A History and Handbook of Photography - Gaston Tissandier

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<p>&gt;</p> <p>\</p> <p>\</p> <p>,\</p> <p>^%'h</p> <p>l^j/uO^-^</p> <p>ErratumPage 320,line 22,</p> <p>for 12 ounces read 12 grains</p> <p>Tissnndier's Photography.</p> <p>PHOTOGRAPHY</p> <p>LONDONSPOTTISWOODE</p> <p>:</p> <p>I'KINTED BV</p> <p>AND</p> <p>CO.,</p> <p>NEW-STKEET</p> <p>SQUARE</p> <p>AND PARLIAMENT STREET</p> <p>/-</p> <p>HISTORY AND HANDBOOKOF</p> <p>PH OTOGR A PHTranslated from the French of</p> <p>GASTON TISSANDIEREDITED BYJ.</p> <p>THOMSON,</p> <p>F.R.G.S.</p> <p>AUTHOR OF 'ILLUSTRATIONS OF CHINA AND ITS PEOPLE,' 'THE STRAITS OF MALACCA, INDO-CHINA, AND CHINA,' ETC.</p> <p>WITH UPWARDS OF SEVENTY ILLUSTRATIONS</p> <p>LONDONSAMPSON, LOW, MARSTON, LOW, &amp; SEA RLE,CROWNBUILDINGS, l88 FLEET STREET</p> <p>1876</p> <p>NEW YORKS</p> <p>CO</p> <p>\'</p> <p>I</p> <p>LL</p> <p>MANUFACTURING COMPANY!y:</p> <p>Nos. 419</p> <p>421 Broome.</p> <p>Street</p> <p>1877</p> <p>P</p> <p>R K FACE.amongst the mosttele-</p> <p>Arago</p> <p>placed</p> <p>the daguerreotype</p> <p>remarkable conquests of genius, by the side of thescope and the electric battery.</p> <p>And</p> <p>indeed to every</p> <p>enlightened mind, the fixing of the image or picture ofthe*</p> <p>camera obscura or dark chamber by chemical agents,'</p> <p>must appear a great event</p> <p>in the history of progress.</p> <p>An</p> <p>art so novel, capable ofresults, at</p> <p>producing at the very outsetitself as</p> <p>such strange</p> <p>once stampeda work</p> <p>something</p> <p>grand, extraordinary, asvigour.</p> <p>full</p> <p>of</p> <p>vitality</p> <p>andIt is</p> <p>Franklin's words with respect to the balloon,</p> <p>*</p> <p>the infant just beginning to grow,' could not have beenapplied to the daguerreotype,</p> <p>which has grown andas toall.</p> <p>prospered with such</p> <p>rapidity</p> <p>have had, $o</p> <p>to</p> <p>speak, no childhood or growth at</p> <p>The</p> <p>daguerreo-</p> <p>type</p> <p>is;</p> <p>one of theit</p> <p>latest of the prodigies ofin 1838.</p> <p>modern</p> <p>science</p> <p>was discoveredthe</p> <p>The daguerreotype,itself into</p> <p>as soon</p> <p>as born, transformed</p> <p>photograph.</p> <p>Hardly forty years have</p> <p>iv</p> <p>PREFACE.</p> <p>elapsed and the</p> <p>new</p> <p>invention has spread abroad andit</p> <p>becomein</p> <p>so well known, that</p> <p>has penetrated everywhere,</p> <p>every civilised country, into the dwellings of the poor</p> <p>as well as of the rich.</p> <p>Unhappy indeed</p> <p>is</p> <p>he who can-</p> <p>not have recourse, for the picture of that which he loves;to photography, that sublime</p> <p>and beneficent</p> <p>artits</p> <p>which</p> <p>gives us at such</p> <p>little</p> <p>cost the</p> <p>humanits</p> <p>visage in</p> <p>exacti-</p> <p>tude, which presents to our eyes as in a mirror the scenery</p> <p>of distant lands, which lends</p> <p>aid to all the sciences,</p> <p>which accompanies the astronomer into the depths of theheavens, the micrographer into the invisible world, and</p> <p>which even comes to the assistance of the besiegedreducingits</p> <p>city,</p> <p>messages to the easy burden of a bird</p> <p>!</p> <p>In studying the plan of this work, the author was</p> <p>impressed with the importance of the subjectit^</p> <p>;</p> <p>in writing</p> <p>he experienced a deep admiration, which</p> <p>it</p> <p>has been</p> <p>his</p> <p>aim to impart</p> <p>to the reader.</p> <p>He</p> <p>has endeavoured to</p> <p>makeasis</p> <p>his sketch at</p> <p>once a practical guide to the amateurconquests when narrated with</p> <p>photographer, and an attractive and instructive history,that ofall scientific</p> <p>truth and sincerity.</p> <p>In this second edition which follows so closely on thefirst,</p> <p>somein</p> <p>gaps, which</p> <p>the</p> <p>development of the</p> <p>art</p> <p>rendered</p> <p>some degree inevitable, have been filled up from the large number of new facts which have come</p> <p>to light.</p> <p>G. T.</p> <p>CONTENTS.PARTI.</p> <p>THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY</p> <p>CHAPTERJ.</p> <p>I.</p> <p>THE ORIGIN OF PHOTOGRAPHY.B.</p> <p>PORTA AND THE DARK ROOM FABRICIUS THE ALCHEMIST LUNA CORNEA PROFESSOR CHARLES'S SILHOUETTES WEDGWOOD, HUMPHRY DAVY, AND JAMES WATT</p> <p>PACK</p> <p> ....</p> <p>I</p> <p>CHAPTER</p> <p>II.</p> <p>DAGUERRE.DEGOTTI THE SCENE PAINTER EARLY LIFE OF DAGUERRE INVENTION OF THE DIORAMA THE CAMERA OR DARK ROOM CHEVALIER THE OPTICIAN THE HISTORY OF AN UNKNOWN FIRST LETTER OF DAGUERRE TO NIEPCE</p> <p>I4</p> <p>CHAPTERTHE TWO BROTHERS NIEPCE</p> <p>III.</p> <p>NICfiPHORE NIEPCE.</p> <p>THEIR YOUTH THEIR WORKS THE PYRELOPHORE HYDRAULIC MACHINE NICfiPHORE'S RESEARCHES IN HELIOGRAPHY RESULTS OBTAINED</p> <p>26</p> <p>VI</p> <p>CONTENTS.</p> <p>CHAPTER</p> <p>IV.</p> <p>THE NIEPCE-DAGUERRE PARTNERSHIP.CORRESPONDENCE EXCHANGED BETWEEN THE TWO INVENTORS DISTRUST AND RESERVE OF NIEPCE HIS JOURNEY TO PARIS HIS INTERVIEWS WITH DAGUERRE HIS JOURNEY TO LONDON ACT OF PARTNERSHIP DEATH OF NIEPCEPAGE</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>40</p> <p>CHAPTER</p> <p>V.</p> <p>THE DAGUERREOTYPE.DAGUERRE'S RESEARCHES AND STUDIES HE CEDES HIS INVENTION TO THE STATE ARAGO AND THE DAWN OF PHOTOGRAPHY A BILL LAID BEFORE THE HOUSE REASONS FOR ITS BEING PASSED MEETING OF THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, AUGUST lO,</p> <p>1839</p> <p>53</p> <p>CHAPTER</p> <p>VI.</p> <p>THE PROGRESS OF A NEW ART.</p> <p>THE DAGUERREOTYPE PROCESS ACCELERATING SUBSTANCES</p> <p>PROVED LENSES PORTRAITS FIXING AGENTS DISCOVERY OF PHOTOGRAPHY ON PAPER BY TALBOT M. BLANQUART-EVRARD</p> <p> IM-</p> <p>64</p> <p>CHAPTERSIR</p> <p>VII.</p> <p>PHOTOGRAPHY.</p> <p>JOHN HERSCHEL</p> <p> HYPOSULPHITE</p> <p>VICTOR'S NEGATIVE ON GLASS GUN-COTTON</p> <p>OF SODA NIEPCE DE SAINTAND COLLODION</p> <p>79</p> <p>CONTENTS.</p> <p>VU</p> <p>PART II. THE OPERATIONS AND PROCESSES OFPHOTOGRAPHY.CHAPTER</p> <p>I.</p> <p>THE STUDIO AND APPARATUS.</p> <p>ARRANGEMENT OF A GOOD STUDIO THE DARK ROOM TERRACE SITTING ROOM THE INFLUENCE OF LIGHT ARRANGEMENTS FOR LIGHTING THE OBJECT TO BE PHOTOGRAPHED THE APPARATUS LENSES AND CAMERAS</p> <p>I'AGE</p> <p>89</p> <p>CHAPTER II. THE NEGATIVE.MANIPULATION OF THE PHOTOGRAPH CLEANING THE PLATE COATING THE PLATE WITH COLLODION PLACING IT IN THE SILVER BATH EXPOSURE IN THE CAMERA DEVELOPMENT, FIXING AND VARNISHING</p> <p>I05</p> <p>CHAPTER</p> <p>III.</p> <p>THE POSITIVE ON PAPER.PRINTING ON PAPER OF THE NATURE AND QUALITIES OF PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPERS VIGNETTES EXPOSURE TO THE LIGHT 122 TONING FIXING ROLLING THE PROOFS</p> <p>CHAPTER</p> <p>IV.</p> <p>THEORY AND PRACTICE.EXPLANATION OF PHOTOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS NECESSITY OF LONG PRACTICE MODIFICATIONS IN PROCESSES REQUIRED BY DIFFERENT SORTS OF PHOTOGRAPHY PHOTOGRAPHY AND TRAVEL LANDSCAPES SKIES PORTRAITS INSTANTANEOUS PHOTO-</p> <p>GRAPHY</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>132</p> <p>Vlil</p> <p>CONTENTS.</p> <p>CHAPTER</p> <p>V.PAGE</p> <p>RETOUCHING.ACCIDENTS WITH NEGATIVES AND PROOFS METHOD OF REMEDYING THE SAME RETOUCHING THE NEGATIVE IMPERFECTIONS IN THE POSITIVE RETOUCHING PHOTOGRAPHIC PROOFS WITH INDIAN INK COLOURING PHOTOGRAPHS PHOTOGRAPHIC CARICATURES 141</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>CHAPTERENLARGEMENT OF</p> <p>VI.PROOFS,</p> <p>APPARATUS EMPLOYED FOR ENLARGING NEGATIVE PROOFS WOODWARD'S SYSTEM MONCKHOVEN'S APPARATUS UNIVERSAL SOLAR</p> <p>CAMERA</p> <p>147</p> <p>CHAPTER</p> <p>VII.</p> <p>PROCESSES.</p> <p>THE DRY COLLODION PROCESS EMPLOYMENT OF ALBUMEN, HONEY, AND TANNIN WAXED PAPER PROCESS PERMANENT PHOTO' GRAPHY BY THE CARBON PROCESS METHODS OF POITEVIN,SWAN, ETC. .</p> <p>.</p> <p>153</p> <p>CHAPTER</p> <p>VIII.</p> <p>PROBLEMS TO BE SOLVED.</p> <p>THE FIXING OF COLOURS A MYSTIFICATION EDMOND BECQUEREL'S experiments ATTEMPTS OF NIEPCE DE SAINT-VICTOR AND POITEVIN PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTING</p> <p>....</p> <p>169</p> <p>CONTENTS.</p> <p>IX</p> <p>PART</p> <p>III.</p> <p>THE APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHY.CHAPTERI.</p> <p>HELIOGRAPHY.PAGE</p> <p>THE DAGUERREOTYPE PLATE TRANSFORMED INTO AN ENGRAVED PLATE D0NN6 FIZEAU THE PHOTOGRAPHIC ENGRAVING OF NIEPCE DE SAINT-VICTOR PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHY AND HELIOGRAPHY INVENTED BY A. POITEVIN PROCESSES OF BALDUS, GARNIER. ETC. THE ALBERTYPE OBERNETTER'S PROCESS MODERN HELIOGRAPHY</p> <p>1/9</p> <p>CHAPTER</p> <p>II.</p> <p>PHOTOGLYPTY (THE WOODBURY</p> <p>PROCESS).</p> <p>WOODBURY IMPRESSION OF A GELATINISED PLATE INTO A BLOCK OF METAL WORKING OF PHOTOGLYPTIC METHODS INPARIS</p> <p> DESCRIPTION</p> <p>OF MESSRS. GOUPIL'S ESTABLISHMENT</p> <p> M.I99</p> <p>LEMERCIER</p> <p>CHAPTER</p> <p>III.</p> <p>PHOTOSCULPTURE.</p> <p>AN UNEXPECTED DISCOVERY PHOTOGRAPHY APPLIED TO SCULPTURE WILLEME'S process IN 1861 DESCRIPTION OF PHOTO208 SCULPTURE</p> <p>CHAPTER</p> <p>IV.</p> <p>PHOTOGRAPHIC ENAMELS.VITRIFICATION OF A PHOTOGRAPH CAMARSAC'S PROCESSJEWELRY ENAMEL METHOD OF MAKING POITEVIN'S METHOD PER2I4 MANENT GLAZE PHOTOGRAPHS</p> <p>X</p> <p>CONTENTS.</p> <p>CHAPTER</p> <p>V.PAGE</p> <p>PHOTOMICROGRAPHY.</p> <p>THE TOY MICROSCOPES OF THE PARIS INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS 450 DEPUTIES IN THE SPACE OF A PIN's HEAD ARRANGEMENTS OF PHOTOMICROGRAPHIC APPARATUS THE NATURAL SCIENCES AND PHOTOMICROGRAPHY RESOU^RCES BORROWED FROM THE HELIOGRAPH 220</p> <p>CHAPTER</p> <p>VI.</p> <p>MICROSCOPIC DESPATCHES DURING THE SIEGE OF PARIS. APPLICATION OF MICROSCOPIC PHOTOGRAPHY TO THE ART OF WAR THREE MILLION PRINTED LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET ON THE TAIL OF A PIGEON ENLARGEMENT OF THE DESPATCHES THEIR CONVEYANCE BY CARRIER-PIGEONS 235</p> <p>....</p> <p>CHAPTER VH.ASTRONOMICAL PHOTOGRAPHY.CELESTIAL PHOTOGRAPHYDIFFICULTIES OF ASTRONOMICAL PHOTOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS MESSRS. WARREN DE LA RUE, RUTHERFURD, GRUBB, ETC. THE LUNAR MOUNTAINS THE SPOTS ON THE SUN, ETC. IMPORTANCE OF PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTS FOR THE HISTORY OF THE HEAVENS 249</p> <p>.</p> <p>,</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>CHAPTER</p> <p>Vni.</p> <p>PHOTOGRAPHIC REGISTERING INSTRUMENTS.IMPORTANCE OF REGISTERING INSTRUMENTS PHOTOGRAPHIC BAROMETERS AND THERMOMETERS THE REGISTRATION OF THE VIBRATIONS OF THE MAGNETIC NEEDLE RONALD'S PHOTOELECTROGRAPH PHOTOGRAPHIC PHOTOMETRY PHOTOGRAPHY OF COLUMNS OF WATER RAISED BY A TORPEDO OF THE PHENOMENA OF THE INTERFERENCE OF THE RAYS OF THE SPECTRUM 268</p> <p>CHAPTER</p> <p>IX.</p> <p>THE STEREOSCOPE.A FEW WORDS ON STEREOSCOPIC VISION MEANS OF MAKING PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTS APPEAR IN RELIEF WHEATSTONE'S STEREO-</p> <p>CONTENtS.</p> <p>xi</p> <p>SCOPE</p> <p> MONOSTEREOSCOPE HOW</p> <p>PAGE</p> <p>STEREOSCOPIC PHOTOGRAPHS287</p> <p>ARE PRODUCED</p> <p>CHAPTERIS</p> <p>X.</p> <p>PHOTOGRAPHY AND ART,PHOTOGRAPHY ART? ITS USES IN RELATION TO PAINTING, REPRODUCTION OF ENGRAVINGS, VOYAGES OF DISCOVERY PHOTOGRAPHY BY THE MAGNESIUM LIGHT PHOTOGRAPHIC * PORTRAITS CONSIDERED AS HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS 297</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>CHAPTERLAND-SURVEYING</p> <p>XI.</p> <p>THE FUTURE OF PHOTOGRAPHY.</p> <p> THE ART OF WAR WORKS OF ART CRIMINALS AND JUDICIAL PHOTOGRAPHY THE MIRACLES OF INSTANTANEOUS PHOTOGRAPHY306</p> <p>APPENDIX.PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPHY -PANORAMIC CAMERA THE HELIOTYPE PROCESS THE PHOTO-TINT PROCESS EPITOME OF THE WET COLLODION PROCESS AND USEFUL FORMULAE SENSITISING BATH DARK ROOM OPERATIONS FIXING POSITIVE SILVER-PRINTING FORMULA SIMPLE METHOD OF PREPARING DRY PLATES ENGLISH AND FRENCH WEIGHTS AND MEASURES -313</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>INDEX</p> <p>323</p> <p>ADVERTISEMENTS</p> <p>relating to photography</p> <p>.</p> <p>327</p> <p>et seq.</p> <p>LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.</p> <p>FULL-PAGE ENGRAVINGS.PORTRAIT FROM LIFE BY THE PHOTO-TINT PROCESSPROFESSOR CHARLES'S EXPERIMENT</p> <p>......</p> <p>.</p> <p>Frontispiece</p> <p>To face p. ID</p> <p>DAGUERRE'S DIORAMA</p> <p>THE DARK ROOMSPECIMEN OF A HELIOGRAPHIC ENGRAVING.ing by Gustave</p> <p>.</p> <p>,,13 ,,90, ,</p> <p>(After a Draw. ,</p> <p>Dore</p> <p>)</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>1</p> <p>96</p> <p>THE SOLDIER OF MARATHONFACSIMILE OF</p> <p>,,19723O</p> <p>THE PHOTOGRAPH OF A FLEA, OBTAINED BY THE PHOTOMICROGRAPHIC APPARATUS. .</p> <p>.</p> <p>,,</p> <p>ENLARGING MICROSCOPICAL DESPATCHES DURING THE SIEGE OF PARIS</p> <p>,,241247</p> <p>DEPARTURE OF</p> <p>CARRIER-PIGEONS</p> <p>FROM THE</p> <p>CHAMPS,,</p> <p>^LYSfiES, PARIS</p> <p>SALLERON's</p> <p>photographic</p> <p>barometer</p> <p>and THERMO,,</p> <p>METERphoto-electrographic instrument attory, FOR REGISTERING</p> <p>275</p> <p>kew</p> <p>observa-</p> <p>THE STATE AND VARIATIONS</p> <p>OF THE ELECTRICITY OF THE AIR</p> <p>....ITS</p> <p>,,</p> <p>277</p> <p>IOCKYER'S APPARATUS FOR ANALYSING AN ALLOY OF GOLD</p> <p>AND SILVER BY THE PHOTOGRAPHY OF</p> <p>SPECTRUM</p> <p>,,</p> <p>285</p> <p>XIV</p> <p>LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.</p> <p>APPARATUS</p> <p>FOR</p> <p>OBTAINING</p> <p>THE TWO PROOFS OF THETo face p. 295. . .</p> <p>STEREOSCOPEFAC-SIMILE OF A STEREOSCOPIC PHOTOGRAPH</p> <p>,,</p> <p>296302 307</p> <p>PHOTOGRAPHY AND EXPLORATION</p> <p>,,</p> <p>THE POLfiMOSCOPE</p> <p>,,</p> <p>WOODCUTS IN TEXT.PAGE</p> <p>THE DARK ROOMTHE IMAGE OF THE SUN FORMED ON THE SHADOW OF A TREEJOSEPH NIEPCE</p> <p>23</p> <p>'44596$</p> <p>DAGUERREDAGUERREOTYPE POLISHERMERCURIAL DEVELOPING BOXGILDING THE DAGUERREOTYPE PLATE</p> <p>6669</p> <p>PHOTOGRAPHIC BELLOWS CAMERA</p> <p>THE</p> <p>LENS,</p> <p>WITH</p> <p>ITS</p> <p>RACKWORK AND CAP</p> <p>.....</p> <p>9496</p> <p>SIMPLE PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS</p> <p>9799IOClOI</p> <p>THE CAMERA STAND</p> <p>THE DARK SLIDETWIN-LENS CAMERA, SHOWING DARK SLIDE AND DIAPHRAGMS</p> <p>THE HEAD-RESTPLATE-HOLDERCOATING THE PLATE.FIRST POSITION OF</p> <p>IO3</p> <p>I06</p> <p>THE HANDS</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>IO9</p> <p>SECOND POSITION OF THE HANDSSENSITISING TRAY.</p> <p>IO9Ill.</p> <p>SILVER</p> <p>HOOK FOR RAISING AND LOWERING THE PLATE</p> <p>.</p> <p>Ill</p> <p>LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.</p> <p>XVPAGE 112</p> <p>GLASS BATH IN CASE WITH GLASS DIPPER</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>WASHING THE DEVELOPED IMAGERACK FOR DRYINGPLATE BOX. .</p> <p>II4II</p> <p>PLA'.'ES._</p> <p>119</p> <p>fHE PRINTING FRAMEPRINTING FRAMES EXPOSED TO THE LIGHTSIMPLE PRINTING FRAME.. . .</p> <p>124 I26 I261</p> <p>THE ROLLING PRESSPORTABLE PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS</p> <p>29</p> <p>I36</p> <p>PHOTOGRAPHIC CARICATURE</p> <p>I44I49</p> <p>MONCKHOVEN'S ENLARGING CAMERALIEBERT'S ENLARGING APPARATUS</p> <p>I501</p> <p>THE SOLDIER OF MARATHONPHOTOGLYPTIC PRESS</p> <p>97</p> <p>202.</p> <p>TURN-TABLE REQUIRED FOR TAKING PHOTOGLYPTIC PROOFS</p> <p>203</p> <p>PHOTO-ENAMEL BROOCHDUSTING-SIEVE</p> <p>217</p> <p>TOY MICROSCOPE OF THE EXHIBITION OFMICROSCOPE FITTED TO THE CAMERA</p> <p>......</p> <p>1</p> <p>867</p> <p>....</p> <p>2X8</p> <p>220 224</p> <p>ARRANGEMENT OF THE PHOTOMICROGRAPHIC APPARATUS ON A BENCHVERTICAL MICROSCOPE ADAPTED TO THE CAMERA FOR PHOTOMI-</p> <p>226</p> <p>CROGRAPHYPHOTOMICROGRAPHIC APPARATUS FOR ARTIFICIAL LIGHT.</p> <p>228</p> <p>229</p> <p>FACSIMILE OF THE PHOTOGRAPH OF SECTIONS OF IHE STEM OF</p> <p>A CANESECTION OF THE</p> <p>230</p> <p>WOOD OF A</p> <p>FIR-TREE</p> <p>23O23I</p> <p>GROUP OF DIATOMS</p> <p>XVI</p> <p>LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.TAGE</p> <p>SECTION OF THE FIN OF A</p> <p>WHALE</p> <p>232233. .</p> <p>EPIDERMIS OF A CATERPILLARCARRIER-PIGEON WITH PHOTOGRAPHIC DESPATCHES</p> <p>236</p> <p>QUILL CONTAINING MICROSCOPIC DESPATCHES FASTENED TO A TAIL FEATHER OF CARRIER-PIGEONSTAMPS, SHOWING</p> <p>237</p> <p>WHEN</p> <p>DESPATCHES WERE FORWARDED OR RE-</p> <p>CEIVED, PRINTED ON</p> <p>THE WING</p> <p>238</p> <p>FACSIMILE OF A MICROSCOPIC DESPATCH DURING THE SIEGE OFPARIS</p> <p>239.</p> <p>CHINESE WHISTLES ATTACHED TO CARRIER-PIGEONS</p> <p>.</p> <p>.</p> <p>245</p> <p>LUNAR MOUNTAINS. AFTER A PHOTOGRAPH BY MR. WARREN DE LA RUEUNDULATING LINES TRACED ON THE CARRIER OF THE ELECTROGRAPH</p> <p>254</p> <p>....</p> <p>278</p> <p>BREWSTER'S STEREOSCOPE</p> <p>29O29</p> <p>HEIMHOLTZ'S STEREOSCOPE</p> <p>MONO-STEREOSCOPIC PRINTFEVRIER'S pillar STEREOSCOPE</p> <p>292293</p> <p>PLATE FOR SUPPORTING THE CAMERA SCOPIC VIEW</p> <p>WHEN TAKING</p> <p>STEREO295</p> <p>PHOTOGRAPHY BY THE MAGNESIUM LIGHT IN THE CATACOMBSPANORAMIC CAMERA</p> <p>303</p> <p>314</p> <p>PART</p> <p>I.</p> <p>THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY.</p> <p>CHAPTERJ.</p> <p>I.</p> <p>THE ORIGIN OF PHOTOGRAPHY.B.</p> <p>PORTA AND THE DARK ROOM FABRICIUS THE ALCHEMIST LUNA CORNEA PROFESSOR CHARLES' SILHOUETTES WEDGWOOD, HUMPHRY DAVY, AND JAMES WATT.</p> <p>The</p> <p>discovery of photography ranks amongst the most;</p> <p>wonderful applications of modern science</p> <p>we owe</p> <p>it</p> <p>almost solely to the genius of Niepce and Daguerre.</p> <p>Wehad</p> <p>shall</p> <p>mention the obstacles which these great minds</p> <p>to</p> <p>overcome before solving a problem which had long;</p> <p>been looked upon as Utopian</p> <p>we</p> <p>shall thus see with</p> <p>what perseverance the inventor must arm himselfattain his ends.</p> <p>toit</p> <p>But before relatingto look alittleis</p> <p>facts</p> <p>we</p> <p>think</p> <p>would be useful</p> <p>farther into the past toinstructive than the;</p> <p>seek their causes.</p> <p>Nothing</p> <p>more</p> <p>impartial history of great discoveries</p> <p>it</p> <p>shows us how</p> <p>slow</p> <p>is</p> <p>the march of progress, and</p> <p>how many b...</p>