of 776 /776
A Descriptive Grammar of Sumerian

A Descriptive Grammar of Sumerian by Jagersma

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Sumerian Grammar

Citation preview

  • A Descriptive Grammar of Sumerian

  • Cover illustration: The Sumerian scribe Dudu (statuette dedicated to the god Ningirsu; Old Sumerian period; Iraq Museum, IM 55204)

    Cover design: Oblong Grafisch Ontwerp Jet Frenken

  • A descriptive grammar of Sumerian

    Proefschrift

    ter verkrijging van de graad van Doctor aan de Universiteit Leiden,

    op gezag van Rector Magnificus prof.mr. P.F. van der Heijden, volgens besluit van het College voor Promoties te verdedigen op donderdag 4 november 2010

    klokke 16.15 uur

    door

    Abraham Hendrik Jagersma

    geboren te Ede in 1955

  • Promotiecommissie:

    Promotor: Prof.dr. F.H.H. Kortlandt

    Overige leden: Prof.dr. H. Gzella Dr. M.G. Kossmann Prof.dr. M.P.G.M. Mous Prof.dr. W. Sallaberger (universiteit Mnchen) Prof.dr. W.H. van Soldt

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Chapter overview Preface and acknowledgements ..................................................................................................xv Abbreviations and conventions for the examples.....................................................................xvii 1. Introduction...............................................................................................................................1 2. The writing system..................................................................................................................15 3. Phonology ...............................................................................................................................31 4. Words and word classes..........................................................................................................69 5. The noun phrase and its parts .................................................................................................87 6. Nouns ....................................................................................................................................101 7. The cases...............................................................................................................................137 8. Pronouns................................................................................................................................207 9. Numerals ...............................................................................................................................241 10. Adjectives............................................................................................................................267 11. Verbs and verbal clauses.....................................................................................................285 12. The verbal stem...................................................................................................................309 13. The final person-prefixes ....................................................................................................327 14. The person suffixes .............................................................................................................343 15. The perfective and imperfective .........................................................................................359 16. The dimensional prefixes and initial person-prefixes.........................................................381 17. The dimensional prefixes: the indirect-object prefixes ......................................................399 18. The dimensional prefixes: the oblique-object prefixes ......................................................415 19. The dimensional prefixes: the prefixes {da}, {ta}, and {i}..............................................445 20. The dimensional prefixes: the local prefixes......................................................................465 21. The prefix {ba} as a middle marker ...................................................................................487 22. The ventive prefix {mu}.....................................................................................................497 23. The prefix {nga} .................................................................................................................513 24. The preformatives: the vocalic prefixes {u}, {i}, and {a}............................................517 25. The preformatives: the modal and negative verbal forms ..................................................551 26. The preformatives: {i} and non-negative {na}.................................................................577 27. The complex sentence.........................................................................................................583 28. Non-finite verbal forms.......................................................................................................627 29. Copular clauses ...................................................................................................................677 30. Nominal clauses ..................................................................................................................715 31. The nominalizing suffix {a}..............................................................................................719 Bibliography..............................................................................................................................729 Appendix: Diagram of the finite verb.......................................................................................743

    Detailed table of contents Table of contents...........................................................................................................................v Preface and acknowledgements ..................................................................................................xv Abbreviations and conventions for the examples.....................................................................xvii 1. Introduction...............................................................................................................................1 1.1. History of the language and its speakers ...........................................................................1 1.2. The Sumerian language......................................................................................................2

  • vi Table of contents

    1.2.1. Genetic and areal relationships................................................................................2 1.2.2. Sources.....................................................................................................................4 1.2.3. Dialects.....................................................................................................................6 1.2.4. The death of Sumerian.............................................................................................9 1.2.5. Previous grammars.................................................................................................10 1.3. This grammar ...................................................................................................................11 1.3.1. Grammatical terminology......................................................................................11 1.3.2. Notational conventions for the examples ..............................................................12 2. The writing system..................................................................................................................15 2.1. Introduction......................................................................................................................15 2.2. An outline of Sumerian orthography ...............................................................................15 2.3. The early development of Sumerian writing ...................................................................17 2.4. The spelling of syllable-final consonants ........................................................................19 2.5. The spelling of vowel length............................................................................................23 2.6. Spelling variation .............................................................................................................26 2.7. The transliteration of the Sumerian script........................................................................27 3. Phonology ...............................................................................................................................31 3.1. Introduction......................................................................................................................31 3.2. The stops ..........................................................................................................................34 3.2.1. General remarks.....................................................................................................34 3.2.2. The voiceless aspirated stops /p/, /t/, and /k/ .........................................................35 3.2.3. The voiceless stops /b/, /d/, and /g/........................................................................36 3.2.4. The glottal stop ......................................................................................................38 3.3. The affricates....................................................................................................................41 3.3.1. The /z/ ....................................................................................................................41 3.3.2. The //.....................................................................................................................43 3.4. The fricatives....................................................................................................................45 3.4.1. The /s/.....................................................................................................................45 3.4.2. The //.....................................................................................................................47 3.4.3. The /h~/ ....................................................................................................................47 3.4.4. The /h/ ....................................................................................................................48 3.5. The nasals.........................................................................................................................49 3.5.1. General remarks.....................................................................................................49 3.5.2. The /m/ ...................................................................................................................49 3.5.3. The /n/ ....................................................................................................................50 3.5.4. The // ....................................................................................................................50 3.6. The /l/ ...............................................................................................................................51 3.7. The /r/...............................................................................................................................52 3.8. The /j/ ...............................................................................................................................53 3.9. Vowels .............................................................................................................................55 3.9.1. The short vowels ....................................................................................................55 3.9.2. The long vowels.....................................................................................................56 3.9.3. Old Sumerian vowel harmony ...............................................................................57 3.9.4. Vowel changes .......................................................................................................60 3.10. Syllable structure............................................................................................................62 3.11. Stress ..............................................................................................................................63 4. Words and word classes..........................................................................................................69 4.1. Introduction......................................................................................................................69

  • Table of contents vii

    4.2. The Sumerological concept of Kettenbildung ..............................................................69 4.3. Phonological and grammatical words..............................................................................71 4.3.1. Introduction............................................................................................................71 4.3.2. Orthographic word.................................................................................................72 4.3.3. Phonological word .................................................................................................72 4.3.4. Grammatical word .................................................................................................74 4.3.5. Conclusion .............................................................................................................75 4.4. Basic structure of a Sumerian word.................................................................................76 4.4.1. Introduction............................................................................................................76 4.4.2. Morphemes ............................................................................................................76 4.4.3. Stems, affixes, and clitics.......................................................................................77 4.4.4. The relative order of the clitics..............................................................................78 4.5. Word classes (parts of speech) ........................................................................................80 4.5.1. Introduction............................................................................................................80 4.5.2. The word classes and their main properties...........................................................81 4.5.3. The adverbs .........................................................................................................83 4.5.4. The ideophones......................................................................................................85 5. The noun phrase and its parts .................................................................................................87 5.1. Introduction......................................................................................................................87 5.2. Basic structure of the noun phrase...................................................................................88 5.3. Appositive noun phrases..................................................................................................92 5.4. Coordinate noun phrases..................................................................................................95 6. Nouns ....................................................................................................................................101 6.1. Introduction....................................................................................................................101 6.2. Gender............................................................................................................................101 6.3. The plural marker {en} ................................................................................................105 6.3.1. Introduction.........................................................................................................105 6.3.2. Forms and spellings ............................................................................................106 6.3.3. Usage...................................................................................................................109 6.4. Reduplication .................................................................................................................113 6.5. Noun formation through compounding .........................................................................116 6.5.1. Introduction.........................................................................................................116 6.5.2. Noun-noun compounds.......................................................................................117 6.5.3. Adjective-noun and noun-adjective compounds ................................................119 6.5.4. Noun-participle compounds................................................................................122 6.5.5. Compounds of a noun and a case marker ...........................................................125 6.5.6. Coordinative compounds....................................................................................125 6.5.7. Word-like phrases...............................................................................................126 6.6. Noun formation through conversion..............................................................................127 6.6.1. Introduction.........................................................................................................127 6.6.2. Deverbal nouns ...................................................................................................127 6.6.3. De-adjectival nouns ............................................................................................130 6.7. Noun formation through derivation ...............................................................................130 6.8. Proper nouns ..................................................................................................................130 6.8.1. Introduction.........................................................................................................130 6.8.2. Noun phrases as proper nouns ............................................................................131 6.8.3. Clauses as proper nouns......................................................................................133 6.8.4. Shortened proper nouns ......................................................................................134

  • viii Table of contents

    7. The cases...............................................................................................................................137 7.1. Introduction....................................................................................................................137 7.2. The genitive case............................................................................................................139 7.2.1. The genitive case marker {ak} ...........................................................................139 7.2.2. Spellings..............................................................................................................144 7.2.3. Dependent use of a genitive................................................................................147 7.2.4. Headless genitives...............................................................................................152 7.3. The ergative case............................................................................................................154 7.4. The absolutive case........................................................................................................159 7.5. The dative case...............................................................................................................161 7.5.1. The dative case marker {ra} ...............................................................................161 7.5.2. Uses.....................................................................................................................164 7.6. The directive case ..........................................................................................................165 7.6.1. The directive case marker {e} ............................................................................165 7.6.2. Uses.....................................................................................................................169 7.7. The locative case............................................................................................................172 7.7.1. The locative case marker {a}............................................................................172 7.7.2. Uses.....................................................................................................................176 7.8. The terminative case ......................................................................................................180 7.8.1. The terminative case marker {e}.......................................................................180 7.8.2. Uses.....................................................................................................................183 7.9. The adverbiative case.....................................................................................................189 7.10. The ablative case..........................................................................................................191 7.11. The comitative case .....................................................................................................196 7.11.1. The comitative case marker {da} .....................................................................196 7.11.2. Uses...................................................................................................................200 7.12. The equative case.........................................................................................................202 8. Pronouns................................................................................................................................207 8.1. Introduction....................................................................................................................207 8.2. Independent personal pronouns .....................................................................................207 8.3. Possessive pronouns ......................................................................................................212 8.3.1. General remarks...................................................................................................212 8.3.2. First and second person {u} my and {zu} your ...........................................213 8.3.3. Third person {ane} his/her and {be} its.........................................................214 8.3.4. The plural forms...................................................................................................217 8.4. Demonstratives...............................................................................................................219 8.4.1. General remarks...................................................................................................219 8.4.2. Enclitic demonstratives........................................................................................220 8.4.3. Independent demonstratives ................................................................................225 8.5. Interrogative pronouns...................................................................................................228 8.6. Indefinite pronoun..........................................................................................................231 8.7. Reflexive pronoun..........................................................................................................234 9. Numerals ...............................................................................................................................241 9.1. Introduction....................................................................................................................241 9.2. Numeral system..............................................................................................................241 9.3. Syntax of the cardinals...................................................................................................246 9.3.1. Attributive use: quantifying nouns.......................................................................246 9.3.2. Attributive use: metrological expressions............................................................251

  • Table of contents ix

    9.3.3. Independent use of the cardinals..........................................................................255 9.4. Ordinals..........................................................................................................................256 9.5. Fractions.........................................................................................................................260 9.5.1. Preliminaries ........................................................................................................260 9.5.1. The phrase igi-...-l one-...th...........................................................................260 9.5.1. The expression u-ru-a one-half.......................................................................263 9.5.1. The ma-na system ...............................................................................................264 10. Adjectives............................................................................................................................267 10.1. Introduction................................................................................................................267 10.2. The adjectives as a distinct word class ......................................................................268 10.3. Reduplication .............................................................................................................270 10.4. Syntax.........................................................................................................................272 10.4.1. Attributive use....................................................................................................272 10.4.2. Predicative use ...................................................................................................275 10.5. De-adjectival verbs ....................................................................................................276 10.5.1. Overview............................................................................................................276 10.5.2. Intransitive statives ............................................................................................277 10.5.3. Forms with the nominalizing suffix {a}...........................................................278 10.6. De-adjectival nouns ...................................................................................................281 10.7. Comparison................................................................................................................283 11. Verbs and verbal clauses.....................................................................................................285 11.1. Introduction................................................................................................................285 11.2. Morphology of the finite verb....................................................................................285 11.2.1. General remarks.................................................................................................285 11.2.2. Basic structure of a finite verbal form...............................................................287 11.3. Semantic types of verbs .............................................................................................291 11.4. Basic clause structure.................................................................................................292 11.4.1. Introduction........................................................................................................292 11.4.2. The verb as the centre of the clause...................................................................293 11.4.3. Ergative and non-ergative patterns ....................................................................295 11.4.4. Indirect and oblique objects; Adjuncts ..............................................................296 11.4.5. Coreference........................................................................................................297 11.4.6. Word order.........................................................................................................299 11.4.7. Clause types .......................................................................................................301 11.5. Voice and valency-changing mechanisms.................................................................303 11.5.1. Introduction........................................................................................................303 11.5.2. Middle................................................................................................................303 11.5.3. Passives..............................................................................................................303 11.5.4. Causatives ..........................................................................................................307 11.6. A note on grammatical terms in Sumerology ............................................................307 12. The verbal stem...................................................................................................................309 12.1. Introduction................................................................................................................309 12.2. Verb formation...........................................................................................................309 12.3. Imperfective stems .....................................................................................................311 12.4. Verbal number ...........................................................................................................314 12.4.1. Introduction.....................................................................................................314 12.4.2. Stem alternation ..............................................................................................315 12.4.3. Reduplication..................................................................................................319

  • x Table of contents

    12.5. The plural suffix {en} ................................................................................................322 12.6. Stem modifications under inflection: the verb ak make..........................................323 13. The final person-prefixes ....................................................................................................327 13.1. General remarks.........................................................................................................327 13.2. Forms and spellings ...................................................................................................329 13.2.1. General remarks..............................................................................................329 13.2.2. The final person-prefix {b} ............................................................................329 13.2.3. The final person-prefix {n} ............................................................................331 13.2.4. The final person-prefix {e}.............................................................................334 13.2.5. The final person-prefix {}.............................................................................337 13.3. Strategies for expressing plurality .............................................................................339 13.3.1. Major strategies...............................................................................................339 13.3.2. The final person-prefix {nn}.........................................................................339 14. The person suffixes .............................................................................................................343 14.1. Introduction................................................................................................................343 14.2. The first person singular suffix {en} .........................................................................344 14.3. The second person singular suffix {en} ....................................................................345 14.4. The third person singular or non-human suffix {} .................................................347 14.5. The third person singular or non-human suffix {e} ..................................................348 14.6. The first person plural suffix {enden}.......................................................................349 14.7. The second person plural suffix {enzen} ..................................................................350 14.8. The third person plural suffix {e} ............................................................................351 14.9. The third person plural suffix {en}..........................................................................353 14.10. Changes to the initial /e/ of the person suffixes.......................................................353 14.11 Spellings of the initial /e/ after consonants...............................................................356 15. The perfective and imperfective .........................................................................................359 15.1. Introduction................................................................................................................359 15.2. Subject and object marking in the finite verb............................................................359 15.2.1. Overview.........................................................................................................359 15.2.2. The perfective inflection.................................................................................361 15.2.3. The imperfective inflection.............................................................................361 15.2.4. Non-human direct-object marking in the imperfective inflection..................363 15.2.5. The irregular verb tm ...................................................................................366 15.3. Perfective and imperfective stem forms ....................................................................367 15.3.1. Introduction.....................................................................................................367 15.3.2. Forms and spellings of the suffix {ed} ...........................................................369 15.3.3. The paradigm of the intransitive verb.............................................................370 15.4. Uses of the perfective and imperfective ....................................................................372 15.4.1. Introduction.....................................................................................................372 15.4.2. Main uses of the perfective.............................................................................373 15.4.3. Main uses of the imperfective.........................................................................376 16. The dimensional prefixes and initial person-prefixes.........................................................381 16.1. Introduction................................................................................................................381 16.2. Forms and spellings of the initial person-prefixes.....................................................382 16.2.1. The initial person-prefix {b} ..........................................................................382 16.2.2. The initial person-prefix {n} ..........................................................................384 16.2.3. The initial person-prefix {nn}.......................................................................385 16.2.4. The initial person-prefix {e}...........................................................................387

  • Table of contents xi

    16.2.5. The initial person-prefix {}...........................................................................388 16.2.6. The initial person-prefix {m}........................................................................389 16.3. Usage of the dimensional prefixes and initial person-prefixes..................................390 16.3.1. Dimensional prefixes and person prefixes......................................................390 16.3.2. Dimensional prefixes and verbs......................................................................392 16.3.3. Dimensional prefixes and noun phrases .........................................................395 16.3.4. External possession constructions ..................................................................396 17. The dimensional prefixes: the indirect-object prefixes ......................................................399 17.1. Introduction................................................................................................................399 17.2. Forms and spellings of the IO-prefixes......................................................................400 17.2.1. The prefix {ba}...............................................................................................400 17.2.2. The prefix {nna} .............................................................................................401 17.2.3. The prefixes {nn} and {nna}.....................................................................404 17.2.4. The prefix {ra}................................................................................................405 17.2.5. The prefix {ma}..............................................................................................408 17.2.6. The prefixes {m} and {ma} ......................................................................409 17.3. The indirect object .....................................................................................................410 18. The dimensional prefixes: the oblique-object prefixes ......................................................415 18.1. Introduction................................................................................................................415 18.2. Forms and spellings of the OO-prefixes....................................................................416 18.2.1. General remarks..............................................................................................416 18.2.2. The prefixes {bi} and {b}...............................................................................417 18.2.3. The prefixes {nni} and {n}.............................................................................421 18.2.4. The prefixes {ri} and {e} ...............................................................................423 18.2.5. The prefixes {mu} and {}.............................................................................425 18.2.6. The plural prefixes..........................................................................................426 18.2.7. A historical note on the OO-prefixes..............................................................428 18.3. The oblique object .....................................................................................................428 18.3.1. Introduction.....................................................................................................428 18.3.2. Causative constructions ..................................................................................429 18.3.3. The oblique object expressing in(to) contact with.......................................434 18.3.4. Human oblique object for non-human locational on ...................................439 18.4. Restrictions on co-occurrence with other prefixes ....................................................442 19. The dimensional prefixes: the prefixes {da}, {ta}, and {i}..............................................445 19.1. General remarks.........................................................................................................445 19.2. The prefix {da} (together) with ..............................................................................448 19.2.1. Forms and spellings ........................................................................................448 19.2.2. Usage...............................................................................................................450 19.3. The prefix {ta} from................................................................................................454 19.3.1. Forms and spellings ........................................................................................454 19.3.2. Usage...............................................................................................................456 19.4. The prefix {i} to ....................................................................................................459 19.4.1. Forms and spellings ........................................................................................459 19.4.2. Usage...............................................................................................................460 20. The dimensional prefixes: the local prefixes......................................................................465 20.1. Introduction................................................................................................................465 20.2. The local prefix {ni} in ...........................................................................................466 20.2.1. Forms and spellings ........................................................................................466

  • xii Table of contents

    20.2.2. Usage...............................................................................................................473 20.3. The local prefix {e} on............................................................................................476 20.3.1. Forms and spellings ........................................................................................476 20.3.2. Usage...............................................................................................................482 21. The prefix {ba} as a middle marker ...................................................................................487 21.1. Introduction................................................................................................................487 21.2. Forms and spellings ...................................................................................................487 21.3. The middle uses of {ba} ............................................................................................489 21.3.1. General remarks..............................................................................................489 21.3.2. Indirect reflexive.............................................................................................490 21.3.3. Change of state................................................................................................493 21.3.4. Passive.............................................................................................................494 22. The ventive prefix {mu}.....................................................................................................497 22.1. Introduction................................................................................................................497 22.2. Forms and spellings ...................................................................................................497 22.3. Meaning .....................................................................................................................504 22.4. Restrictions on co-occurrence with the person prefix {b} ........................................509 23. The prefix {nga} .................................................................................................................513 24. The preformatives: the vocalic prefixes {u}, {i}, and {a}............................................517 24.1. Introduction................................................................................................................517 24.2. The relative-past prefix {u} .....................................................................................517 24.2.1. Forms and spellings ........................................................................................517 24.2.2. Usage...............................................................................................................521 24.3. Forms and spellings of the prefixes {i} and {a}....................................................526 24.3.1. Loss in open syllables .....................................................................................526 24.3.2. Forms and spellings of the prefix {i}............................................................528 24.3.3. Forms and spellings of the prefix {a}...........................................................532 24.4. Usage of the prefixes {i} and {a} in Southern Sumerian ......................................535 24.4.1. General remarks..............................................................................................535 24.4.2. Usage in main clauses.....................................................................................535 24.4.3. Usage in subordinate clauses ..........................................................................537 24.4.4. Usage in forms with a single prefix ................................................................541 24.5. Usage of the prefixes {i} and {a} in Northern Sumerian ......................................543 24.5.1. General remarks..............................................................................................543 24.5.2. Usage in perfective forms...............................................................................543 24.5.3. Usage in imperfective forms...........................................................................546 24.6. A brief history of {i} and {a}.................................................................................548 25. The preformatives: the modal and negative verbal forms ..................................................551 25.1. Introduction................................................................................................................551 25.2. The negative proclitic {nu} .......................................................................................551 25.3. The imperative ...........................................................................................................556 25.4. The modal proclitic {h~a} ...........................................................................................558 25.4.1. Forms and spellings ........................................................................................558 25.4.2. Usage...............................................................................................................561 25.5. The negative modal prefix {na(n)}............................................................................565 25.6. The modal prefix {ga}...............................................................................................569 25.7. The negative modal prefix {bara} .............................................................................572 26. The preformatives: {i} and non-negative {na}.................................................................577

  • Table of contents xiii

    26.1. Introduction................................................................................................................577 26.2. The preformative {i} ................................................................................................577 26.3. Non-negative {na} .....................................................................................................579 27. The complex sentence.........................................................................................................583 27.1. Introduction................................................................................................................583 27.2. Coordinate clauses .....................................................................................................583 27.3. Subordinate clauses: formal categories .....................................................................585 27.3.1. Introduction.....................................................................................................585 27.3.2. Clauses with subordinating conjunctions .......................................................585 27.3.3. Forms and spellings of the suffix {a} in finite verbal forms ........................586 27.3.4. Nominalized clauses with the suffix {a}.......................................................591 27.3.5. Nominalized clauses without the suffix {a} .................................................592 27.3.6. Nominalized clauses with the verb ak do, make..........................................593 27.4. Finite relative clauses.................................................................................................594 27.4.1. Relative clauses with an explicit head noun...................................................594 27.4.2. Headless relative clauses ................................................................................599 27.5. Finite complement clauses.........................................................................................600 27.5.1. Introduction.....................................................................................................600 27.5.2. Finite complement clauses with verbs............................................................601 27.5.3. Finite complement clauses with nouns ...........................................................603 27.6. Finite adverbial clauses..............................................................................................606 27.6.1. Overview.........................................................................................................606 27.6.2. Temporal clauses meaning when .................................................................607 27.6.3. Temporal clauses meaning after or since ..................................................610 27.6.4. Temporal clauses meaning until or before ................................................612 27.6.5. Reason clauses ................................................................................................614 27.6.6. Conditional clauses .........................................................................................617 27.6.7. Comparative clauses .......................................................................................622 27.6.8. Residual types .................................................................................................624 28. Non-finite verbal forms.......................................................................................................627 28.1. Introduction................................................................................................................627 28.2. The present participle ................................................................................................630 28.2.1. Form and meaning ..........................................................................................630 28.2.2. Use as a verbal adjective.................................................................................631 28.2.3. Use as a verbal noun.......................................................................................634 28.2.4. Uses with the stative verbs zu know and tuku have ..................................636 28.3. The past participle......................................................................................................638 28.3.1. Form and meaning ..........................................................................................638 28.3.2. Form and spellings of the suffix {a}.............................................................640 28.3.3. Use as a verbal adjective.................................................................................643 28.3.4. Use as a verbal noun.......................................................................................650 28.3.5. Uses with the stative verbs zu know and tuku have ..................................655 28.4. The imperfective participle........................................................................................655 28.4.1. Form and meaning ..........................................................................................655 28.4.2. Forms and spellings of the suffix {ed} ...........................................................659 28.4.3. Use as a verbal adjective.................................................................................662 28.4.4. Use as a verbal noun.......................................................................................665 28.5. The imperfective participle with the nominalizing suffix {a}.................................671

  • xiv Table of contents

    28.6. The pronominal conjugation (a non-finite temporal clause)..................................672 28.7. The participles of the verb ak do, make..................................................................674 29. Copular clauses ...................................................................................................................677 29.1. Introduction................................................................................................................677 29.2. The copula..................................................................................................................677 29.2.1. Introduction.....................................................................................................677 29.2.2. The forms of the independent copula .............................................................678 29.2.3. The forms of the enclitic copula .....................................................................681 29.3. The subject of a copular clause..................................................................................687 29.4. The predicate of a copular clause ..............................................................................689 29.4.1. General remarks..............................................................................................689 29.4.2. Predicative nouns............................................................................................690 29.4.3. Predicative numerals.......................................................................................694 29.4.4. Predicative pronouns ......................................................................................695 29.4.5. Predicative adjectives .....................................................................................696 29.4.6. Predicative present participles ........................................................................696 29.4.7. Predicative past participles .............................................................................697 29.4.8. Predicative imperfective participles ...............................................................698 29.4.9. Predicative clauses..........................................................................................701 29.5. Adjuncts and other optional constituents...................................................................704 29.6. Subordinate copular clauses ......................................................................................705 29.6.1. Introduction.....................................................................................................705 29.6.2. Relative clauses...............................................................................................706 29.6.3. Complement clauses .......................................................................................710 29.6.4. Adverbial clauses............................................................................................710 29.7. The copula in highlighting constructions...................................................................712 30. Nominal clauses ..................................................................................................................715 30.1. Introduction................................................................................................................715 30.2. Proper nouns ..............................................................................................................715 30.3. Interrogative clauses ..................................................................................................716 30.4. Negative declarative clauses......................................................................................717 30.5. Other nominal clauses................................................................................................718 31. The nominalizing suffix {a}..............................................................................................719 31.1. Introduction................................................................................................................719 31.2. Form and spellings.....................................................................................................719 31.3. Uses............................................................................................................................721 31.3.1. Copula .............................................................................................................721 31.3.2. De-adjectival verbs .........................................................................................721 31.3.3. Numerals .........................................................................................................722 31.3.4. Non-finite verbal forms...................................................................................723 31.3.5. Finite nominalized clauses..............................................................................725 31.4. Conclusions................................................................................................................726 Bibliography..............................................................................................................................729 Appendix: Diagram of the finite verb.......................................................................................743 Samenvatting in het Nederlands ...............................................................................................745 Curriculum vitae........................................................................................................................749

  • PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    This grammar has been long in the making. After my graduation in 1988, I wanted to do a PhD on the grammar of the Old Sumerian texts from Lagash, with the aim to write a synchronic grammar of a single Sumerian dialect. Help came from many directions. Theo Krispijn shared with me his lists of verbal forms and his glossary of the Gudea texts. Gebhard Selz was most generous with manuscripts of Old Sumerian texts editions he was working on. In July 1990 the first meeting of the Sumerian Grammar Discussion Group took place, to which Jeremy Black and Joachim Krecher kindly invited me as an interested PhD student. This meeting and those of the following years were an excellent environment to confront my own developing ideas with those of scholars who had studied the various problems for dozens of years: Jeremy Black, Miguel Civil, Dietz Otto Edzard, Daniel Foxvog, Thorkild Jacobsen, Joachim Krecher, Piotr Michalowski, Claus Wilcke, and Mamoru Yoshikawa. A first version of my grammar, a brief sketch of 61 pages, was discussed with Joachim Krecher, Annette Zgoll and Thomas Balke in the summer of 1990. Krechers comments revealed so many shortcomings that I decided to start again from scratch. A second version (1991) fared somewhat better. Claus Wilcke kindly agreed to read it and provided several pages with comments, which led to several improvements. I also gave this second version to Gbor Zlyomi, which was the start of a long series of intense discussions during the 1990s, which led to numerous new analyses and refinements of old ones, especially in matters syntac-tic. By the end of 1992, it became clear to me that I needed help from a linguist. I had been trained as a philologist with a focus on Semitic languages and was somewhat out of my depth with writing a grammar of a language that has an entirely different structure. A number of people suggested me to contact Frederik Kortlandt, who had already supervised PhD gram-mars on a wide range of languages. He kindly agreed to be my supervisor and I happily set out to write the third and final version. His comments led to several crucial improvements, especially in the phonology. It was also on his advice that I started glossing all the examples. After writing a number of chapters, I realized that the Old Sumerian texts from Lagash were too limited a corpus to write a proper linguistic grammar on. Their spelling simply ignores too many case markers and verbal prefixes, so that my grammar would be riddled with examples containing invisible grammatical elements. It led to the decision to widen the corpus to include all Sumerian texts from the second half of the third millennium. In 1997 I began therefore writing a fourth version which, after a break from late 1999 to early 2005, I was able to finish this year. I have received help from many persons in addition to those already mentioned. In the area of Ur III texts, the support of Remco de Maaijer has been invaluable. Hundreds of discussions with him have clarified for me many issues involving the content and background of these texts. In addition, his supply of atypical spellings and strange forms has been inexhaustible. Likewise, in their usual kindness, Marcel Sigrist, Natasha Koslova, and David Owen have shared numerous unpublished texts with me. Thanks are also due to the Trustees of the British Museum for allowing me to quote from unpublished texts from the British Museum. Natasha Koslova and Joachim Oelsner kindly collated a few crucial verbal forms for me. Thanks are also due to Sabine Ecklin, who generously put her unpublished paper (Ecklin 2004/2005) on the verbal prefix {na} at my disposal and allowed me to use it in preparing chapter 26. Jan Keetman generously shared his list of Sumerian loanwords from Von Sodens Akkadisches Handwrterbuch with me. Thomas Balke made available to me many of his own manuscripts on matters Sumerian, whether published or unpublished. He and I also had many

  • xvi Preface and acknowledgements

    pleasant and stimulating discussions during the 1990s. Annette Zgoll read parts of the manuscript and brought an important discussion by Krecher on Sumerian appositions to my attention. Pascal Attinger, whose own grammatical study from 1993 has been invaluable in preparing the present grammar, read an almost complete version of the manuscript. His comments have saved me from several serious errors. Maarten Koss-mann likewise provided me with several pages of very useful comments on the entire manu-script. My utmost thanks are for my partner and best friend, Els Woestenburg, without whose loving support during dozens of years this grammar never could have been finished. To all those named above go my sincere thanks for their help in making this book. None of them, however, is responsible for any of its shortcomings.

  • ABBREVIATIONS AND CONVENTIONS FOR THE EXAMPLES

    See 1.3.2 for an explanation and overview of the more general notational conventions used in examples.

    In transliterations of Sumerian, word signs are in bold type and sound signs in bold italics (see 2.7 for a motivation).

    The morpheme {bi} consists of the phonemes /bi/, is written b, and is pronounced [bi].

    Symbols and abbreviations used in the glosses:

    - Separates affixes or stems from other affixes or stems in a word = Separates clitics from the other parts of a word : Separates multiple glosses for a single element . Separates the parts of a single gloss () Enclose dropped vowels of basic morphemes / Separates alternative glosses for a single affix

    1SG First person singular human 2SG Second person singular

    human 3SG Third person singular

    human 1PL First person plural human 2PL Second person plural

    human 3PL Third person plural human 3N Third person non-human A Transitive subject

    (mnemonic: Agent) ABL Ablative case ABS Absolutive case ADV Adverbiative case CAT.NEG Categorical negation COM Comitative case DAT Dative case DIR Directive case DO Direct object ERG Ergative case EQU Equative case FUT Future GEN Genitive case IO Indirect object IPFV Imperfective LOC Locative case (marker {a})

    LOC2 Locative case (marker {ne})

    MM Middle marker MOD Modal NEG Negative NFIN Non-finite NOM Nominalizing suffix OO Oblique object ORD Ordinal PFM Preformative PL Plural (nominal number) PLUR Plural action or state (verbal

    number) RDP Reduplication S Intransitive Subject

    (mnemonic: Subject) SING Non-plural action or state

    (verbal number) TERM Terminative case VENT Ventive VP Vocalic prefix

  • abbreviations of sources:

    AAICAB J.-P. Grgoire, Archives administratives et inscriptions cuniformes de lAshmolean Museum et de la Bodleian Collection dOxford, I/1-4 (Paris 1996-2002).

    AAS J.-P. Grgoire, Archives administratives sumriennes (Paris, 1970). AfO Archiv fr Orientforschung (Berlin/Graz/Horn 1923ff.). Amherst T.G. Pinches,The Amherst tablets (London 1908). Angim Edition: J.S. Cooper, The return of Ninurta to Nippur (Roma 1978). AnOr Analecta Orientalia (Rome 1931ff.). AOAT Alter Orient und Altes Testament (Neukirchen-Vluyn 1969ff.).

    22: H.A. Hoffner (ed.), Orient and Occident (1973). 25: B. Eichler (ed.), Kramer anniversary volume (1976). 240: M. Dietrich (ed.), Vom Alten Orient zum Alten Testament (1995). 274: G.J. Selz (ed.), Festschrift fr Burkhart Kienast (2003).

    AoF Altorientalische Forschungen (Berlin 1974ff.). ARET Archivi Reali di Ebla, Testi (Roma 1985ff.). ASJ Acta Sumerologica (Hiroshima 1979ff.). AUCT Andrews University Cuneiform Texts (Berrien Springs, Mich. (1984ff.). AuOr Aula Orientalis (Barcelona 1983ff.). AWAS G.J. Selz, Altsumerische Wirtschaftsurkunden aus amerikanischen

    Sammlungen (FAOS 15,2) (Stuttgart 1993). Ax of Nergal Edition: H. Behrens in: E. Leichty (ed.), A scientific humanist

    (Philadelphia 1988) pp. 27-32. BAOM Bulletin of the Ancient Orient Museum (Tokio 1979ff.). BBVO Berliner Beitrge zum Vorderen Orient (Berlin 1982ff.).

    11: R.L. Zettler, The Ur III temple of Inanna at Nippur (Berlin 1992). BCT Ph. J. Watson, Catalogue of cuneiform tablets in Birmingham City

    Museum, Vol. 1-2 (Warminster 1986-1993). BE The Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania. Series A:

    Cuneiform Texts (Philadelphia 1893ff.). Bedale STU C.L. Bedale, Sumerian tablets from Umma in the John Rylands Library,

    Manchester (Manchester 1915). Berens T.G. Pinches, The Babylonian Tablets of the Berens Collection (Asiatic

    Society Monographs 16) (London 1915). BIN Babylonian Inscriptions in the Collection of James B. Nies, Yale

    University (New Haven 1917ff.). BM British Museum (London), museum signature. BM 3 R.D. Biggs, Inscriptions from Al-HibaLagash, The first and second

    seasons (Malibu 1976). BPOA Biblioteca del prximo oriente antiguo (Madrid 2006ff.). Bridges Mesag S.J. Bridges, The Mesag Archive: a study of Sargonic society and

    economy. Dissertation Yale university (1981) BRM Babylonian records in the library of J. Pierpont Morgan (New Haven

    1912-1923). CHEU G. Contenau, Contribution lhistoire conomique dUmma (Paris

    1915).

  • Abbreviations and conventions for the examples xix

    Civil FI M. Civil, The Farmers Instructions. A Sumerian agricultural manual (Barcelona 1994).

    CLAM M.E. Cohen, The canonical lamentations of ancient Mesopotamia (Potomac 1988).

    CM 26 T.M. Sharlach, Provincial taxation and the Ur III state (Cuneiform monographs 26) (Leiden 2004).

    CST T. Fish, Catalogue of Sumerian tablets in the John Rylands Library (Manchester 1932).

    CT Cuneiform texts from Babylonian tablets in the British Museum (London 1986ff.).

    CTMMA I I. Spar (ed.), Cuneiform texts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Volume I (New York 1988).

    CTNMC Th. Jacobsen, Cuneiform texts in the National Museum, Copenhagen (Leiden 1939).

    Curse of Agade Edition: J.S. Cooper, The curse of Agade (Baltimore 1983). CUSAS Cornell University studies in Assyrioloy and Sumerology (Bethesda

    2007ff.). Cyl Inscriptions of Gudea on cylinders. Edition: D.O. Edzard, Gudea and his

    dynasty (RIM E3/1) (Toronto 1997). DAS B. Lafont, Documents administratifs sumriens provenant du site de

    Tello et conservs au Muse du Louvre (Paris 1985). DC E. de Sarzec, Dcouvertes en Chalde (Paris 1884-1912). DI Dumuzi-Inanna songs. Edition: Y. Sefati, Love songs in Sumerian

    literature (Ramat Gan 1998). DP F.-M. Allotte de la Fue, Documents prsargoniques (Paris 1908-1920). DTBM J. Politi - L. Verderame, The Drehem texts in the British Museum

    (Nisaba 8) (Messina 2005). DTCR M. Sigrist, Documents from tablet collections in Rochester, New York

    (Bethesda 1991). Dumuzis Dream Edition: B. Alster, Dumuzis dream (Copenhagen 1972). Ean. Inscriptions of Eannatum. Edition: H. Steible, Die altsumerischen Bau-

    und Weihinschriften (FAOS 5/1) (Wiesbaden 1982), pp.120-181. ECTJ A. Westenholz, Early cuneiform texts in Jena (Kobenhavn 1975). Ed B Edubba B. Edition: .W. Sjberg, Der Vater und sein missratener

    Sohn, Journal of cuneiform studies 25 (1973) pp.105-169. EEs Edition: A. Berlin, Enmerkar and Ensuh~kedanna (Philadelphia 1979). ELA Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta. Edition: C. Mittelmayer, Enmerkara

    und der Herr von Arata (Fribourg/Gttingen 2009). En. I Inscriptions of Enannatum I. Edition: H. Steible, Die altsumerischen

    Bau- und Weihinschriften (FAOS 5/1) (Wiesbaden 1982), pp.182-210. ENam Edition: M. Civil, Enlil and Namzitarra, Archiv fr Orientforschung 25

    (1974-1977) pp.65-71. ENh Edition: P. Attinger, Enki et Ninh~ursaa, Zeitschrift fr Assyriologie und

    vorderasiatische Archologie 74 (1984) pp.1-52. Enlil and Ninlil Edition: H. Behrens, Enlil und Ninlil. Ein sumerischer Mythos aus

    Nippur (Roma 1973). Ent. Inscriptions of Enmetena. Edition: H. Steible, Die altsumerischen Bau-

    und Weihinschriften (FAOS 5/1) (Wiesbaden 1982), pp.211-272.

  • xx Abbreviations and conventions for the examples

    ErH Enkis journey to Nibru. Edition: A.A. Al-Fouadi, Enkis journey to Nippur, Dissertation University of Pennsylvania (1969).

    EWO Edition: C.A. Benito: Enki and Ninmah and Enki and the World Order, Dissertation University of Pennsylvania (1969).

    FAOS Freiburger altorientalische Studien (Wiesbaden/Stuttgart 1975ff.). 5/2: H. Steible, Die altsumerischen Bau- und Weihinschriften, Teil II (1982). 7: I.J. Gelb - B. Kienast, Die altakkadischen Knigsinschriften des Dritten Jahrtausends v. Chr. (1990). 9: H. Steible, Die neusumerischen Bau- und Weihinschriften (1991). 12: M.J. Geller, Forerunners to Udug-hul (1985). 17: P. Steinkeller, Sale documents of the Ur-III-period (1989). 19: B. Kienast - K. Volk, Die sumerischen und akkadischen Briefe des III. Jahrtausends (1995).

    FI Farmers Instructions. Edition: M. Civil, The Farmers Instructions. A Sumerian agricultural manual (Barcelona 1994).

    FS A Elegy on the death of Nannaya. Edition: W. Sjberg, The first Pushkin Museum elegy and new texts Journal of the American Oriental Society 103 (1983) pp.315-320.

    GA Edition: W.H.Ph. Rmer, Das sumerische Kurzepos Bilgame und Akka (Neukirchen-Vluyn 1980).

    Genava Genava. Bulletin du Muse dArt et dHistoire de Genve (Genve 1923ff).

    GH A Edition: D.O. Edzard, Gilgame und Huwawa A, I. Teil Zeitschrift fr Assyriologie 80 (1990) pp.165-203. II. Teil Zeitschrift fr Assyriologie 81 (1991) pp.165-223.

    GH B Edition: D.O. Edzard, Gilgame und Huwawa. Zwei Versionen der sumerischen Zedernwaldepisode nebst einer Edition von Version B (Sitzungberichte der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Philosophisch-historische Klasse 4) (Mnchen 1993).

    HAV Hilprecht Anniversary Volume (Leipzig 1909). Hirose T. Gomi, Neo-Sumerian administrative texts of the Hirose Collection

    (Potomac 1990). HLC G.A. Barton, Haverford Library collection of cuneiform tablets or

    documents from the temple archives of Telloh (Philadelphia 1905-1914). HSS 4 M.I. Hussey, Sumerian tablets in the Harvard Semitic Museum, Part II:

    From the time of the Dynasty of Ur (Cambridge 1915). HUCA Hebrew Union College Annual (Cincinatti, Ohio 1924ff.). Iddin-Dagan A Edition: D. Reisman, Iddin-Dagan's Sacred Marriage Hymn, Journal of

    Cuneiform Studies 25 (1973) pp.185-202. IE Edition: G. Farber-Flgge, Der Mythos Inanna und Enki unter

    besonderer Bercksichtigung der Liste der m e (Rome 1973). Inanna B Edition: A. Zgoll, Der Rechtsfall der En-hedu-Ana im Lied nin-me-ara

    (Mnster 1997). Inanna E Edition: A. Falkenstein, Zeitschrift fr Assyriologie 48 (1944) pp.105-

    113. Inanna C Edition: .W. Sjberg, in-nin -gur4-ra: a hymn to the goddess Inanna

    by the en-Priestess Enh~eduanna, Zeitschrift fr Assyriologie 65 (1975)

  • Abbreviations and conventions for the examples xxi

    pp.161-253. Inannas Descent Edition: W.R. Sladek, Inannas descent to the Netherworld, Dissertation

    The Johns Hopkins University (1974). Instr.Shur. The Instructions of uruppak. Edition: B. Alster, The wisdom of ancient

    Sumer (Bethesda 2005) pp.31-220. Iraq Iraq (London: British School of Archaeology in Iraq, 1934ff.). ISET stanbul Arkeologji Mzelerinde bulunan Sumer edeb tablet ve paralar

    (Ankara 1969-1976) 1: M. i - H. Kzlyay - S.N. Kramer (1969) 2: S.N. Kramer (1976).

    Ishme-Dagan J Edition: J. Klein, The sweet chant of the churn: a revised edition of Imedagan J. In: M. Dietrich - O. Loretz (eds.), d u b s a r a n t a - m e n . Studien zur Altorientalistik: Festschrift fr Willem H.Ph. Rmer (Mnster 1998) pp.205-202.

    ITT Inventaire des tablettes de Tello conserves au Muse Imprial Ottoman I-V (Paris 1910-1921).

    JAOS Journal of the American Oriental Society (New Haven etc. 1849ff.). JCS Journal of Cuneiform Studies (New Haven etc. 1947ff.). Jean SA C.-F. Jean, umer et Akkad (Paris 1923). LAK A. Deimel, Liste der archaischen Keilschriftzeichen (Leipzig 1922). LB Tablets from the Collection de Liagre Bhl, Nederlands Instituut voor

    het Nabije Oosten (Leiden), museum signature. Letter A Edition: F.A. Ali, Sumerian letters. Two collections from the Old

    Babylonian schools, Dissertation University of Pennsylvania (1964). LfEM P. Michalowski, Letters from early Mesopotamia (Atlanta 1993). Limet Documents H. Limet, Etude de documents de la priode dAgad appartenant

    lUniversit de Lige (Paris 1973). Lipit-Etar D Edition: W.H.Ph. Rmer, Sumerische Knigshymnen der Isin-Zeit

    (Leiden 1965) pp.6-9. LSU Edition: P. Michalowski, The lamentation over the destruction of Sumer

    and Ur (Winona Lake 1989). LU Edition: W.H.Ph. Rmer, Die Klage ber die Zerstrung von Ur

    (Mnster 2004). Lugalbanda I Partial edition: C. Wilcke, Das Lugalbandaepos (Wiesbaden 1969)

    pp.81-84, etc. Lugalbanda II Edition: C. Wilcke, Das Lugalbandaepos (Wiesbaden 1969). Lugal-e Edition: J. van Dijk, LUGAL UD ME-LM-bi NIR-L (Leiden 1983). LW Edition: M.W. Green, The Uruk lament, Journal of the American

    Oriental Society 104 (1984) pp.253-279. MAD I.J. Gelb, Materials for the Assyrian Dictionary (Chicago 1957ff.). MBI G.A. Barton, Miscellaneous Babylonian inscriptions, Part I: Sumerian

    religious texts (New Haven 1918). MCS Manchester cuneiform studies (Manchester 1915ff.). MDP Mmoires de la Dlgation en Perse (Paris 1900ff.).

    28: V. Scheil, Mlanges pigraphiques (1939) 57: R. Labat - D.O. Edzard, Textes littraires de Suse (1974).

    MEE Materiali epigrafici di Ebla (Roma 1979ff.). Mesopotamia Mesopotamia, rivista di archeologia, epigrafia e storia orientale antica

  • xxii Abbreviations and conventions for the examples

    (Firenze 1966ff). MSL Materialien zum sumerischen Lexikon (Roma 1937ff.). MTBM M. Sigrist, Messenger texts from the British Museum (Potomac 1990). MVAG Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatischen Gesellschaft (Berlin 1896ff.). MVN Materiali per il vocabolario neosumerico (Roma 1974ff.). Nanshe hymn Edition: W. Heimpel, The Nanshe Hymn, Journal of Cuneiform

    Studies 33 (1981) pp.65-139. NATN D.I. Owen, Neo-Sumerian archival texts primarily from Nippur (Winona

    Lake 1982). NATU Neo-Sumerian administrative texts from Umma kept in the British

    Museum (Messina 2005ff). 1: F. ar-Rawi - F. DAgostino (Nisaba 6) (2005). 3: F.N.H. al-Rawi - L. Verderame (Nisaba 23) (2009).

    Nebraska N.W. Forde, Nebraska cuneiform texts of the Sumerian Ur III dynasty (Lawrence 1972).

    NFT G. Cros, Nouvelles fouilles de Tello (Paris 1910). NG A. Falkenstein, Die neusumerischen Gerichtsurkunden (Mnchen 1956-

    1957). Nik 1 M.V. Nikolskij, Documenty chozjajstvennoj otetnosti drevnejej

    epochi Chaldei iz sobranija N.P. Lichaeva (St. Petersburg 1908). Nik 2 M.V. Nikolskij, Documenty chozjajstvennoj otetnosti drevnej Chaldei

    iz sobranija N.P. Lichaeva, II (Moskva 1915). NinTu Edition: B. Alster, Ninurta and the Turtle, Journal of Cuneiform

    Studies 24 (1971/72) pp.120-125. Nisaba Nisaba. Studi assiriologici Messinesi (Messina 2002ff.). NRVN 1 M. i - H. Kzlyay, Neusumerische Rechts- und Verwaltungsurkunden

    aus Nippur I (Ankara 1965). OECT Oxford editions of cuneiform texts (Oxford 1923ff.). OIP Oriental Institute Publications (Chicago 1924ff.). OrNS Orientalia Nova Series (Roma 1932ff.). OrSP Orientalia Series Prior (Roma 1920-1930). OSP A. Westenholz, Old Sumerian and Old Akkadian Texts in Philadelphia,

    1: Literary and lexical texts and the earliest administrative documents from Nippur (Malibu 1975). 2: The Akkadian texts, the Enlilmaba texts, and the onion archive (Copenhagen 1987).

    PBS Publications of the Babylonian Section, University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia 1911ff.).

    PDT Die Puzri-Dagan-Texte der Istanbuler Archologischen Museen. 1: M. i - H. Kzlyay - A. Salonen (Helsinki 1954). 2: F. Yldz - T. Gomi (Wiesbaden 1988).

    Pettinato Luomo G. Pettinato, Luomo cominci a scrivere (Milano 1997). PIOL 19 H. Sauren, Les tablettes cuniformes de lpoque dUr des collections de

    la New York Public Library (Louvain-la-Neuve 1978). PPAC Yang Zhi, Sargonic inscriptions from Adab (Changchun 1989). PRAK H. de Genouillac, Premires recherches archologiques Kich (Paris

    1924-1925). Proverb Collection Edition: B. Alster, Proverbs of ancient Sumer (Bethesda 1997).

  • Abbreviations and conventions for the examples xxiii

    PSD .W. Sjberg (ed.), The Sumerian dictionary of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia 1984ff).

    RA Revue dassyriologie et darchologie orientale (Paris 1884ff.). RIAA L. Speleers, Recueil des inscriptions de lAsie antrieure des Muses

    Royaux du Cinquantenaire Bruxelles (Brussel 1925). RIM E The royal inscriptions of Mesopotamia. Early periods (Toronto 1987ff.).

    2: D.R. Frayne, Sargonic and Gutian periods (1993). 3/2: D.R. Frayne, Ur III period (1997). 4: D.R. Frayne, Old Babylonian period (1990).

    RTC F. Thureau-Dangin, Recueil de tablettes chaldennes (Paris 1903). SACT 1 Sh.T. Kang, Sumerian economic texts from the Drehem archive (Urbana

    1972). SACT 2 Sh.T. Kang, Sumerian economic texts from the Umma archive (Urbana

    1973). SANTAG 6 N. Koslova, Ur III-Texte der St. Petersburger Eremitage (Wiesbaden

    2000). SAT M. Sigrist, Sumerian Archival Texts (Bethesda 1993ff.). SEL Studi epigrafici e linguistici sul Vicino Oriente Antico (Verona 1984ff.). SET T.B. Jones - J.W. Snyder, Sumerian economic texts from the Third Ur

    Dynasty (Minneapolis 1961). Shukaletuda Edition: K. Volk, Inanna und ukaletuda (Wiesbaden 1995). Shulgi A Edition: J. Klein, Three ulgi hymns (Ramat-Gan 1981). Shulgi B Edition: unpublished manuscript Geerd de Haayer. Shulgi D Edition: J. Klein, Three ulgi hymns (Ramat-Gan 1981). Shulgi G Edition: J. Klein, The coronation and consecration of ulgi in the Ekur

    (ulgi G). In: M. Cogan (ed.), Ah, Assyria. Studies in Assyrian history and ancient Near Eastern historiography presented to Hayim Tadmor (Jerusalem 1991) pp.292-313.

    Shulgi P Edition: J. Klein, The royal hymns of Shulgi, king of Ur: mans quest for immortal fame (Philadelphia 1981).

    Shulgi R Edition: J. Klein, ulgi and Imedagan, in: J. Klein - A. Skaist (eds.), Bar-Ilan studies in assyriology dedicated to Pinhas Artzi (Ramat-Gan 1990) pp.65-136.

    Shulgi X Edition: J. Klein, Three ulgi hymns (Ramat-Gan 1981). SLTNi S.N. Kramer, Sumerian literary texts from Nippur in the Museum of the

    Ancient Orient at Istanbul (1944). Smith College C.H. Gordon, Smith College Tablets (Northampton 1952). SNAT T. Gomi - S. Sato, Selected Neo-Sumerian administrative texts from the

    British Museum (Abiko 1990). SRU D.O. Edzard, Sumerische Rechtsurkunden des III. Jahrtausends aus der

    Zeit vor der III. Dynastie von Ur (Mnchen 1968). St Inscriptions of Gudea on statues. Edition: D.O. Edzard, Gudea and his

    dynasty (RIM E3/1) (Toronto 1997).. STA E. Chiera, Selected temple accounts from Telloh, Yokha and Drehem

    (Philadelphia 1922). STH 1 M.I. Hussey, Sumerian tablets in the Harvard Semitic Museum, Part I,

    Chiefly from the reigns of Lugalanda and Urukagina of Lagash (Cambridge 1912).

  • xxiv Abbreviations and conventions for the examples

    StOr Studia Orientalia (Helsinki 1925ff.). STTIAM V. Donbaz - B. R. Foster, Sargonic Texts from Telloh in the Istanbul

    Archaeological Museums (Philadelphia 1982). STVC E. Chiera, Sumerian texts of varied contents (Chicago 1934). Studies Borger S.M. Maul (ed.), Festschrift fr Rykle Borger zu seinem 65. Geburtstag

    am 24.Mai 1994 (Groningen 1998). Studies Finkelstein M. de Jong Ellis (ed.), Essays on the Ancient Near East in memory of

    Jacob Joel Finkelstein (Hamden 1977). Studies Greenfield S. Gitin et al. (eds.), Solving riddles and untying knots: biblical,

    epigraphic, and Semitic studies in honor of Jonas C. Greenfield (Winona Lake 1995).

    Studies Pettinato H. Waetzoldt (ed.), Von Sumer nach Ebla und zurck. Festschrift Giovanni Pettinato (Heidelberg 2004).

    Studies Sigrist P. Michalowski (ed.), On the third dynasty of Ur. Studies in honor of Marcel Sigrist (Boston 2008).

    Studies Veenhof W. van Soldt (ed.), Veenhof anniversary volume (Leiden 2001). TAD St.H. Langdon, Tablets from the archives of Drehem (Paris 1911). TCABI F. Pomponio et al., Le tavolette cuneiformi di Adab delle collezioni della

    Banca dItalia (Roma 2006). TCL Textes cuniformes, Muse du Louvre (Paris 1910ff.). TCND A. Archi - F. Pomponio, Testi cuneiformi neo-sumerici da Drehem

    (Milano 1990). TCNU A. Archi - F. Pomponio - G. Bergamini, Testi cuneiformi neo-sumerici

    da Umma (Torino 1995). TCS 1 E. Sollberger, The business and admnistrative correspondence under the

    kings of Ur (Locust Valley 1966). TCTI B. Lafont - F. Yldz, Tablettes cuniformes de Tello au Muse

    dIstanbul datant de lpoque de la IIIe dynastie dUr (Leiden 1989ff.). TCVPBI F. Pomponio et al., Tavolette cuneiformi di varia provenienza delle

    collezioni della Banca dItalia (Roma 2006). TENS M. Sigrist, Textes conomiques no-sumriens de lUniversit de

    Syracuse (Paris 1983). TIM 9 J. van Dijk, Cuneiform texts. Texts of varying content (Texts in the Iraq

    Museum IX) (Leiden 1976). TJAMC . Szlechter, Tablettes juridiques et administratives de la IIIe dynastie

    dUr et de la Ire dynastie de Babylone (Paris 1963). TLB 3 W.W. Hallo, Sumerian archival texts (Leiden 1963). TMHC Texte und Materialien der Frau Professor Hilprecht Collection of

    Babylonian Antiquities im Eigentum der Universitt Jena. NF 1/2: A. Pohl, Rechts- und Verwaltungsurkunden der III. Dynastie von Ur (Leipzig 1937). NF 4: S.N. Kramer - I. Bernhardt, Sumerische literarische Texte aus Nippur, Band II (Berlin 1967). 6: J.J.A. van Dijk -