Russian Journal of Electrochemistry, Vol. 41, No. 6, 2005, pp. 688691. Translated from Elektrokhimiya, Vol. 41, No. 6, 2005, pp. 774778.Original Russian Text Copyright 2005 by Grinberg, Danilov, Emets, Pleskov, Safonov.
The 55th Annual Meeting of the International Soci-ety of Electrochemistry (ISE) was held in Thessaloniki,Greece, in September of 2004. It was hosted by theAristotle University, one of the largest in Greece. TheLocal Organizing Committee was headed by E. The-odoridou and G. Kokkinidis, the University professors,who were making a major effort for this internationalconference to be a success.
As usual, the scientific program included a few ple-nary lectures, concerning problems of general impor-tance, and 12 sections (symposiums) dealing with partic-ular problems of modern electrochemistry. The sympo-sium sessions comprised key-lectures (characterizingmain topics of sessions), oral presentations, and post-ers. The Meeting was contributed to by nearly 700 par-ticipants with over 1400 oral and poster presentations.
Right after the ceremonial opening of the Meeting,S. Trasatti (Italy) delivered the first plenary lectureSurfaces and Interfaces in Electrochemistry, theFrumkin Medal Award lecture presented by the newlaureate. In the first (historical) part of the lecture, Prof.Trasatti remembered his scientific contacts with Alex-ander Frumkin. The rest of the lecture was devoted tothe potential distribution at different interfaces, in par-ticular, at the solid/gas, liquid/gas, and solid/liquidinterfaces.
In full agreement with the Meetings motto, Elec-trochemistry: from Nanostructures to Power Plants,the organizers invited the recognized experts in thenanostructures to give plenary lectures. In his lectureElectrochemical Technology for New MaterialsDesign, T. Osaka (Japan) mainly paid attention tomanufacturing materials for lithium power sources andmethanol fuel cells, as applied in electronic devices.Very impressive was the lecture Fuel CellsfromSystems to Nanometers delivered by U. Stimming(Germany). He formulated fundamental problems withevery clearness, as well as possible ways to their solv-ing in the designing of fuel cells that use hydrogen,methanol, or methane as energy source. P.N. Bartlett(UK) discussed directed synthesis of regular nanostruc-tures with use of template electrodeposition. Hedescribed the deposition of uniform porous metal,alloy, oxide, semiconductor, and polymer films, withthe pore diameter from 1 to 1000 nm, by using lyotropicliquid-crystal phases deposited onto the electrode sur-face as the templates. C.G. Vayenas (Greece) over-
viewed the works that attempted at theoretically inter-preting the NEMCA (non-electrochemical modifica-tion of catalytic activity) phenomenon, discovered byhim, and its applications. It is worth mentioning that therelated studies were widely discussed in oral presenta-tions and posters in several symposiums.
Symposium 1: Interfacial Electrochemistry.
Thekey-lectures were devoted to new methods andapproaches used in studying the structure of the electri-cal double layer (EDL) and electrochemical kinetics.Among others, R. Hillman (UK) discussed the use ofneutron reflectometry in studying of changes in con-ducting polymer films, induced by their electrochemi-cal dopingdedoping; B. Pettinger (Germany), the elec-trochemical perspectives of the probe-enhanced Ramanspectroscopy. In other key-lectures, M.A. Rampi (Italy)and G.A. Tsirlina (Russia) dealt with the theory of elec-tron transfer and its experimental verification;Th. Wandlowski (Germany) and K. Uosaki (Japan),with the formation and disintegration of self-assembledorganic monolayers at electrodes; E. Spore (Germany),with digital simulation of interfaces and electrochemi-cal processes thereon. Significant space was occupiedby studies in the properties of individual faces of sin-gle-crystal electrodes and electrochemical processespassing thereon, performed at highest experimentallevel (key-lecture by J.M. Feliu, Italy).
The topics listed were further dealt with in ca. 70oral presentations and over 80 posters. Among theformer, several papers are worth mentioning. A brilliantpaper of E. Savinova (Germany) was devoted to thor-ough investigation of the mechanism of hydroxide ionadsorption and oxide formation at the (111), (110), and(100) faces of Ag electrodes. W.R. Fawcett (USA)reported on the rutheniumammonia complex reduc-tion kinetics at Au(111). Interesting structure changesin the alkanthiol adsorbed layers, upon changing poten-tial, were observed by M. Schweizer (Germany) forAu(100). E. Lust (Estonia) studied electroreduction ofthe transition-metal ions at faces of bismuth and cad-mium single crystals. Noteworthy are also works onelectrochemical investigation of the permeability ofpolyelectrolyte multilayers (T. Silva, Portugal) and thetheoretical description of the redox reaction kinetics forelectrodes coated with polyelectrolyte bilayers(N. Glandut, France). A. Cuesta (Spain) discussed thepotential dependence of the surface charge density at
55th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry (September 1924, 2004, Thessaloniki, Greece)
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Pt(111) fully covered by adsorbed CO species, whichallowed estimating the zero-free-charge potential forthis electrode. J. Inukai (Japan) described adsorbed lay-ers of organic compounds formed at Rh(111) andPt(111). Problems of quantum-chemical modeling ofelectron transfer at interfaces and some results obtainedwere discussed by R.R. Nazmutdinov (Russia).
Among the posters, important place was occupiedby the works dedicated to the electrochemical kineticsand EDL structure at liquid and solid alloys. Notewor-thy are those displayed by Russian authors V.V. Emets,V.A. Safonov, and A.V. Vvedenskii.
Symposium 2: Organic Electrochemistry andBioelectrochemistry.
The symposium program com-prised over 50 oral presentations and 60 posters. Theyconcerned both the mechanism of electrode reactionsinvolving organic compounds and preparative synthesisof important organic substances.
Of prime interest is the report of H.J. Schaefer (Ger-many) on an indirect anodic process involving cleavageof double bond in olefins in the presence of the perio-date ion and RuCl
(catalyst); the process yields car-boxylic acids at a current efficiency of 7085%. Y. Mat-sumura (Japan) described stereoselective electrosyn-thesis of optically active
-alkyl piperidines by usingchiral ligands and Cu(II) as a catalyst; optical pureness ofthe product is as high as 82%. Several papers were devotedto the electrochemical behavior of Ti-, Pd-, and Ru-basedorganometallic complexes and their role in catalytic pro-cesses involving organic compounds (T. Magdesieva,Russia; A. Jutand, France; and M. Michman, Israel).
J. Lessard (Canada) discussed electrocatalytical hydro-genation of organic compounds using Raney nickel andCo and Cu catalysts, which emulate Raney nickel, andgave examples of electrohydrogenation of polycyclicorganic compounds and glucose, which are compoundscontaining the nitro group and nitroalkyl groups in dif-ferent positions, in neutral and alkaline aqueous solu-tions and waterethanol mixtures.
The effect of solvents and supporting electrolytes onelectrocatalytical reduction of organic halides are dis-cussed by P. Mussini (Italy). H.J. Schaefer and T. Bre-ton (France) described the role of nitroxyl radicals asoxidants in indirect synthesis of organic compounds.
Symposium 3: Environmental Electrochemistry.
Many papers presented in this symposium dealt withwater purification from organic and inorganic contami-nants. To this purpose, electrodes made of Pt, PbO
, andboron-doped diamond were used.
Among papers devoted to the mechanism of anodicoxidation of organic substances we single out those ofM. Panizza (Italy) and A. De Battisti (Italy, both), whodiscussed variants of direct and indirect oxidation.In the latter case, active chlorine produced at the anode(in the form of, e.g. HOCl) by oxidation of dissolvedchlorides served as the mediator. K. Rajeshwar (USA)studied indirect oxidation of ionic contaminants (by theexample of Tl
In several papers, photoelectrochemical (photoelec-trocatalytical) oxidation of different organic substancesat nanostructured electrodes is discussed, for example:oxidation of textile dyes at TiO
, and MoO
elec-trodes (M. Hepel, USA), of oxalic acid at TiO
(J. Kr sa, Czech Republic), and of metalphtalocya-nine dyes at TiO
(M.A. Anderson, Brazil).Recently, boron-doped diamond electrodes gained
relatively wide acceptance in the conservation-orien-tated processes. Ph. Rychen (Switzerland) demon-strated large-area diamond anodes (0.3 m
) for pilotrefineries. A process of anodic incineration of phe-nols from industrial waste waters is suggested byN. Vatistas (Italy). A. Lopes (Portugal) used a diamondanode for purification of waste waters in textile indus-try. According to C.A. Martinez-Huitle (Italy), the dia-mond anode is as efficient in the incineration of tartaricacid as PbO
and is much superior to Pt.Digressing from the symposiums order, we note that
the diamond theme was continued in reports at Sym-posium 8. Here, studies on the electrochemical behav-ior of new materials were emphasized. Yu.V. Pleskovslectures in Symposiums 3 and 8 were dedicated to thetwo-phase diamondnondiamond carbon systems. Inone, he dealt with undoped (dielectric) polycrystallinediamond subjected to a high-temperature (>1500
C)annealing in a vacuum, whose conductance is causedby graphite-like carbon of intercrystalline boundaries,which transpierce the diamond film; in the other, withdiamondpyrolytic carbon nanocomposites in whichthe electrochemically active phase is a thin film ofpyrolytic carbon, which covers diamond nanocrystal-lites.
L.A. Avaca (Brazil) used a diamond electrode foramperometric detection of flavonoids (natural polyphe-nols) in the flow-injection analysis.
Symposium 4: Electroanalysis and Electrochemi-cal Sensors.
Numerous papers devoted to the elec-troanalysis and electrochemical sensors were read by theauthors from Czech Republic, Japan, Italy, UK, Ger-many, Canada, Argentine, Portugal, and other countries.In addition to papers dealing with the analysis of partic-ular substances under concrete conditions, applying var-ious methods to analyzing the solution composition, andthe sensor design, there were papers discussing funda-mental problems as well, e.g. that of N. Stojek (Poland),on the mass transfer with regard to the migration mecha-nism of the transfer in electrochemical systems.
Symposium 5: Electrodeposition and Electro-plating Processes.
Numerous papers were dedicated totheoretical and experimental studies of the initial stagesof the metal or alloy electrodeposition, e.g. those ofL. Heerman (Belgium), A.I. Danilov (Russia), A. Mil-chev and G. Staikov (Bulgaria, both), H. Baltruschat(Germany), P. Liu (China), and others. Effects of a vari-ety of factors on the structure and properties of depositswere studied. Of great interest are studies on the depo-sition of magnetic coatings and the effects of magnetic
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field on electrochemical processes (the topic of severalpapers at Symposium 7). The formation of nanoparti-cles and nanostructures was investigated by the authorsfrom Japan, Germany, France, Spain, Taiwan, Brazil,Chile, and Ukraine.
Symposium 6: Electrocatalysis.
This symposiumwas the largest: its program comprised ca. 90 oral and90 poster presentations. Many authors reported dataand discussed problems concerning the design of elec-trocatalytically active systems as applied to potentiallyimportant applications: oxidation of hydrogen, metha-nol, and some other organic substances, reduction ofoxygen, etc.
In a key-lecture, A. Wieckowski (USA) demon-strated potentialities of the NMR method for character-izing layered compositions built by nanosized particlesof a PtRu alloy. It was shown that the particle surface(as compared to the bulk) is enriched with Pt atoms.This result is of prime interest in elucidating specificfeatures of electrocatalytical activity of this alloy inreactions involving organic substances. Th. Wand-lowski (Germany) suggested a very interestingapproach to evaluating electrocatalytical activity ofthin-film gold electrodes modified with platinum. Theapproach is based on analyzing data obtained by thesurface-enhanced IR absorption spectroscopy, whichwere collected using the frustrated total internal reflec-tion method. In the key-lecture of O.A. Petrii (Russia),effects of modification of disperse platinum and palla-dium electrodes with metal adatoms or polytungstateson the reduction kinetics of several inorganic anionswere examined. The author suggested a new scheme forclassifying approaches to modification of electrodes,which allows for different mechanisms of electrocata-lytical reactions involving the anions. Many paperswere devoted to the realization of the NEMCA effect inelectrochemical processes. E.P.M. Leiva (Argentine) inhis key-lecture attempted to theoretically interpret thiseffect.
Symposium 6 thoroughly analyzed mechanisms ofsorption and oxidation of CO at electrocatalysts of dif-ferent compositions and structures used in low- andhigh-temperature fuel cells. This topic, which closelyrelates to the stability of operation of fuel-cell elec-trodes, was addressed by researchers from Germany,France, UK, USA, Japan, Russia, and other countries.In oral and poster presentations, the development ofcomposites based on polymers, oxides, and other com-pounds by inserting electrocatalyst particles therein isthoroughly discussed, together with the application ofthese materials as electrodes in various electrochemicalprocesses.
The Russian authors discussed the ethanol oxidationin alkaline solutions at Pt, Ru, and RuNi catalystsdeposited on carbon black (M.R. Tarasevich), bioelec-trocatalytical reduction of oxygen (A.V. Kapustin), andthe role of electrocatalysis in the chromium deposition
from Cr(III) electrolytes containing organic com-pounds (V.A. Safonov).
Symposium 7: Corrosion Science and Technol-ogy.
Studies in the corrosion, anodic behavior, electro-chemical anodic processing of many metals and alloyswere reported by scientists from practically all ISEcountries. Most papers dealt with particular applica-tions. Among relatively new trends in the anticorrosionprotection of metals and alloys, noteworthy is using theconducting polymer films. Several oral and manyposter presentations were devoted to this theme. Theoscillations of current or potential observed in corro-sion systems still attract considerable interest. Somepapers can be classified as theoretical investigation ofcorrosion processes, for example, those of F. Di Quarto(Italy), on the anodic oxide films growth kinetics andprop...