A Handbook for Cane-Sugar Manufacturers and Their Chemists 1000763605

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  • 1A HANDBOOK

    CANE-SUGAR MANUFACTURERS

    IMD THKUI

    CHEMISTS.

    GUILFORD l: JPENCEE, D.So.,7AiV Chemui in Chargt of ManujjaeluretThe Cuban-Ameriean Sugar

    Company (Chaparra^DHicias, Tinffuaro, Conataneia, MercedUatVniaadt CardenoB and Oramercy Refineries); Formerly

    Chief of Suffor Laboratory^ U. S. Departmentif AgriaUturt, WaahingUm, etc.

    SIXTH EDITION, ENLARGED,

    SECOND IMPRESSION, CORRECTED.

    TOTAL ISSUE, TEN THOUSAND

    NEW YORK:

    JOHN WILEY " SONS, Inc.

    London: CHAPMAN " HALL, Limited

  • sM

    Copyright, 1889, 1905. 1916. 1917,

    BT

    JOHN WILEY " SONS, Inc.

    PRfeM OF

    "RAUNWORTH * CO.

    BOOK MANUFAOTURCBe

    "ROOKLVN, N. V.

  • ^I

    "

    I

    9

    DEDICATED

    IN

    BONOB AND GRATTTUDB

    TO

    M. CH. GALLOIS

    AND

    M. FBAN9OIB DUPONT

    PAST PRESIDENTS

    OF THE

    ABSOaATION DES CHIMISTES DE FBANCB

    BT THE AUTHOR

    411603

  • /"

  • PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION.*

    This edition isenlargedto include a chapteron Evapora-tionand Juice Heating, by Prof. W. H. P. Creighton,Dean

    of the Department of Technology, The, Tulane University,New Orleans,La. Prof. Creighton'slong experienceas anofficer in the United States Navy, and in teachingin the

    engineeringdepartments of Purdue and Tulane Universities,has eminentlyfitted him for the preparationof this article.I extend my thanks to him.

    A few typographicalerrors have been corrected and someslightchanges have been made to bring out certain processdescriptionsmore clearly.

    G. L. Spsnceb.

    Cambbidob, Mass., 1917.

    PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION.

    The section devoted to ijiemanufacture has been greatlyenlargedin this edition. The processes in use in the manu-facture

    of raw, plantationwhite and refined sugar aredescribed.

    Through the courtesy of Mr. George P. Meade, Super-intendentof the Cardenas (Cuba) Refinery,I include a

    chapter on sugar refiningand refinerycontrol as is practisedin the United States.

    The book has been largelyrewritten. The chemical sec-tionhas been revised to meet the conditions of the very large

    factories now in operation. Additional tables are includedand several of the older ones have ("eenreplacedby recenttables.

    G. L. Spenceb.

    Washington, D. C, 1915."",

    vii '

    i

  • r

  • PREFAC3E TO THE FOURTH EDITION.

    The first edition of this bookwas

    written ata

    time when

    fewcane-sugar

    factories employed chemists and but little

    had been written, in English, concerning this branch, of

    sugar-work. Many chemists are now engaged in the cane-

    sugar industry with the result that much more material is

    available in the preparation of this book.

    Theproper

    control ofa sugar-factory by the chemist

    requires a knowledge of the methods of manufacture, in

    addition toa

    chemical training. For thisreason a

    brief de-scription

    of manufacturing processes is included in this

    edition.

    With the large increase in the scale of manufacture dur-ing

    the past few years,the greater complexity of processes,

    and the tendency toward the production of one grade of

    sugar,whether

    raw orrefined, the necessity of having a

    competent chemist in the factory is becoming generally

    recognized.

    G. L. Spencer.

    WAsmNOTOir, D. C, 1005.

  • rr

  • CONTENTS,

    MANUFACTURE OF CANE-SUGAR

    FAcn

    R"w Material 1

    Extraction of the Juice : 0

    Steam Plant and Fuel 32

    Outline of Raw Sugar Manufacture 36

    Purification of the Juice 38

    Defecation and Clarification in Open Tanks 39

    Defecation using Closed Heaters and Open Settlers 43

    Defecation using Closed Heaters and Closed Settlers 45

    Sulphitation Process of Louisiana 47

    Sulphitation after Liming 49

    Carbonation Processes '. 50

    Harloff's Acid Thin-juice Process 55

    Sulphur Stoves and Sulphitors 58

    Carbonation Tanks 60

    Lime Kilns 61

    Filtration Processes and Machinery 63

    Chemical Reagents used in Purifying the Juice 72

    Evaporation of the Juice 77

    Preservation of Juice and Sirup 83

    Crystallization of the Sugar 85

    Boiling Sugar 86

    Crystallization in Motion 94

    Purging and Curing the Sugar 99

    Classification of Raw Sugars .' 102

    Classification of White Sugars 103

    Deterioration of Sugars 103

    Warehousing of Raw Sugars 103

    Sugar Refining 106

    Raw Materials 107

    Defecation 109

    Filtration ! 112

    Char Revivification 115

    Crystallization of the Sugar 118

    Drying and Finishing the Products 120

    Technical and Chemical Control 123

    XI

  • XU CONTENTS.

    SUGAR ANALYSIS

    PAQB

    Sugars and other Constituents of the Cane and Its Products 134

    Optical Methods of Sugar Analysis ^"

    141

    Chemical Methods of Sugar Analysis 187

    Density Determinations 191

    General Analytical Work 109

    Sampling and Averaging 199

    Analysis of the Sugar-cane : 214

    Analysis of the Juice 221

    Analysis of Sirup, Massecuites and Molasses 259

    Analyras of Sugars ; 274

    Analysis of Filter-press Cake 280

    Analysis of Bagasse and Exhausted Chips 282

    Analysis of Factory Wastes 294

    Analysis of Molasses Cattle Food 298

    Definitions and Applications of Expressions used in Sugar Work. 301

    Chemical Control of Sugar-house Work 310

    Sugar-house Calculations 340

    Evaporating and Juice Heating,

    350

    Purchase of Cane on a Basis of its Analysis 382

    Analysis of Limestone, Lime, Sulphur and Sulphurous Acid 386

    Lubricating Oils 390

    Analysis of Flue-gases 403

    Quality of the Water Supply, Treatment of Impure Water 407

    Fermentation ". 409

    Special Reagents \ 410

    Reference Tables 423

  • LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

    VlGTTRa PAGB

    Central Delicias, Cuba ProntUpiece

    1. Cane-shredder 10

    2. Krajewski Crusher 113. Krajewski Crusher-roll 114. Fulton Crusher 12

    5. Fulton Crusher-rolls 12

    6. Puunene Housing 13

    7. Fulton Housing \ 14

    8. Meiaschaert's Juice Grooves 16

    9. Mill Settings 18

    10. Diagram of Compound Saturation 20

    11. Draw-down Pipes for Defecators^

    44

    12. Diagram of Deming's Closed Settling-tank 46

    13. Vivien Tube 56

    14. Sulphur Stove 59

    15. KeUy Filter Press.'! 68

    16. Sweetland Filter Press 69

    17. Hersey Granulator 121

    18. Nicol Prism (diagram) 141

    19. Half-shadow Single Compensating Polariscope 143

    20. Double Compensating Polariscope (Schmidt " Haensch) 144

    21. Half-shadow Polariscope (Josef Jan-Fric),.,...

    146

    22. Half-shadow Polariscope (Julius Peters) 147

    23. Triple-field Polariscope 148

    24. Arrangement of Prisms in Triple-field Polariscope (diagram).

    ..

    149

    25. Laurent Polariscope 150

    26. Compensating Attachment for Laurent Polariscope. 151

    27. Transition Tint Polariscope 152

    28. Cane-sugar Scale, Ventske Scale^

    154

    29. Control Tube for Polariscopes 158

    30. Polariscope Tubes, Ordinary Forms 158

    31. Polariscope Tube with Enlarged End 159

    32. Bates' Polariscope Tube 159

    33. Polariscope Tube with Side Tubule 160

    .

    34. Pellet's Continuous Polariscope Tube 160

    35. Pellet's Continuous Tube, Modified Form._

    161

    36. Landolt's Inversion Tube,.

    162

    37. Wiley's Desiccator Caps for Landolt's Tube^ ,

    162

    " " "

  • XIV LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

    flOUBB PAGS

    38. Sugar Capsule 16639. FilteringDevices

    ^

    166

    40. Sugar Flasks, Diagram of Types 16741. Pellet's Conical Flasks 16842. Sugar Balance

    ,

    170

    43. Decimal Balance."

    171

    44. Balance for Rough Weighings 17245. Norma Alcohol Stove 173

    46. Brix Hydrometer,

    193

    47. Reading the Hydrometer Scale,

    193

    48. Westphal Balance 19549. Pyknometers 19760. Calumet Sampler 203'51. Coombs* Drip Sampler 20552. Horsin-Dton's Sampler 20663. Press-cake Sampler 20954. Sample Box for Sugar 21266. Sugar Trier

    ,

    213

    66. Hyatt Cane-reducer 21457. Extractor for Use in Fiber Tests 218

    58. Vacuum Drying Apparatus 22369. Vacuum Drying or Distilling Apparatus 22460. Abbe Refractometer 227

    61. Immersion Refractometer 228

    62. Sugar Refractometer 229

    63. Sucrose Pipette 231

    64. Funnel Holder for Alundum Crucibles 238

    65. Sargent's Alundum Crucible Holder 238

    66. Filtering Apparatus. 239

    67. Alcohol Burner 241

    68. Current Regulator for ElectrolyticWork 24369. Soxhlefs Filter Tube 244

    70. Squibb's Automatic Burette 24871. Wiley and Knorr Filter Tubes 248

    72. Muffle for Incinerations 255

    73. Muffle for Incinerations 255

    74. Muffle for Incinerations 255

    75. Apparatus for Weighing a'Unit Volume 26276. Inversion Flask ." 269

    77. Karcs's Apparatus for Crystal Content of Massecuite 27178. Kohlrausch Flask 281

    79. Bagasse Chopper, Boot " Krantz 283

    80. Bagasse Chopper, Athol 283

    81. Bagasse Oven with Induced Draft 285

    82. Bagasse Oven 288

    83. Bagasse Digester 290

    84. Bagasse Digester, Norris 291

    85. Knorr-Soxhlet Extraction Apparatus 298

    86. Hors6n-D6on's Control Device 318

  • LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS. XV

    m

    FIOVBB PAOB

    87. Lftboratory CeHtrifugals 326

    88. Massecuite Funnel for Separating the Molasses 326

    89. Diagram (CobensI) for Calculating Mixtures 347

    90. Diagram of" Multiple Effect Evaporator 355

    91. Vacuum Pan 356

    92. Vapor Distribution in a Multiple Effect 358

    93. Elevation of Horisontal T3ri)e of Evaporator 359

    94. Knorr's CO2 Apparatus 392

    95. Schroetter's Alkalimeter 393

    96. Engler's Viscosimeter 400

    97. Orsat's Gas Apparatus. . .

    ^

    404

  • ) /

    THE

    MANUFACTURE OF CANE-SUGAR.

    RAW MATERIAL.

    1. Sugar-cane. " Cane is a large grass, belongingto the

    genus Saccharum. The mode of its growth varies with

    variety, climate, soil and cultural conditions. Until within

    comparatively recent years its flowers were believed to besterile. The plant "arrows" or blossoms usually only in

    the Tropics and then not freely every year. A very few

    arrows have been noted in Louisiana in exceptionallymild

    years.

    Large numbers of seedlingsare now produced in experi-mentstations in various parts of the world in the search for

    new varieties. The seedUngs are crossed with other seedUngsand with existingvarieties in order to develop certain charac-teristics.

    These experiments have resulted in several varie-tieswhich are now in broad culture. The new varieties are

    selected for some particular qualities such as richness in

    sucrose, resistance to disease, persistence of type, time ofripening, milling qualities,fuel value, color, etc. The mostextensive use of seedling varieties is in Java. There fewof the old varieties are now cultivated.

    It is generally believed in Cuba that a year in which the

    cane arrows freely is not usually ^*ery productive. Such

    cane, however, is often very rich in sucrose an?l of low invert-

    sugar content. It increases in its sucrose content for several

    months after flowering, and, as is true with other canes,deteriorates as regards the sugar when the rainy seasonbegins. The yield of cane, however, may be small,since the

    plant grows littletaller and heavier after flowering.

  • 2 RAW MATERIAL.

    "

    Sugar-Ksanevaries greatlyin richness in differentcountriesand even in the same country. It does not often exceed or

    even attain a sucrose content of 17 per cent in Cuba, but thisis sometimes surpassed in other countries. A cane in Louis-iana

    containing 12 per cent of sucrose is considered veryrich.

    Sugar-cane is propagated by means of the buds that arelocated at the nodes. Pieces or cuttingsof the cane areplanted with a very shallow covering of soil or in certainlocalities are only partly covered, but in this latter eventare irrigated.Each bud produces a plant and from each ofthese there are several shoots or suckers. These form a

    clump or stool of canes. The cane under suitable soil andclimatic conditions is usually planted but once in several

    years. New plants,termed "ratoons," spring up from thestubble,after harvesting the crop, and produce a second

    crop and so on. Fiscal or soil and climatic conditions some-timeslimit the crop to "plant-cane" or to plant-caneand one

    or two ratoons.

    Dark-colored varieties are usually produced in sub-trop-icalr^ons.and the light-colored,greenish or yellow canes

    in the Tropics. The Tropics,however, will produce canes of

    any variety. The usual Cuban cane is the "cristalina"varietyand is of a lightcolor.

    Normal sugar-canes are never hollow or partially so.They contain approximately from 87 to 90 per cent of juiceand some water, in composition with certain plant constit-uents

    (colloidwater), that contains little or no sugar.Canes that ar" abnormal on account of some climatic orother conditions are sometimes hollow,but the proportionof such cane is usuallyvery small.

    The plant matures with the approach of cool or dry weather.Harvesting usually begins long before the cane is consideredto be ripe, in order to obtain a long working season. Ifthe factoryis in an irrigateddistrict,the distribution of wateris suspended a few weeks before the cane is to be harvested,to promote ripening. The sucrose content of the stalksincreases and the reducing sugars decrease as the plantapproaches maturity.

    The stalks are cut off close to the ground in harvest^

  • 4 HAVf MATERIAL.

    "

    by burning, but it must be harvested very promptly to avoidloss through deterioration,which is accelerated by the burn-ing.

    The rate of deterioration is greatlyincreased should rainfall upon the burned cane. The manufacturer agrees in

    most Cuban cane contracts to receive burned cane up to

    and includingfive days without deduction from the price,but in the event of rainfall he may refuse it at any time.

    The purificationof the juiceis not usually so readily accom-plishedwith burned as with sound cane, and the heating-sur-faces

    of the evaporator foul sooner. The fine particlesofcarbon sometimes persist through the manufacture and

    finallyappear in the sugar. It is preferableto grind a mix-tureof sound and burned cane rather than burned cane

    alone,since the mixed juicesare more readilypurified.The method of transport of the cane to the factory varies

    with local conditions. Small factories usually transporttheir cane in carts or small cars. Portable railways arelargelyused in the Hawaiian Islands and in Java, but almostnot at all in Cuba. The cane is brought to the factory orrailway in Cuba in bullock carts. It isfiumedj"the factoriesin the Island of Hawaii and in British GuiaiJS^|nisuallytrans-ported

    in punts. The use of flumes and ptu^iscomplicatesthe estimating of the percentage yield of jui3B|^themills.Inferential methods, based upon the analyjpHKjthe caneand juice and the weight of the latter,may ^en becomenecessary.

    Sugar-cane is usually sold to the factories without regardto its richness in sugar or the purity of its juice. It is diffi-cult

    to devise an equitablemethod for the purchase of caneupon a basis of its analysis. (See page 382.)

    The followingtable showing the composition of the stalksof Louisiana cane at the time of harvesting, November-December, is inserted through the courtesy of Dr. C. A.Browne, Chemist of the New York Sugar Trade Laboratoryand formerly of the Louisiana Sugar Experiment Station.The figuresare condensed from many analyses of the purplevariety of the cane. The composition of the cane varieswith climatic conditions,character of the soil,manner offertilization and cultivation,the age of the cane and itsvariety:

  • SUGAR-CANE.

    COMPOSITION OP LOUISIANA SUGAR-CANE.

    Wa""r.

    Ash.

    74.60%

    O.fiO

    Fiber. 10.00

    Siiears 14.00 (Nitrogenous bodies

    .

    (Total N-. 06%)

    Fat and wax.. ..

    Pectin (ffums)...

    Free addsCombined acids.

    0.40

    0.200.200.080.12

    74.60%SiUca. Si02. 0.25Potash. KjO 0.12Soda"Na^ 0.01Lime. CaO 0.02Magnesia, ACgO 0.01Iron, FeaOa TracePhosphoric acid,P^" 0.07Sulphuric acid,SOs. 0.02Chlorine, Q. TraceCellulose 6.60Pentosans.

    .

    i Xylan"

    2 .00(Cane-gum) fAiaban 60Lignin bodies, etc 2.00Sucrose 12. 60Dextrose 90Levulose 60

    Album...

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