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2. Define Leadership List & explain different types of leaders Explain what is meant by motivation Outline Maslows theory of motivation Outline McGregors theory of motivation 3. Leadership refers to the ability toinfluence other people to go ina particular direction & achieve aparticular goal1. Leaders provide direction2. Leaders set an example3. Leaders delegate workLets see box p.83! 4. 1. Autocratic or Authoritarian (Dictatorial)2. Democratic3. Laissez FaireThese styles differ in terms of: How??Ability to trustDecision-making styleMethods of persuasion 5. No discussion or consultation with staff Expects work to be done immediately withoutquestion- Do not question the Boss Only form of communication is top down Can yield success in short term(If boss is an expert?) 6. Boss is not popular with staff (support is low) Does not consider important opinions ofothers and leads to low staff morale & highstaff turnover May result in delaysLets see the Army example p.84 7. Allows & encourages workers to givetheir opinion and contribute to business decisions Inclusive approach Good atmosphere & morale leading to amotivated & satisfied workforce Two-way communication Encourages intrapreneurshipLets see example p.85! 8. Consultation can take longer and resultin a missed business opportunityLife of Brian Accommodating all viewpoints may result ina poor final decision High morale = Increase in worker productivity 9. Giving staff general goals and targetsto aim for and then givingthem authority to achieve these inwhatever way they thing bestLets see Richard BransonExample p. 86! 10. Lacks leadership (non-involvement etc.) Wrong to expect correct decisions willalways be made Communication is difficult Leads to inconsistency & inefficiency May work in research based work 11. Motivation is the willingness of peopleto work hard and contribute theirbest effortWorkers/Students must be motivated to find their work interesting Motivated staff = efficiency = good morale Leads to:1. Increased productivity2. Greater intrapreneurship3. Improved IR4. Easier recruitment & retention5. Repeat business 12. Not every worker is motivated by money? Non-financial motivators include: Job Security Job Status Job Aspiration Job Praise 13. 1. Abraham Maslow (1908 1970)2. Douglas Mc Gregor (1906 1964) 14. All human needs are arranged ina hierarchy (Pyramid) in order of theirimportance Every person has a need whichmust be satisfied When a need is satisfied youmove to the next level Needs are arranged in progressive levels(in terms of importance) A persons job can help satisfy these needs 15. Self-ActualisationEsteem Needs Social NeedsSecurity NeedsPhysiological Needs 16. Once financial needs are satisfied, workerswill seek additional rewards Employees attitudes and effort are dependenton satisfying their non-financial needs Morale will be low if the work is boringregardless of pay & this may increaseabsenteeism, lower efficiency & profit 17. Strengths: Recognises that people are motivated by morethan money Recognises that different things motivate differentpeople at different times Allows business identify the need fordifferent types of motivations for staffWeaknesses: People are complex, this is simplistic Do not satisfy one need at a time See p.88! 18. Analysed how employers & employees lookat work Employer =the boss, pays the wages, gives instructions, doesnot like unions Employee =does the job, takes the wages, accepts noresponsibility 19. During his research McGregor noticed twocontrasting styles of management (X & Y) He argued that large firms tend tobe run on one of these totally oppositeapproachesX y 20. Employees are lazy, need to be supervised and donot like working Management need to motivate lazy employeesthrough incentives Employees priorities are safety & security needs Employees lack ambition so need to be motivated Employees resist change & are easily influencedby others Controller Approach 21. Employees enjoy working & are willing to workas a result of positive management approaches Employees are self-motivated, no need forsupervision Satisfying self-actualisation needs results in fullcommitment of staff All workers should receive training Workers abilities are not fully utilised tothe benefit of the firm Facilitator Approach 22. Limitations of Theory X Strengths of Theory Y:Reduced motivationHigh motivationLess creativity More creativityPoor reputation Better business reputationHigher staff turnover Lower staff turnoverReduced profitability More positive IRIncreased profitability 23. Theory X - Autocratic & dictatorial Theory Y - Democracy Theory X - Workers perceived in a poor light Theory Y Workers perceived positively & as aresourceHow would you compare Maslows approachto that of McGregor?