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  • A Guide to Decisionmaking

    Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India

    Government of India

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Guidance Note has been peer reviewed by Dr. R. Sethuraman (CPHEEO), Eduardo A. Perez, Kevin Tayler, Pravin More, Martin Gauss

    AUTHORS Jonathan Parkinson, Kevin Tayler, Jeremy Colin, and Asit Nema

    TASK MANAGER Soma Ghosh Moulik

    TEAM MEMBERS Sara Almqvist and Vivek Raman

    Edited by: Anjali Sen Gupta Pictures by: Sajid Darokhan, C. Ajith Kumar, WSP-SA/Guy Stubbs Designed and Printed by: Roots Advertising Services Pvt Ltd

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    Water and Sanitation Program-South Asia The World Bank 55 Lodi Estate, New Delhi 110 003 India

    Phone: (91-11) 24690488, 24690489 Fax: (91-11) 24628250 E-mail: wspsa@worldbank.org Web site: www.wsp.org

    Ministry of Urban Development Nirman Bhawan New Delhi 110 011 India

    Phone: (91-11) 23022199 Fax: (91-11) 23062477 E-mail: secyurban@nic.in

    Government of India

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  • A Guide to Decisionmaking

    Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India

    September 2008

  • Contents

    Foreword vii

    Message ix

    Introduction xi

    Acronyms and Abbreviations xiii

    Part A

    Setting the Scene 1

    Defining Sanitation 3 Urban Sanitation: What are the Challenges? 3 Technology and Program Design 6 Legislation and Standards for Urban Sanitation 11

    Part B

    Introduction to Sanitation Technologies 13

    Understanding Sanitation Technologies 15 On-Site Systems 18 Off-Site and Hybrid Systems 21 Treatment of Wastewater and Fecal Sludge 22 Reuse of Treated Wastewater and Sludge 25 Summary of Common Technology Options 26

    Part C

    Framework for Decisionmaking 31

    Overview of the Decisionmaking Process 33

    Stage 1: Outline Survey of Settlements and Services 34

    Map Existing Land Use and Settlement Types 34 Gather Information about Existing Sanitation Infrastructure and Services 35 Outcome from Stage 1 37

  • iv

    A Guide to Decisionmaking: Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India

    Stage 2: Needs Assessment and Consultation 38

    Community Consultation 38 Outcome from Stage 2 40

    Stage 3: Identifying Appropriate Technologies 42

    Overview 42 On-Site or Off-Site Disposal? 43 Options for Removal and Transport of Fecal Sludge and Septage 49 Sewerage Options 50 Treatment Options 51 Output from Stage 3 55

    Stage 4: Developing Costed Options 56

    Assessing the Costs 56 Service Delivery and Maintenance Options 58 Output from Stage 4 60

    Stage 5: Reaching Consensus on Preferred Options 61

    Facilitating the Process 61 Outcome from Stage 5 62

    Part D

    Toolkit 63

    Appendix A: Participatory Communication Tools 65 Appendix B: Costing Technology Options 69 Appendix C: Institutional Options for Operation and Maintenance 72 Appendix D: Technology Data Sheets 79

    Glossary 118

    References and Sources of Additional Information 122

  • v

    Tables

    1 Possible Management Options for Urban Sanitation 11 2 Sanitary Pit Emptying Options 20 3 Types and Sources of Domestic Wastewater and Fecal Sludge 22 4 Types of Treatment Processes 23 5 Sanitation Options for Different Residential Settlement Types 27 6 Settlement Characteristics and their Influence on Sanitation Technologies 35 7 Relevant Information about Existing Services 36 8 Participatory Tools to Assist in Initial Investigations 37 9 Participatory Tools Useful for Needs Assessment 39 10 Level of Sanitation Service Provision 41 11 Approximate Water Consumption Figures for Different Levels of

    Water Supply Service 43 12 Relationship between Water Use and Disposal Option 44 13 Types of Toilet and Estimates of Water Consumption/Wastewater Production 44 14 Theoretical Infiltration Capacity for Different Soil Types 45 15 Types of Fecal Sludge and Implications on Cartage 49 16 Alternative Sewerage Options for Residential Areas 51 17 Impact of Wastewater Characteristics on the Choice of

    Wastewater Treatment Process 53 18 Options for Wastewater Treatment According to the Level of Centralization 54 19 Operation and Maintenance Tasks 58 20 Comparative Life Cycle Costs of Technology Options 60 21 Management Options 60 22 Institutional Options for the Construction, Delivery, and Maintenance of

    Urban Sanitation Services 75

    Contents

  • vi

    A Guide to Decisionmaking: Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India

    Figures

    1 Basic Sanitation Options 17 2 Stages in Conventional Wastewater Treatment 24 3 Five Key Stages in the Decisionmaking Process 33 4 Key Sanitation Choices and their Implications 42 5 Options for Collection and Drainage of Wastewater 48 6 Level of Treatment Required for Wastewater Reuse 52 7 Pour Flush Latrine with Offset Single Pit 81 8 Pour Flush Latrine with Offset Twin Pit 83 9 Pour Flush Latrine with Septic Tank and Soakaway 85 10 Community Toilet Block 87 11 A Vacutug 89 12 Small Bore Sewerage 94 13 Oxidation Ditch 96 14 Rotating Biological Contactor 98 15 Anaerobic Baffled Reactor 100 16 Wastewater Treatment Process 103 17 Activated Sludge Process 107 18 Biological Trickling Filter 109 19 Fluidized Aerated Bed (FAB) Reactor 111 20 Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) 113 21 Upflow Anaerobic Filter 115

    Boxes

    1 The Limitations of a Norms-Based Approach 6 2 Alandur Sewerage Project: Successful Innovation and Partnership 8 3 The Community-Led Total Sanitation Approach in Maharashtra 9 4 NGO and CBO Roles in Service Delivery 10

  • vii

    Foreword

    As India moves ahead in the urban sector with major reform initiatives, like JNNURM and UIDSSMT, there is a need to address key capacity issues related to provision of basic services, in order to fulfill the underlying goals of these reforms. This is particularly true of the urban sanitation sector. Traditionally public policy on basic urban services in India has focused on water supply, which has enjoyed primacy in investments as well, while sanitation has lagged behind. Even today, almost one fourth of the urban populations in India do not have access to safe and adequate sanitation facilities. Inadequate access to sanitation especially in high density urban slum settlements is one of the key impediments to improving the quality of life and productivity of urban centers. In the absence of quick and effective remedial measures, we also run the risk of rapidly increasing vulnerability to disease caused by such conditions.

    While urban India has invested significantly in sanitation infrastructure, this has essentially been focused on traditional sewerage networks, with some efforts directed towards individual and community toilets for economically weaker sections of society. These efforts have failed to deliver a safe sanitary environment in urban India as they typically lacked the comprehensiveness to address the full dimension of the sanitation challenge existing in the country. In particular, these efforts have failed in terms of targeting the sanitation needs of all sections of urban society, working towards triggering behavior change to ensure usage of the facilities created or their proper operation and maintenance.

    Given the experience in the sector thus far, it is imperative that future efforts consider a range of technical options ranging from on-site to traditional centralized sewerage and treatment systems, on technoeconomic considerations, so as to draw up plans that are comprehensive and inclusive enough to cover all geographical locations and all sections of society. Total sanitation, in its fullest sense, must be the underlying objective of these plans. Capacity building in this regard through documentation of appropriate sanitation technology options and their technoeconomic implications, is a key need of the hour.

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    MINISTRY OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT NIRMAN BHAWAN

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    New Delhi-110011, Dated the December 4, 2007

    Towards enabling Sustainable Cities...

  • viii

    A Guide to Decisionmaking: Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India

    In this context, these guidance notes titled ‘A Guide to Decisionmaking—Sanitation Technology Options for Urban India’, which have been developed by the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) with support from the Water and Sanitation Program-South Asia, are extremely timely. The documentation focuses on various technology options for provision of access, O&M and disposal arrangements related to sanitation ser