8 STEPS IN THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR 1. 2. Yalta (February 1945) and Potsdam (July 1945) Soviet action was the basis of the Long Telegram and the Iron Curtain speech The Long Telegram, February 22 1946 Shaped US foreign policy: Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. -
The Iron Curtain Speech, March 6 1946 Shaped US foreign policy: Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan The Truman Doctrine, March 12 1946 A result of the Iron Curtain Speech and the Long Telegram The Marshall Plan, June 5 1947 Broader application of the principles behind the Truman Doctrine. Congress was compelled to pass the Marshall Plan after the Czech Coup. Red Army occupation of Eastern Europe, 1945-7 Contributed to need for containment. Czechoslovakia Coup, February 1948 Direct cause for the Marshall Plan. Contributed to need for containment. Berlin Blockade, June 1948 First direct confrontation between the US and the USSR in a proxy location.
Tehran, November 1943 1. Stalin, FDR, and Churchill discussed a definite date for the Normandy invasion (projected for May 1944) and in return Stalin would join in the Pacific once Germany fell. 2. Poland: Stalin wanted the territories seized in Poland from 1939-40 to remain under Soviet control. Stalin argued that Poland was the traditional launching pad for invasion into Russia, and his demands were agreed to. 3. Eastern Europe: Western Allies agreed to let the Soviets keep Baltic territories which were seized from 1939-40. a. This defied the 1941 Atlantic Charter between the US and Britain.
Yalta, February 1945 At this point, the fall of German is within sight because the Allies opened a successful second front with the invasion of Normandy. The Red Army occupied much of Eastern Europe, which strengthened Stalins position at Yalta. 1. a. The Allies agreed on demilitarization, disarmament, de-Nazification, and division of Germany. They wanted a weak post-war Germany.
2. Germany would be divided to four zones with each designated for the US, USSR, Britain and France. a. Churchill was adamant that France should receive a zone. This ensured that the Soviet would only receive one fourth of Poland rather than one third, and that the cumulative Western Allied zone was larger. 3. Stalin demanded a larger portion of German reparations, so the Western Allies agreed to give him 25% of their reparations. (Stalin would receive 50% of the $20 billion in reparations) 4. a. The Allies agreed that the eastern Polish border would be redrawn to the Curzon Line. Stalin demands from Tehran were granted.
5. Churchill wanted London Poles to take the government in Poland, whereas Stalin wanted a proCommunist Lubin Committee. a. This was the most severe point of disagreement during Yalta. Stalins actions were viewed as an attempt to spread communism. 6. The Allies signed the Declaration for Liberated Europe. Stalin agreed to let Eastern European countries have free elections. a. This was seen as the greatest achievement of Yalta for the Western Allies; however Stalin was to break his promise in the future. 7. Stalin agreed to enter war with Japan after Germany fell, so long as he was rewarded with territory. He demanded South Sakhalin and the Kurile Islands and the Western Allies agreed. a. Stalin appeared expansionist.
8. Stalin agreed to join the UN; however he demanded that all 16 Soviet States receive a seat of their own. He was only granted three.
Between the Conferences 1. Roosevelt died in April 1945 and was replaced by Truman, who was more aggressive against the Soviets. 2. 3. 4. Germany surrendered unconditionally on May 7 1945. Clement Atlee replaced Winston Churchill after the general elections occurred in the UK. The Soviets occupied Berlin by the end of the war.
5. The US successfully tested its first atomic bomb at the Trinity site on the same day the Potsdam Conference began. Potsdam, July 1945 1. The Allies could not agree on how to disarm, demilitarize, de-Nazify and divide Germany, so ultimately it was decided that each nation would deal with it in their own manner within their own zones. 2. Truman did not agree with the terms dealing with Poland set at Yalta and challenged the western frontier (the Oder-Neisse line). 3. Truman insisted that the Polish government be re-organized, because he did feel there was a free and democratic vote. a. Stalin offered to include more London Poles in the Lubin-dominated government, but this did not appease Truman. 4. Truman was strongly opposed to the Percentages Agreement between Stalin and Churchill in October 1944 because it gave the Soviets significant influence in Romania and Bulgaria. a. Truman was opposed to a Soviet sphere of influence developing in East Europe; however the Red Army was physically occupying the area. Tensions between Truman and Stalin rose. 5. Regarding the developments at the Trinity Site, Truman casually informed Stalin that the US had a new weapon of unusual destructive force. 6. The UN was established. The Big 5 had the power of veto.
Kennans Long Telegram To what extent did the Long Telegram shape American foreign policy? Prior to the publication of the Long Telegram, Secretary of State James Byrnes described a position of patience with firmness in American foreign policy. Byrnes believed he had secured Soviet agreements for self-determination and revival of the world economy with his recent activity in foreign conferences,
but Soviet conduct suggested nothing of this. As a result of actions in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, by 1946 Soviet aggression became apparent. Publication of the Long Telegram 1. Recent developments with the USSR:
a. Josef Stalins Two Camps speech to Moscow on February 9, which outlined the incompatibility of capitalism and communism. i. Stalins speech dispelled notions of peaceful coexistence between communism and capitalism in the post-war world, for the Soviets tactics reflected the promotion worldwide revolution and the ideological expansion of communism. b. Conflict regarding Soviet aggression in Iran resulting from a defiance of the March 2 deadline for the withdrawal of military occupation in Azerbaijan. i. Soviets attempted to assume spheres of influence over areas such as Iran, which reinforced the message in Stalins February 9 speech. 2. Kennans thesis states that the USSR still lives in antagonistic capitalist encirclement with which in the long run there can be no permanent peaceful coexistence a. The publication of the Telegram reinforced that appeasement of Stalin was futile, and that the Soviets would have to be approached from a position of strength. 3. At bottom of Kremlin's neurotic view of world affairs is ...instinctive Russian sense of insecurity
a. Kennan asserted in the Telegram that the root of Soviet conduct lay deep within the foundation of the Soviet system, and no concessions from the outside world, including the United States, could effectively resolve conflicts with Russia. 4. The dispatch of the Telegram on February 22 1946 coupled with American-Soviet conflict allowed for the shift away from Byrnes described policy. Reception in the Department of the State 1. Navy Secretary James Forrestal made the Telegram a required reading among high-ranking officials in the Naval War College in Washington. a. The Telegram was significant to shaping US foreign policy because of the impression it left on members of the State Department. 2. After prompting by Acheson, the State-War-Navy Coordinating Committee (SWNCC) developed a constituency for aid programs to Europe in 1947.
a. Their purpose was the co-ordination of economic policy in [Soviet] occupied areas, particularly Germany and Japan, with general objectives in Europe and the Far East. Effect on US Foreign Policy See Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan. Churchills Iron Curtain Speech, March 5 1946 Basis of the Iron Curtain speech 1. From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent*Europe+. a. Churchills speech warned of the new Soviet danger in Europe. By 1946, Soviets dominated governments in Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania. i. Yalta. 2. If *the West+ become divided or falter in their duty then indeed catastrophe may overwhelm us all. a. Since the economic fall of Britain, a vacuum of power was left behind in Europe. Through the Iron Curtain speech, Churchill stressed that United States had a responsibility for protecting the worlds democracy since Britain no longer could. 3. Keely Rogers, The Cold War (2010). Churchill referenced the clock of secrecy over Europe within a few months of the end of the war. The West could not monitor Stalins actions behind the iron curtain. Soviet reaction 1. In March 1946, Stalin responded in a speech where he said Mr Churchills position is a call for war on the USSR. 2. In his March 1946 speech Stalin also said Churchills position was racist: only English-speaking nations are superior nations call upon to decide the destinies of the entire world. 3. 4. The Soviets withdrew from the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Stalin initiated a new Five-Year Plan to strengthen the USSR. Stalin defied the Declaration for Liberated Europe agreed to at
Truman Doctrine, March 12 1946 Trumans decision to provide aid to Greece and Turkey was affected profoundly by the Iron Curtain speech and the Long Telegram. These brought to attention the polarization of power and the need for the United States to take steps to strengthen countries threatened with Soviet aggression or communist subversion (Dean Acheson, 1946). 1. In his speech outlining the Doctrine, Truman said that the US had obligations to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. a. Truman adopted the message behind Kennans Telegram to present the Greek-Turkish situation as a struggle between democracy and des