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4. Australias Sporting Identity

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  • Australias Sporting Identity

    Digital Unit

    Australias Sporting Identity

    1 Pearson Australia, a division of Pearson Australia Group

  • Australias Sporting Identity

    2 Pearson Australia, a division of Pearson Australia Group

    Things I would like to learn in this topic include

    For a full list of relevant websites, navigate to the web destinations for NSW PASS via the Student Lounge at www.pearsonplaces.com.au.

    Web Destination

    For details on the required outcomes for this unit, go to the website:

    www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au

    UNIT OUTCOMES: 2.1, 2.2, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4

    We thank the following for their contributions to this unit:

    Alamy Corbis Australia Pty Ltd

    Dreamstime iStockphoto

    Getty Images Australia Pty Ltd News Digital Media Newspix/News Ltd

    Nicole Tuck Powerhouse Museum

    Shutterstock State Library of Queensland

    ThinkstockEvery effort has been made to trace and acknowledge copyright. However, should any infringement have

    occurred, the publishers tender their apologies and invite copyright owners to contact them.

    Unit vocabulary list

    Achievement Identity Professional

    Amateur Influence Recreational

    Endeavours Participation Spectator

    Facilities Perception Sponsorship

    Funding Performance Technology

    Language

    Con

    ven

    tion

    s

    L

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    Australias sporting identityA generally temperate climate, relatively low-cost access to tennis courts, golf courses and other sporting facilities, and the presence of beaches and waterways, open spaces and bushland, encourage Australians to take up outdoor activities as part of their lifestyle. It is not uncommon for crowds of more than 100,000 to be in Melbourne for an AFL grand final.

    Perceptions of Australia and sportMany people view sport as a particularly important part of Australian society. Some have gone as far as to call it a national obsession.

    Herbert Warren Wind in a Sports Illustrated article in 1960 commented:

    Australia is a land completely surrounded by water and inundated with athletes. Australia is a sports playing, sports watching, sports talking, altogether sports-minded country such as the world has never known before.

    The wife of a former United States ambassador to Australia wrote:

    Living in Australia is like living in a gymnasiumtheres always somebody practicing something.

    Olympic President, Juan Antonio Samaranch, wrote in the Sunday Telegraph on 16 January 1999:

    At the time of writing, Australia (with a population of eighteen million, remember) are world cricket champions, world rugby champions, world tennis champions, world netball champions, world womans hockey champions, and world men and women surfing champions. Further, on per capita basis, Australia was by far the most outstanding performer at the 1996 Olympic Games.

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    History of sport in AustraliaIt is important to examine the origins of sport in Australia to understand why sport is so significant to Australian society.

    1788Sport arrived in Australia with the first settlement in 1788. Many of the officers and convicts brought with them the sporting traditions of that era; horseracing, cricket, boxing and sports involving animals such as cockfighting. These sports were played as a release from the pressures of work.

    While many of the settlers had a passion for sport, they had limited opportunities to pursue sporting activities before 1850. Australia had few facilities, few sporting administrators to organise contests and few entrepreneurs to sponsor sport. Hyde Park in Sydney served as a sports ground and a place where sheep grazed, soldiers paraded and the general population strolled. It was also the venue for the first race meeting in 1810, the first club cricket match in 1826 and the first rugby union match in 1865.

    1820By the 1820s, sporting clubs began to form. The Sydney Turf Club was one of the first in 1825, followed by the Australian Cricket Club in 1826. Similar clubs were established in other colonies.

    1850s and 60sUntil the 1850s, sport in Australia was informal, occasional, violent and mostly male-dominated. Women were largely excluded, except at times when they could be spectators. Bathing was one of the few recreational pursuits considered acceptable for women in early Australian society.

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    Until this time Australian sport largely mirrored British models; partly for the immigrants to remind themselves of home, but also to prove that English sport and culture could flourish in this new society.

    It was during the 1850s that Australian sport became more distinctive and was able to develop it own sporting traditions, adapting them to its unique outdoor environment. The gold rushes brought greater wealth and a larger, more diverse population. The Chinese brought their betting traditions; the Cornish introduced wrestling in mining towns; the Germans established sports such as gymnastics and the Scandinavians brought an interest in snow sports. Incomes increased substantially, allowing ordinary Australians more money to spend on sporting pursuits. In the 1860s, holidays such as the half-day Saturday provided more time for sport. A growing network of schools and colleges started inter-school and inter-university competitions. Extended local and city governments assisted with the development of more recreational venues with land being plentiful.

    ICT ACTIVITY

    By the 1850s and 60s, a number of sports in Australia had become well established. Select one of the sports below and provide a brief outline of its early development in Australian society.

    Using the Internet, research one of the following:

    horseracing

    boxing

    cricket

    rowing

    language tip...

    To outline means to sketch in general terms.

    soccer

    athletics

    billiards.

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    1860s to 1900sFrom the 1860s to the 1900s, sport in Australia was classified as either amateur or professional. It was believed that a true gentleman should be an amateur who played for enjoyment rather than for profit. Amateurism helped to maintain the social boundaries. Playing sport involved expensive fees, meaning the working class was largely excluded from joining sporting clubs. Participating in sports such as cricket, tennis, golf, rowing, yachting, hunting and horseracing, remained a pastime of the wealthy. The working class therefore needed to develop their own competitions. Games such as soccer and rugby league developed into the peoples games and became professional sports, to support players travelling expenses and time off work during competition.

    The chance to earn extra money by gambling on games, enabled competitions to be regular and was supported by the masses. For the working class, sport provided an exciting break from daily work. The outcomes of matches mattered greatly and were discussed throughout the week at work, in pubs and at social gatherings.

    1900sMany amateur sports cancelled their competitions during this time. It was believed that battalions of sportsmen could lead Australias war effort because of their youth, physical condition and the preparation sport had given them. Other working class professional sports continued their competitions in the midst of great controversy.

    The emergence of physical education programs in Australian schoolsBetween 1911 and 1931, the Commonwealth Department of Defence assisted in the development and implementation of a national physical training scheme in Australian schools. It was designed for 12- to 14-year-old males and was the first coordinated approach to physical education in schools. The design and subject matter of these physical training programs and lessons focused on developing disciplined and productive future citizens. Each lesson was constructed using the same formula:

    introduction and breathing exercises

    trunk bending backward and forward

    arm bending and stretching

    balance exercises

    shoulder blade exercises

    trunk turning and bending sideways

    marching, running, jumping and games

    breathing exercises.

    Teachers were required to memorise a precise series of exercises for each lesson and deliver their instructions using specific teaching cues. These drills were superseded in the 1940s as it became clear that physical education programs could be more than just a series of exercise drills.

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    After participating in a physical training session based on exercise drills from the early 1900s, answer the following questions.

    1 Reflect on the training session you have just completed. How does it compare to a training session you might do today?

    2 Can you identify any health benefits from participating in this session?

    PRACTICAL ACTIVITY

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    1950s to 60sThe 1950s and 60s are still considered glorious years for Australian sport. Champions emerged in all major sports. In tennis for example, Australia won fifteen Davis Cup titles, eleven singles and thirteen doubles Wimbledon titles, nine French Open and thirteen US Open titles. Melbourne hosted the Olympics in 1956, which was the first country in the southern hemisphere to have this honour. Australia won an unprecedented and unequalled thirteen gold medals to finish third in the medal count.

    Women played a prominent role in sport during this era. At the Melbourne Olympics in 1956, they won seven of Australias thirteen gold medals even though they comprised only 20 per cent of the Australian team, less than 25 per cent of Olympic events were open to them and nearly every social institution from womens magazines to trade unions agreed that their primary responsibility was motherhood.

    The 1960s was also an important decade for Indigenous Australians. Individual sports such as rugby league began to recruit Indigenous players who enjoyed great sporting success.

    LITERACY ACTIVITYMatch the champion

    Some of the Australian sporting champions of this era are listed in the table below. Match the champion with their sport. There may be more than one champion in each sport.

    Sporting champion Sport Sporting champion Sport

    Ken Rosewall Marjorie Jackson

    Lorraine Crapp Richie Benaud

    Peter Thomson Midget Farrelly

    Murray Rose John Landy

    John and Ilsa Konrads Rod Laver

    Dawn Fraser Jack Brabham

    Betty Cuthbert Bill Roycroft

    Russell Mockridge Shirley Strickland

    Herb Elliot Ron Clarke

    Swimming Formula One Motor Racing Womens Track Tennis Golf Mens Distance Running Cycling Equestrian Cricket Surfing

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    1970s to 80sThe Australian youth of the 1960s and 70s began to challenge every major economic and social institution, including sport. Spectators of traditional sports began to expect better facilities, better seating and more excitement from sporting competitions. With alcohol consumption increasing, crowds became unruly with fights breaking out in the stands, streakers running onto fields and fans throwing beer cans at players. Sporting fixtures imposed new penalties for inappropriate behaviour at sporting competitions.

    During Whitlams time as Prime Minister in the early 1970s, his government developed the first coherent and comprehensive public policy on sport and established the Department of Sport, Recreation and Tourism. The new ministry provided capital assistance for sporting facilities and funding for travel, coaching and administration. Three years later, Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser dismantled many of Whitlams reforms including the policy of sport for all and assistance to sports controlling bodies and local communities.

    The Whitlam government was the first to use sport as a tool in foreign policy. For example, Whitlam declared that Australia would ostracise South Africas minority racist regime. His Labor Government prohibited racially selected South African teams from playing in Australia. Subsequent governments have since developed this strategy also.

    During the 1970s and 80s, there was a steep decline in amateur sports within Australia.Most sports became professional due to the lure of lucrative sponsorship deals for players and increased media exposure. Australia also needed to keep pace with the rest of the world where sportsmen and women typically competed as professionals.

    Australian Institute of Sport (AIS)The motivation for the establishment of the AIS came from the dismal results at the Montreal Olympic Games in 1976. Set up with the task of developing elite sportsmen and women, and also improving Australias image on the international sports scene, it was opened by the then Prime Minister, Malcolm Fraser, on Australia Day in 1981. The Institute was initially based in Canberra, but now has a network of campuses around Australia.

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    PRACTICAL ACTIVITY Class debate

    Two groups will be assigned to debate either for or against the following quote. Take note of any main points raised by each group and answer the following questions.

    Without the Australian Institute of Sport, Australian sporting performances would suffer greatly in international competition.

    Group one main points:

    Group two main points:

    Which team do you agree with? Why?

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    1990s to presentAustralia now has more than 120 national sporting organisations and thousands of state, regional and club bodies. It is estimated that 6.5 million people, about a third of the population, are registered sports participants.

    Many more are involved in activities such as fishing, bushwalking, recreational boating, horseriding and fitness programs. Water sports have a huge following and the high interest in sailing is reflected in Australias entry in every Americas Cup challenge since 1967. In September 1983, Australia II became the first foreign yacht to win the cup held by the US since 1851.

    Australia has hosted the Olympic Games twice, as well as hosting the Paralympics in Sydney in 2000. Australia has been the host nation for four Commonwealth Games, in Sydney (1938), Perth (1962), Brisbane (1982) and Melbourne (2006), and will host the 2018 Commonwealth Games on the Gold Coast. Australia is one of only three nations to have competed at every modern Olympic Games and has been represented at all Commonwealth Games.

    Including the 2012 London Olympics and 2010 Delhi Commonwealth Games, Australians have won a total of 142 summer Olympic and 803 Commonwealth gold medals. Women won 20 of the total 35 medals won at London in 2012.

    LITERACY ACTIVITY

    Research a major Australian sporting achievement that occurred in the last three decades.

    1 What was this achievement and why was it significant?

    2 How was this achievement received by the Australian public?

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    Emergence of specific groups in sportThe history of Australian sport cannot be properly explored without investigating the emergence of specific groups in sport. Women and Indigenous Australians have had a significant impact on the role of sport in shaping Australias identity.

    The history of women in Australian sportIn 1984, the Australian Sports Commission (ASC) was established to provide a more coordinated approach to sports development in Australia. The ASC added a Womens Sport Promotion Unit in 1989 to foster womens participation in sport.

    PRACTICAL ACTIVITY

    In groups, research one of the following topics:

    the history of womens participation in Australian sport

    the impact of womens participation in traditionally male sports in Australia

    famous Australian sportswomen and their impact on Australian sporting history

    the medias influence on womens participation in sport in Australia.

    Develop a five-minute multimedia presentation outlining the main findings of your research with relevant examples. All group members must contribute to the delivery of either the presentation or class activity.

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    Planning space

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    The history of Indigenous Australians in sportIndigenous sport was inseparable from daily living. Hunting and tracking, wrestling, spear throwing contests, various types of football using possum-skin balls, spinning disks, stick games, swimming, fishing and canoeing were both a part of work and leisure.

    LITERACY ACTIVITY

    Complete an information report detailing how Indigenous Australians have increasingly emerged as sporting identities over time. Email your completed report to your teacher.

    To structure your report

    Start with an opening paragraph that presents some general information about Indigenous Australians sporting achievements.

    Think of some relevant sub-headings for your report. Examples may include:

    ~ the early years

    ~ more recent times

    ~ popular sports among Indigenous Australians

    ~ is gender an issue?

    ~ reasons for greater emergence.

    Arrange your report so that each sub-heading has its own paragraph.

    Your report should be in the present tense.

    Do not use any personal statements or opinions.

    Include examples as much as possible to allow greater understanding and to support your argument.

    Try to get your information from a variety of reliable sources.

    Include a bibliography at the end of your report.

    Teachers email address:

    Due date:

    Writin

    gW

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    Planning space

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    How sport has helped shape Australias identityAustralias sporting history demonstrates the important role sport has played throughout our history, as well as the continual popularity of sport. Sport has always been readily embraced by Australians and is an integral part of Australian culture, contributing substantially to our national identity.

    CRITICAL THINKING ACTIVITY

    1 Locate a significant sporting milestone for each of the dates on the timeline.

    1700s

    1800s

    1900s

    2000s

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    2 Using the information on your timeline, analyse the changes in the nature of sport in Australia and the reasons for these changes.

    3 How have changes in sport shaped our national identity? Has this been a positive development?

    language tip...

    To analyse means to examine relationships between individual components and consider further implications.

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    The impact of major events and competitionsMajor national and international events have certain implications for individuals and society as a whole. International events, such as the Olympics and Commonwealth Games, can raise awareness of certain sports, increasing their popularity at a local level. Inspiring stories of athletes reaching their goals at these levels can also be highly motivational and teach younger fans about the importance of setting goals to achieve a specific outcome. Sporting events at these levels are also excellent in encouraging Australians to be active.

    Mind map some of the benefits of hosting the 2018 Gold Coast Commonwealth Games to Australian society. Consider aspects such as benefits to the economy, benefits to sporting participation and benefits to the self-esteem of Australians.

    LITERACY ACTIVITYGold Coast Commonwealth Games

    Benefits of hosting the Commonwealth Games

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    Local, state, national and international eventsMost sporting associations begin at local club level, with increased opportunities at regional, national and international levels for those showing particular skill and talent.Take the following example below of opportunities for participation in netball.

    Club participationCatriona begins playing netball as an 8-year-old for the local Warrawee club.

    As a 12-year-old, Catriona is selected as a member of Ku-ring-gai District representative team, playing against other regional teams throughout NSW.

    At 16 years of age, Catriona is selected in the U17 NSW state team, playing against all other states and territories at the netball nationals.

    After competing successfully at a state level, Catriona is selected to go to the Australian Institute of Sport in Canberra to train for a year.

    Catriona is selected in the Australian U21 netball team and plays against other junior teams from around the world.

    Catriona is selected in the Australian open netball team and plays against other teams from around the world in major competitions such as world championships, Commonwealth Games and yearly test matches.

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    1 Select a sportsperson with which you are familiar. In the space below, draw the pathway they took from local to elite level sport. If possible, list the actual events they competed in throughout each level.

    2 How has competing at all of these levels benefited their career?

    CRITICAL THINKING ACTIVITY

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    One of Australias most recently established national sporting leagues is the soccer A-League, which began in 2005. Before this the National Soccer League (NSL) existed, however it was not entirely a state versus state competition and did not attract large numbers of spectators, despite the popularity of soccer in schools.

    Using information obtained from the Internet, answer the following questions.

    1 What were some of the benefits of establishing a new soccer league in Australia?

    2 Why has soccer become such a popular playing sport in the past few years?

    3 What else helped to ensure the success of establishing the A-League?

    ICT ACTIVITYNational league case study

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    4 What opportunities exist for young people who wish to be involved in the A-League?

    Factors influencing Australias sporting identityThroughout this unit we have learnt about the role sport has played in shaping Australias identity. Some indications of the popularity of sport include:

    media coverage given to sport

    corporate sponsorship in sport

    recognition given to sporting heroes

    politicians close association with sports teams

    preoccupation with sports results

    government funding given to sporting endeavours.

    It is interesting to note that since the inception of the Australian of the Year award in 1960, 22 per cent of recipients have been sportsmen and women. This is another example of how central sport is to the Australian way of life.

    DISCUSSION ACTIVITY

    In pairs, discuss the positive and negative impacts of sporting culture on Australian society.

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    7 2+

    NUMERACY ACTIVITY

    ?! PERSONAL REFLECTION

    1 What are some of the factors that influence your participation in sport?

    2 What are some of the factors that have deterred you from participating in sport?

    Go to the Australian Bureau of Statistics website and locate the report about Australians participation in sport and recreation, entitled Sports and Physical Recreation: A Statistical Overview, Australia, 2011. Select chapter five of the report. Examine the table displaying the top ten sporting events attended by Australian spectators. Propose reasons for these trends. Consider our climate, cultural identity and overall socioeconomic status.

    Num

    eracyN

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    Government influence on sportGovernment backing and a spectacular rise in commercial sponsorship have been significant changes in sports financing in recent times. The Australian Government provided in excess of $325 million to sport in 2010. The focus of this funding included:

    continued success in high performance sport

    greater grassroots participation for all ages

    excellence in sports management

    stepping up the fight against drugs in sport.

    CRITICAL THINKING ACTIVITY

    Discuss why the Commonwealth Government commits such large funds to Australian sporting endeavours.

    language tip...

    To discuss means to provide arguments for and against.

    Writin

    gW

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    The influence of Australias athletesSome of Australias elite athletes enjoy a high profile and sometimes use that profile to benefit the wider community.

    LITERACY ACTIVITY

    1 With a partner, brainstorm a list of elite athletes who have used their profile to benefit the community.

    2 Of these athletes, who is one you particularly admire? Outline how they have used their influence to benefit the wider community. Read an athlete biography or research their personal websites for information.

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    ICT ACTIVITY

    Research an Australian sporting hero on the Internet from one of the following sports: athletics, football, rugby, cricket, golf or tennis. Write a brief account of their sporting career highlights in your own words.

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    Using the Internet, research information and articles written about Sir Donald Bradman. Then, select one of the following newspaper headings and write a newspaper article in your own words.

    Bradman vs England 12 July 1930

    Curbed by Bodyline 193233Arise Sir Donald 13 March 1949

    MEDIA REVIEWSir Donald Bradman

    Writin

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    The influence of sponsorshipSince the rise of professionalism in sport in Australia, elite athletes can now use their sporting prowess as a source of income. They can earn such income through a number of channels:

    government funding

    corporate sponsorship

    product endorsement

    prize money.

    There is always debate about how much elite athletes should earn. The need for greater professionalism in sport is financially driven due to training, travel, medical, sports nutrition and psychology expenses, as well as sponsor and media expectations of high performance in the international arena. Sportspeople might also receive sponsorship deals that make up a large percentage of their income, for example, Jelena Dokics lucrative million-dollar deal with Jetstar, negotiated after her success at the Australian Open in 2009.

    According to the 2011 BRW rich list, the top three money earners for Australian sports people were: Andrew Bogut, basketball ($13 million), Casey Stoner, MotoGP ($9.5 million) and Mark Webber, Formula One ($9 million). Tennis star Sam Stosur ($4 million) and champion surfer Stephanie Gilmore ($1.2 million) were the only two women, at 11th and 48th on the list, respectively.

    ICT ACTIVITY

    Using the Internet, research a famous Australian athletes sponsorship arrangements. Record the companies involved and their deals, if known.

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    In small groups, brainstorm the benefits and problems associated with sponsorship in Australia.

    A famous rugby league player, who is acknowledged as one of the best players ever, has just negotiated the highest salary recorded in the history of the game. Due to salary capping restrictions, this has meant that fellow team members have had their future salaries greatly reduced to accommodate this arrangement. This has caused a lot of controversy in the media and The Footy Show has asked the football star to come on the show to respond to the situation.

    PRACTICAL ACTIVITY

    Role-play the interview with the following cast members:

    the football star

    fellow team members

    a sports journalist

    a fanatical supporter of the football club

    Footy Show hosts.

    Benefits

    Problems

    LITERACY ACTIVITY

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    The influence of the mediaThe media have played a pivotal role in the rise of organised sport in Australia. They have helped to popularise sport and extend its influence in Australian society. Sport, the sport pages and sports segments on radio and television, are a recognisable and distinct area of Australian life.

    There are mutual benefits for the relationship between the media and sport. Sport relies on the media to increase its popularity and attract sponsorship, while the media gains product exposure and advertising revenue.

    The media can actually be responsible for the growth of new sports such as snowboarding and for generating more interest in a sport by including such components as player profiles, game statistics, interesting angles of play, interviews with players after the game and player awards.

    The media has also been influential in changing the nature of some sports to increase their popularity. Examples include:

    sudden death play-offs in soccer

    the tennis tie-breakers

    the shot clock in basketball

    AFL and rugby league scheduling Friday night matches.

    Choose a TV channel and using the TV guide, calculate the number of hours devoted to sport for a week. Fill in the table on the following page with these details, and state if an event is solely of one gender. Record any sporting analysis shows such as The Footy Show.

    7 2+

    NUMERACY ACTIVITYTelevision coverage of sport

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    Monday

    Tuesday

    Wednesday

    Thursday

    Friday

    Saturday

    Sunday

    Chosen channel:

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    Answer the following questions based on your findings.

    1 What are the total hours of sport coverage on your chosen channel for the week?

    2 List the top five most covered sports.

    3 Are these figures influenced by any major event being staged at the moment?

    4 Why do you think these sports receive more coverage than others?

    5 Calculate the difference in coverage between male and female sport. Suggest reasons for any differences.

    6 How much time is devoted to talking about sport on shows like The Footy Show? Who watches these programs?

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    Your teacher will provide you with the sports section from three different papers. Review the material and answer the questions below.

    1 In your opinion, are these three sections gender-balanced? If not, suggest reasons for the difference.

    2 How does the media contribute to the perception of female participation in sport?

    MEDIA REVIEWNewspaper analysis

    Writin

    gW

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    Future perspectives on sport in AustraliaWhat will the nature of sport in Australia be like in the future? Technology has played a major role in influencing the presentation of sport. Technology has expanded spectator involvement, bringing the camera and microphone into every aspect of the game. For example, with the introduction of digital television it will be possible to choose which end of the court you want to watch during a tennis match.

    Training programs continue to improve performance as biomechanists and exercise physiologists find better ways to prepare for competition. They now have access to computer-generated optimal performance styles and athletes can use these to improve their technique.

    It has been suggested that elite sport in the future may involve athletes with injuries replacing joints and muscles with mechanical parts to make the body ultra-efficient.Electronic devices may be implanted in the muscles to generate perfect coordination. If this is the case, then the real competition will be between physicists and pharmacists.

    Technology is also assisting in reducing errors, oversights and mistakes in refereeing and coaching. The use of the third umpire in rugby league and cricket, while initially controversial, has allowed for more accurate rulings to be made and most spectators appreciate this improvement.

    CRITICAL THINKING ACTIVITY

    There have been many technological advances in sports equipment that have been designed with the aim of improving performance. For each of the sports listed, give an example of an equipment advancement that has improved the sport for either the participants or spectators.

    Swimming

    Cricket

    Golf

    Athletics

    Cycling

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    Future participation in sportThe future of sporting participation in Australia is highly dependent on the changing needs and characteristics of our society. What may have been a popular sport a decade ago may not suit the type of society that will exist in twenty years.

    There are growing trends in our society that can help us to predict the nature of sport in the future.

    Increasing rates of obesityit is now recognised that Australia has one of the highest rates of obesity per capita in the world, and needs to be more active to reduce some of the lifestyle-related illnesses causing premature death.

    An ageing populationas the median age the Australian population increases, there is a greater interest in sports that do not involve serious competition and possible injuries.

    Increasing involvement of women in sportas women continue to participate in sport in greater numbers, there is a growing need to develop more exposure for women in sport.

    Increasing popularity of alternative sportswith the Australian population becoming more diverse, different cultures will offer a greater range of physical activity options. Pursuits such as yoga and martial arts continue to grow in popularity as they offer an opportunity to be active, as well as developing the mind.

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    1 With the growing trends in Australian society in mind, brainstorm sports and recreational activities that may become popular in the future.

    2 Suggest any potential barriers to participating in these sports in the future.

    LITERACY ACTIVITYFuture sports in Australia

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    Construct a report to predict future developments in sport. Consider the impact these developments may have on factors such as:

    participation rates

    performance levels

    professionalism

    spectator enjoyment

    safety

    spectator and player behaviour.

    Use the planning space on the following pages for your research. Then, when you have completed your report, email it to your teacher.

    Due date: ...............................................................................................................................................................

    Planning space

    CRITICAL THINKING ACTIVITY

    Writin

    gW

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    LITERACY ACTIVITYUnit vocabulary building

    List word Definition

    Achievement

    Amateur

    Endeavours

    Facilities

    Funding

    Identity

    Influence

    Participation

    Perception

    Performance

    Professional

    Recreational

    Spectator

    Sponsorship

    Technology

    1 Define the following list words.

    2 Give an antonym (opposite) for each of the following list words.

    List word Antonym

    Amateur

    Influence

    Perception

    Recreational

    Spectator

    Language

    Con

    ven

    tion

    s

    L

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    The things I liked best in this unit were

    The things I liked least in this unit were

    Improvements that I could suggest for this unit include

    Personal evaluation

  • Australias Sporting Identity

    43 Pearson Australia, a division of Pearson Australia Group

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    Australias Sporting Identity

    44 Pearson Australia, a division of Pearson Australia Group

    Teachers comments (1=poor, 5=excellent) 1 2 3 4 5

    Application in classcontribution of ideas, listening to others

    Quality of responses in workbookthoughtful and thorough responses

    Homework completionto a consistently high standard

    Spelling, grammar and expressionevidence of care taken when checking over work

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