 4. ST. IRENAEUS OF LYONS 5. MARCION -- MONTANISM

CHAPTER 4: THE CRISES OF THE THIRD CENTURY 1. THE EASTER CONTROVERSY 2. MONARCHIANS -- SABELLIUS -- ST. HIPPOLYTUS 3. THE PENITENTIAL CONTROVERSY -- ST. CALIXTUS I 4. THE SCHISM OF NOVATIAN 5. ST. CYPRIAN AND ROME 6. THE SCHOOL OF ALEXANDRIA -- ORIGEN 7. MITHRAISM 8. THE MANICHEES1/1090

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9. DENIS OF ALEXANDRIA -- PAUL OF SAMOSATA

CHAPTER 5: THE WAY OF CHRISTIAN LIFE CHAPTER 6: THE CHURCH AND THE PAGAN ROMAN EMPIRE 1. THE STATE -- HOSTILE AND TOLERANT 2. THE STATE DE-PAGANISED NOTE C: THE CHRISTIAN VIEW OF THE PERSECUTING STATE

CHAPTER 7: THE ARIANS, 318-359 CHAPTER 8 THE CATHOLIC RESTORATION. 359-382

CHAPTER 9: ROME AND THE CATHOLIC EAST. 381-453 1. THE PRIMACY OF HONOUR. 381-419 2. EPHESUS. 427-433 3. CHALCEDON. 446-452

CHAPTER 10: THE TRADITIONAL FAITH AND THE IMPERIAL POLICY 1. THE AFTERMATH OF CHALCEDON. 452-518 2. JUSTINIAN. 527-565 3. BYZANTINE CATHOLICISM. 565-711

----------------------------------------------------------------------Vol. 2: 313-1274 CHAPTER 1: THE CHURCH IN THE WEST DURING THE LAST CENTURY OF THE IMPERIAL UNITY, 313-30 1. THE DONATIST SCHISM, 311-393 2. ST. AUGUSTINE AND THE DONATIST SCHISM 3. ST. AUGUSTINE AND THE HERESY OF PELAGIUS 4. THE INFLUENCE OF ST. AUGUSTINE 5. PRISCILLIAN 6. THE ROMAN SEE AND THE WESTERN CHURCHES

CHAPTER 2:THE CHURCH AND THE DISRUPTION OF THE IMPERIAL UNITY, 395-537ewtn.com/library//HUGHHIST.TXT 2/1090

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1. THE SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SITUATION IN THE FOURTH CENTURY: DIOCLETIAN TO THEODOSIUS, 284-395 2. SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CHANGES DURING THE FIFTH CENTURY, 395526 3. THE CHURCHES OF THE WEST DURING THE CRISIS SPAIN, AFRICA, GAUL 4. THE ROMAN SEE AND ITALY 5. ST. PATRICK AND THE CONVERSION OF THE IRISH 6. ST. BENEDICT AND THE HOLY RULE

CHAPTER 3: ST. GREGORY THE GREAT AND THE BEGINNINGS OF RESTORATION 1. ST. GREGORY, FOUNDER OF THE MIDDLE AGES 2. ITALY, GAUL AND SPAIN IN THE CENTURY OF ST. GREGORY

3. THE CHURCH IN ROMAN BRITAIN: THE CONVERSION OF THE ENGLISH, 313-735 4. MAHOMET AND THE RISE OF ISLAM 5. SPANISH CATHOLICISM AND ST. ISIDORE OF SEVILLE, 589-711

CHAPTER 4: THE CHURCH AND THE CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE, 714-814 1. THE HERESY OF THE ICONOCLASTS 2. THE WORK OF ST. BONIFACE 3. THE ORIGIN OF THE PAPAL STATE 4. THE FIRST YEARS OF THE PAPAL STATE 5. CHARLEMAGNE, 768-814

CHAPTER 5: THE SIEGE OF CHRISTENDOM, 814-1046 1. THE BREAK-UP OF CHARLEMAGNE'S EMPIRE, 814-888 2. CAROLINGIAN CATHOLICISM: PIETY, LEARNING, MISSIONS

3. EASTERN CATHOLICISM: THE END OF ICONOCLASM: THE SCHISM OF PHOTIUS: 813-925 4. THE ROMAN SEE AND THE DISSOLUTION OF THE EMPIRE, 814-900 5. THE ROMAN SEE AND THE ANARCHY, 900-1046

6. CATHOLIC LIFE DURING THE ANARCHY: ABUSES, REFORMERS, MISSIONARY CONQUESTSewtn.com/library//HUGHHIST.TXT 3/1090

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CHAPTER 6: THE RESTORATION OF SPIRITUAL INDEPENDENCE, 1046-1123 1. THE MOVEMENT OF REFORM AND ST. GREGORY VII, 1046-1123 2. THE SCHISM OF CERULARIUS

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3. . THE OFFENSIVE AGAINST ISLAM: SICILY, SPAIN, THE EAST. 1061099 4. THE MONASTIC RENAISSANCE: CHARTREUSE, CITEAUX, PREMONTRE 5. THE RENAISSANCE OF CATHOLIC THOUGHT 6. THE FIRST GENERAL COUNCIL IN THE WEST

CHAPTER 7: THE AGE OF ST. BERNARD, 1123-1181 1. ST. BERNARD

2. THE PROGRESS OF CATHOLIC THOUGHT: ABELARD -- GILBERT OF LA PORREE -- HUGH OF ST. VICTOR -- PETER LOMBARD -- GRATIAN -- ROLAND BANDINELLI 3. THE ROMAN SEE IN THE GENERATION AFTER THE CONCORDAT OF WORMS, 1123-1153 4. THE LATIN EAST, 1100-1151

5. THE IMPERIAL MENACE TO THE FREEDOM OF RELIGION: (I) FREDERICK BARBAROSSA AND ALEXANDER III, 1154-1177 6. THE GENERAL COUNCIL OF 1179

CHAPTER 8: THE CRISIS OF THE MIDDLE AGES, 1181-1198 1. THE IMPERIAL MENACE TO THE FREEDOM OF RELIGION: (2) THE EMPEROR HENRY VI 2. THE DISASTERS IN THE LATIN EAST, 1150-1197 3. CATHOLIC THOUGHT: THE MENACE OF ARISTOTLE AND AVERROES

4. ANTI-CLERICALISM, HERESY AND ANTI-CATHOLICISM: WALDENSES, JOACHIM OF FLORA, ALBIGENSES CHAPTER 9: INNOCENT III AND THE CATHOLIC REACTION, 1198-1216 1. THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE ALBIGENSES 2. ST. DOMINIC AND THE FRIARS PREACHERS 3. ST. FRANCIS AND THE FRIARS MINOR 4. INNOCENT III AND THE CATHOLIC PRINCES 5, INNOCENT III AND THE LATIN EAST4/1090

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6. INNOCENT III AND THE REFORM OF CATHOLIC LIFE: THE GENERAL COUNCIL OF 1215 CHAPTER 10: THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY: ACHIEVEMENT AND PROBLEMS, 1216-1274. 1. THE IMPERIAL MENACE TO THE FREEDOM OF RELIGION: (3) THE EMPEROR FREDERICK II. 2. THE CRUSADE OF ST. LOUIS IX, 1247-1254 3. INNOCENT IV AND THE PAPAL MONARCHY

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4. THE END OF THE HOHENSTAUFEN: URBAN IV, CLEMENT IV AND CHARLES OF ANJOU 5. THE INQUISITION

6. THE TRIUMPH OF THE CATHOLIC INTELLIGENCE: ST. BONAVENTURE, ST. ALBERT THE GREAT, ST. THOMAS AQUINAS ----------------------------------------------------------------------Vol. 3: 1274-1520 CHAPTER 1: GESTA PER FRANCOS, 1270-1314 1. BL. GREGORY X AND THE GENERAL COUNCIL OF LYONS, 1270-1276 2. THE SHADOW OF ANJOU, 1276-1285 3. FRANCE AND THE SICILIAN WAR, 1285-1294 4. BONIFACE VIII, 1294-1303 5. PHILIP THE FAIR'S LAST VICTORY, 1303-1314

CHAPTER 2: 'THE AVIGNON CAPTIVITY', 1314-1362 1. CRISIS IN THE WORLD OF THOUGHT i. The Problem of Church and State ii. The Problem of Faith and Reason 2. THE TROUBLED TIMES OF JOHN XXII i. The Friars Minor ii. The Last War with the Empire, 1314-1356 iii. Marsiglio of Padua iv. The End of John XXII 3. THE AVIGNON REGIME5/1090

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i. The Centralised Administration ii. The Popes, 1334-1362

CHAPTER 3: THE RETURN OF ST. PETER TO ROME, 1362-1420 1. INFELIX ITALIA, 1305--1367 2. THE POPES LEAVE AVIGNON, 1362-1378 3. CHRISTIAN LIFE, MYSTICS, THINKERS 4. THE SCHISM OF THE WEST, 1378-1409 i. The Two Conclaves of 1378. ii. Discord in each 'Obedience,' 1379-1394. iii. Benedict XIII's Quarrels with the French, 1394-1403 iv. The Roman Popes, 1389-1406 v. Benedict XIII and Gregory XII, 1406-1409 5. THE CHURCH UNDER THE COUNCILS, 1409-1418 i. Pisa, 1409 ii. Constance, 1414-1418

CHAPTER 4: FIFTY CRITICAL YEARS, 1420-1471 1. THE MENACE OF HERESY AND SCHISM, 1420-1449 2. THE RETURN OF ISLAM, 1291-1481 3. THE RETURN OF THE ANCIENT WORLD

CHAPTER 5: 'FACILIS DESCENSUS. . .' 1471-1517 1. A PAPACY OF PRINCES SIXTUS IV INNOCENT VIII ALEXANDER VI JULIUS II LEO X 2. CHRISTIAN LIFE AND THOUGHT, 1471-1517 3. LUTHER6/1090

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----------------------------------------------------------------------A HISTORY OF THE CHURCH To the Eve of the Reformation by Philip Hughes ------------------------------------------------Vol. 1: -711 ------------------------------------------------Vol. 1: -711 CHAPTER 1: THE WORLD IN WHICH THE CHURCH WAS FOUNDED 1. THE ROMAN IMPERIAL UNITY 2. THE PAGAN RELIGIONS OF THE ROMANO-HELLENISTIC CULTURE 3. THE RELIGION OF THE JEWS 4. TENDENCIES IN THE RELIGIOUS WORLD OF THE FIRST CENTURY A.D. CHAPTER 2: THE FOUNDATION OF THE CHURCH 1. THE FOUNDER 2. THE FIRST GENERATION NOTE A: THE END OF JEWISH CHRISTIANITY NOTE B: ST. PETER AT ROME CHAPTER 3: THE FIRST CONTACTS WITH THE PAGAN RELIGIOUS WORLD 1. THE RELIGIOUS WORLD OF THE SECOND CENTURY 2. THE FIRST APOLOGISTS 3. THE GNOSTICS AND THE CHURCH 4. ST. IRENAEUS OF LYONS 5. MARCION -- MONTANISM CHAPTER 4: THE CRISES OF THE THIRD CENTURY 1. THE EASTER CONTROVERSY 2. MONARCHIANS -- SABELLIUS -- ST. HIPPOLYTUS 3. THE PENITENTIAL CONTROVERSY -- ST. CALIXTUS I

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4. THE SCHISM OF NOVATIAN 5. ST. CYPRIAN AND ROME

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6. THE SCHOOL OF ALEXANDRIA -- ORIGEN 7. MITHRAISM 8. THE MANICHEES 9. DENIS OF ALEXANDRIA -- PAUL OF SAMOSATA CHAPTER 5: THE WAY OF CHRISTIAN LIFE CHAPTER 6: THE CHURCH AND THE PAGAN ROMAN EMPIRE 1. THE STATE -- HOSTILE AND TOLERANT 2. THE STATE DE-PAGANISED NOTE C: THE CHRISTIAN VIEW OF THE PERSECUTING STATE CHAPTER 7: THE ARIANS, 318-359 CHAPTER 8 THE CATHOLIC RESTORATION. 359-382 CHAPTER 9: ROME AND THE CATHOLIC EAST. 381-453 1. THE PRIMACY OF HONOUR. 381-419 2. EPHESUS. 427-433 3. CHALCEDON. 446-452 CHAPTER 10: THE TRADITIONAL FAITH AND THE IMPERIAL POLICY 1. THE AFTERMATH OF CHALCEDON. 452-518 2. JUSTINIAN. 527-565 3. BYZANTINE CATHOLICISM. 565-711 CHAPTER 1: THE WORLD IN WHICH THE CHURCH WAS FOUNDED 1. THE ROMAN IMPERIAL UNITY IT is not possible to understand the early history of the Church without some knowledge of the political and cultural world into which the Church came, of the Roman Empire, that is to say, as it was in