GUILFORD l: JPENCEE, D.So.,7AiV Chemui in Chargt of ManujjaeluretThe Cuban-Ameriean Sugar
Company (Chaparra^DHicias, Tinffuaro, Conataneia, MercedUatVniaadt CardenoB and Oramercy Refineries); Formerly
Chief of Suffor Laboratory^ U. S. Departmentif AgriaUturt, WaahingUm, etc.
SIXTH EDITION, ENLARGED,
SECOND IMPRESSION, CORRECTED.
TOTAL ISSUE, TEN THOUSAND
JOHN WILEY " SONS, Inc.
London: CHAPMAN " HALL, Limited
Copyright, 1889, 1905. 1916. 1917,
JOHN WILEY " SONS, Inc.
"RAUNWORTH * CO.
"ROOKLVN, N. V.
BONOB AND GRATTTUDB
M. CH. GALLOIS
M. FBAN9OIB DUPONT
ABSOaATION DES CHIMISTES DE FBANCB
BT THE AUTHOR
PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION.*
This edition isenlargedto include a chapteron Evapora-tionand Juice Heating, by Prof. W. H. P. Creighton,Dean
of the Department of Technology, The, Tulane University,New Orleans,La. Prof. Creighton'slong experienceas anofficer in the United States Navy, and in teachingin the
engineeringdepartments of Purdue and Tulane Universities,has eminentlyfitted him for the preparationof this article.I extend my thanks to him.
A few typographicalerrors have been corrected and someslightchanges have been made to bring out certain processdescriptionsmore clearly.
G. L. Spsnceb.
Cambbidob, Mass., 1917.
PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION.
The section devoted to ijiemanufacture has been greatlyenlargedin this edition. The processes in use in the manu-facture
of raw, plantationwhite and refined sugar aredescribed.
Through the courtesy of Mr. George P. Meade, Super-intendentof the Cardenas (Cuba) Refinery,I include a
chapter on sugar refiningand refinerycontrol as is practisedin the United States.
The book has been largelyrewritten. The chemical sec-tionhas been revised to meet the conditions of the very large
factories now in operation. Additional tables are includedand several of the older ones have ("eenreplacedby recenttables.
G. L. Spenceb.
Washington, D. C, 1915."",
PREFAC3E TO THE FOURTH EDITION.
The first edition of this bookwas
factories employed chemists and but little
had been written, in English, concerning this branch, of
sugar-work. Many chemists are now engaged in the cane-
sugar industry with the result that much more material is
available in the preparation of this book.
control ofa sugar-factory by the chemist
requires a knowledge of the methods of manufacture, in
chemical training. For thisreason a
of manufacturing processes is included in this
With the large increase in the scale of manufacture dur-ing
the past few years,the greater complexity of processes,
and the tendency toward the production of one grade of
raw orrefined, the necessity of having a
competent chemist in the factory is becoming generally
G. L. Spencer.
WAsmNOTOir, D. C, 1005.
MANUFACTURE OF CANE-SUGAR
R"w Material 1
Extraction of the Juice : 0
Steam Plant and Fuel 32
Outline of Raw Sugar Manufacture 36
Purification of the Juice 38
Defecation and Clarification in Open Tanks 39
Defecation using Closed Heaters and Open Settlers 43
Defecation using Closed Heaters and Closed Settlers 45
Sulphitation Process of Louisiana 47
Sulphitation after Liming 49
Carbonation Processes '. 50
Harloff's Acid Thin-juice Process 55
Sulphur Stoves and Sulphitors 58
Carbonation Tanks 60
Lime Kilns 61
Filtration Processes and Machinery 63
Chemical Reagents used in Purifying the Juice 72
Evaporation of the Juice 77
Preservation of Juice and Sirup 83
Crystallization of the Sugar 85
Boiling Sugar 86
Crystallization in Motion 94
Purging and Curing the Sugar 99
Classification of Raw Sugars .' 102
Classification of White Sugars 103
Deterioration of Sugars 103
Warehousing of Raw Sugars 103
Sugar Refining 106
Raw Materials 107
Filtration ! 112
Char Revivification 115
Crystallization of the Sugar 118
Drying and Finishing the Products 120
Technical and Chemical Control 123
Sugars and other Constituents of the Cane and Its Products 134
Optical Methods of Sugar Analysis ^"
Chemical Methods of Sugar Analysis 187
Density Determinations 191
General Analytical Work 109
Sampling and Averaging 199
Analysis of the Sugar-cane : 214
Analysis of the Juice 221
Analysis of Sirup, Massecuites and Molasses 259
Analyras of Sugars ; 274
Analysis of Filter-press Cake 280
Analysis of Bagasse and Exhausted Chips 282
Analysis of Factory Wastes 294
Analysis of Molasses Cattle Food 298
Definitions and Applications of Expressions used in Sugar Work. 301
Chemical Control of Sugar-house Work 310
Sugar-house Calculations 340
Evaporating and Juice Heating,
Purchase of Cane on a Basis of its Analysis 382
Analysis of Limestone, Lime, Sulphur and Sulphurous Acid 386
Lubricating Oils 390
Analysis of Flue-gases 403
Quality of the Water Supply, Treatment of Impure Water 407
Fermentation ". 409
Special Reagents \ 410
Reference Tables 423
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Central Delicias, Cuba ProntUpiece
1. Cane-shredder 10
2. Krajewski Crusher 113. Krajewski Crusher-roll 114. Fulton Crusher 12
5. Fulton Crusher-rolls 12
6. Puunene Housing 13
7. Fulton Housing \ 14
8. Meiaschaert's Juice Grooves 16
9. Mill Settings 18
10. Diagram of Compound Saturation 20
11. Draw-down Pipes for Defecators^
12. Diagram of Deming's Closed Settling-tank 46
13. Vivien Tube 56
14. Sulphur Stove 59
15. KeUy Filter Press.'! 68
16. Sweetland Filter Press 69
17. Hersey Granulator 121
18. Nicol Prism (diagram) 141
19. Half-shadow Single Compensating Polariscope 143
20. Double Compensating Polariscope (Schmidt " Haensch) 144
21. Half-shadow Polariscope (Josef Jan-Fric),.,...
22. Half-shadow Polariscope (Julius Peters) 147
23. Triple-field Polariscope 148
24. Arrangement of Prisms in Triple-field Polariscope (diagram).
25. Laurent Polariscope 150
26. Compensating Attachment for Laurent Polariscope. 151
27. Transition Tint Polariscope 152
28. Cane-sugar Scale, Ventske Scale^
29. Control Tube for Polariscopes 158
30. Polariscope Tubes, Ordinary Forms 158
31. Polariscope Tube with Enlarged End 159
32. Bates' Polariscope Tube 159
33. Polariscope Tube with Side Tubule 160
34. Pellet's Continuous Polariscope Tube 160
35. Pellet's Continuous Tube, Modified Form._
36. Landolt's Inversion Tube,.
37. Wiley's Desiccator Caps for Landolt's Tube^ ,
" " "
XIV LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
38. Sugar Capsule 16639. FilteringDevices
40. Sugar Flasks, Diagram of Types 16741. Pellet's Conical Flasks 16842. Sugar Balance
43. Decimal Balance."
44. Balance for Rough Weighings 17245. Norma Alcohol Stove 173
46. Brix Hydrometer,
47. Reading the Hydrometer Scale,
48. Westphal Balance 19549. Pyknometers 19760. Calumet Sampler 203'51. Coombs* Drip Sampler 20552. Horsin-Dton's Sampler 20663. Press-cake Sampler 20954. Sample Box for Sugar 21266. Sugar Trier
66. Hyatt Cane-reducer 21457. Extractor for Use in Fiber Tests 218
58. Vacuum Drying Apparatus 22369. Vacuum Drying or Distilling Apparatus 22460. Abbe Refractometer 227
61. Immersion Refractometer 228
62. Sugar Refractometer 229
63. Sucrose Pipette 231
64. Funnel Holder for Alundum Crucibles 238
65. Sargent's Alundum Crucible Holder 238
66. Filtering Apparatus. 239
67. Alcohol Burner 241
68. Current Regulator for ElectrolyticWork 24369. Soxhlefs Filter Tube 244
70. Squibb's Automatic Burette 24871. Wiley and Knorr Filter Tubes 248
72. Muffle for Incinerations 255
73. Muffle for Incinerations 255
74. Muffle for Incinerations 255
75. Apparatus for Weighing a'Unit Volume 26276. Inversion Flask ." 269
77. Karcs's Apparatus for Crystal Content of Massecuite 27178. Kohlrausch Flask 281
79. Bagasse Chopper, Boot " Krantz 283
80. Bagasse Chopper, Athol 283
81. Bagasse Oven with Induced Draft 285
82. Bagasse Oven 288
83. Bagasse Digester 290
84. Bagasse Digester, Norris 291
85. Knorr-Soxhlet Extraction Apparatus 298
86. Hors6n-D6on's Control Device 318
LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS. XV
87. Lftboratory CeHtrifugals 326
88. Massecuite Funnel for Separating the Molasses 326
89. Diagram (CobensI) for Calculating Mixtures 347
90. Diagram of" Multiple Effect Evaporator 355
91. Vacuum Pan 356
92. Vapor Distribution in a Multiple Effect 358
93. Elevation of Horisontal T3ri)e of Evaporator 359
94. Knorr's CO2 Apparatus 392
95. Schroetter's Alkalimeter 393
96. Engler's Viscosimeter 400
97. Orsat's Gas Apparatus. . .
MANUFACTURE OF CANE-SUGAR.
1. Sugar-cane. " Cane is a large grass, belongingto the
genus Saccharum. The mode of its growth varies with
variety, climate, soil and cultural conditions. Until within
comparatively recent years its flowers were believed to besterile. The plant "arrows" or blossoms usually only in
the Tropics and then not freely every year. A very few
arrows have been noted in Louisiana in exceptionallymild
Large numbers of seedlingsare now produced in experi-mentstations in various parts of the world in the search for
new varieties. The seedUngs are crossed with other seedUngsand with existingvarieties in order to develop certain charac-teristics.
These experiments have resulted in several varie-tieswhich are now in broad culture. The new varieties are
selected for some particular qualities such as richness in
sucrose, resistance to disease, persistence of type, time ofripening, milling qualities,fuel value, color, etc. The mostextensive use of seedling varieties is in Java. There fewof the old varieties are now cultivated.
It is generally believed in Cuba that a year in which the
cane arrows freely is not usually ^*ery productive. Such
cane, however, is often very rich in sucrose an?l of low invert-
sugar content. It increases in its sucrose content for several
months after flowering, and, as is true with other canes,deteriorates as regards the sugar when the rainy seasonbegins. The yield of cane, however, may be small,since the
plant grows littletaller and heavier after flowering.
2 RAW MATERIAL.
Sugar-Ksanevaries greatlyin richness in differentcountriesand even in the same country. It does not often exceed or
even attain a sucrose content of 17 per cent in Cuba, but thisis sometimes surpassed in other countries. A cane in Louis-iana
containing 12 per cent of sucrose is considered veryrich.
Sugar-cane is propagated by means of the buds that arelocated at the nodes. Pieces or cuttingsof the cane areplanted with a very shallow covering of soil or in certainlocalities are only partly covered, but in this latter eventare irrigated.Each bud produces a plant and from each ofthese there are several shoots or suckers. These form a
clump or stool of canes. The cane under suitable soil andclimatic conditions is usually planted but once in several
years. New plants,termed "ratoons," spring up from thestubble,after harvesting the crop, and produce a second
crop and so on. Fiscal or soil and climatic conditions some-timeslimit the crop to "plant-cane" or to plant-caneand one
or two ratoons.
Dark-colored varieties are usually produced in sub-trop-icalr^ons.and the light-colored,greenish or yellow canes
in the Tropics. The Tropics,however, will produce canes of
any variety. The usual Cuban cane is the "cristalina"varietyand is of a lightcolor.
Normal sugar-canes are never hollow or partially so.They contain approximately from 87 to 90 per cent of juiceand some water, in composition with certain plant constit-uents
(colloidwater), that contains little or no sugar.Canes that ar" abnormal on account of some climatic orother conditions are sometimes hollow,but the proportionof such cane is usuallyvery small.
The plant matures with the approach of cool or dry weather.Harvesting usually begins long before the cane is consideredto be ripe, in order to obtain a long working season. Ifthe factoryis in an irrigateddistrict,the distribution of wateris suspended a few weeks before the cane is to be harvested,to promote ripening. The sucrose content of the stalksincreases and the reducing sugars decrease as the plantapproaches maturity.
The stalks are cut off close to the ground in harvest^
4 HAVf MATERIAL.
by burning, but it must be harvested very promptly to avoidloss through deterioration,which is accelerated by the burn-ing.
The rate of deterioration is greatlyincreased should rainfall upon the burned cane. The manufacturer agrees in
most Cuban cane contracts to receive burned cane up to
and includingfive days without deduction from the price,but in the event of rainfall he may refuse it at any time.
The purificationof the juiceis not usually so readily accom-plishedwith burned as with sound cane, and the heating-sur-faces
of the evaporator foul sooner. The fine particlesofcarbon sometimes persist through the manufacture and
finallyappear in the sugar. It is preferableto grind a mix-tureof sound and burned cane rather than burned cane
alone,since the mixed juicesare more readilypurified.The method of transport of the cane to the factory varies
with local conditions. Small factories usually transporttheir cane in carts or small cars. Portable railways arelargelyused in the Hawaiian Islands and in Java, but almostnot at all in Cuba. The cane is brought to the factory orrailway in Cuba in bullock carts. It isfiumedj"the factoriesin the Island of Hawaii and in British GuiaiJS^|nisuallytrans-ported
in punts. The use of flumes and ptu^iscomplicatesthe estimating of the percentage yield of jui3B|^themills.Inferential methods, based upon the analyjpHKjthe caneand juice and the weight of the latter,may ^en becomenecessary.
Sugar-cane is usually sold to the factories without regardto its richness in sugar or the purity of its juice. It is diffi-cult
to devise an equitablemethod for the purchase of caneupon a basis of its analysis. (See page 382.)
The followingtable showing the composition of the stalksof Louisiana cane at the time of harvesting, November-December, is inserted through the courtesy of Dr. C. A.Browne, Chemist of the New York Sugar Trade Laboratoryand formerly of the Louisiana Sugar Experiment Station.The figuresare condensed from many analyses of the purplevariety of the cane. The composition of the cane varieswith climatic conditions,character of the soil,manner offertilization and cultivation,the age of the cane and itsvariety:
COMPOSITION OP LOUISIANA SUGAR-CANE.
Siiears 14.00 (Nitrogenous bodies
(Total N-. 06%)
Fat and wax.. ..
Free addsCombined acids.
74.60%SiUca. Si02. 0.25Potash. KjO 0.12Soda"Na^ 0.01Lime. CaO 0.02Magnesia, ACgO 0.01Iron, FeaOa TracePhosphoric acid,P^" 0.07Sulphuric acid,SOs. 0.02Chlorine, Q. TraceCellulose 6.60Pentosans.
2 .00(Cane-gum) fAiaban 60Lignin bodies, etc 2.00Sucrose 12. 60Dextrose 90Levulose 60