5. farmako antibiotika pdg

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    31-Dec-2015

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ANTIBIOTIKA

ANTIBIOTIKAAryan MoritaBiomedika KGDEFINITIONLow molecular weight microbial metabolites which can kill or inhibit the growth of susceptible bacteria.Synthetic antimicrobial agents which may or may not be derived from microbial metabolitesHISTORY

HISTORY

ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS DERIVED FROM MICROORGANISMSMicroorganismAntimicrobial agentBacillus colistinusColistin (polymyxin E)B.subtilisBacitracinPenicillium notatumPenicillin GStreptomyces spSpectinomycin, TetracylinesS.erythreusErythromycinS.griseusStreptomycinCLASSIFICATIONSPECTRUMMODE AND SITE OF ACTION

INHIBITION OF CELL WALL SYHTHESISPrevent cross-linking of peptdoglycan chainPenicillin & cephalosporine lactam ringMode of action: involves binding to cell receptors (PBPs) inhibition of transpeptidation reaction inactivation of an inhibitor of autolytic enzym in the cell wall

INHIBITION OF CELL MEMBRANE FUNCTIONCell membrane disrupted macromolecules and ion escape from the cell cell damage and deathINHIBITION OF PROTEIN SYNTHESISAttachment to a spesific receptor blocks normal activity of initiation complex of peptide formation mRNA missread break up polysome to monosome incapable to synthesis proteinINHIBITION OF NUCLEIC ACID SYNTHESISDisruption of DNA structureInhibition of DNA dependent RNA polymeraseInterface with DNA gyraseInterface with DNA synthesis by blocking folic acid productionRESISTANCE TO ANTIMICROBIAL DRUGSANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY IN VITROFACTORS AFFECTING ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITYChemical StructureSulfonamides and related drugsDiaminopyrimidines trimetropinQuinolone ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, etcBeta lactam penicilin, cephalosphorineTetracycline minocycline, doxycycline, etc25/03/2013Aryan MoritaContNitrobenzene derivates chloramphenicolAminoglycosides stepromycine, gentamycin,etcMacrolide erythromycine, dllPolypeptide antibiotics polymyxin, bacitracin, dllGlycopeptides vancomycine25/03/2013Aryan MoritaContOxazolidinone linezoidNitrofuran derivates furazolidoneNitroimidazole metronidazoleNicotinic acid derivates isoniasidPolyene antibiotics nystatineAzole derivates miconazoleOthers rifampin25/03/2013Aryan MoritaKriteria Penggunaan antibiotikTepat indikasiTepat penderitaTepat obatTepat dosis, rute, waktu, dan lama pemberianWaspada efek samping

25/03/2013Aryan MoritaPenggunaan yg tidak tepatVirusesDosis yg tidak tepatInformasi yg InadequateTidak dilakukannya drainase ketika operasi25/03/2013Aryan MoritaSeleksi antimikroorganismeIdentifikasi MOMenggunakan obat yg sensitif thd MOPertimbangkan host factors tempat tjdnya infeksiSistem pertahanan inangallergies, Ketidakmampuan dari drug of choice untuk menembus tempat infeksiKerentanan pasien thd tjdnya toksisitas25/03/2013Aryan MoritaANTIMICROBIAL COMBINATIONTo give prompt treatment in desperately ill patients suspected serious microbial infectionTo delay the emergence of microbial mutants resistantTo treat mixed infectionTo achieve bactericidal synergism or to provide bacterial actionMECHANISMTHANK YOU...SAYONARA