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    65. See Mipam,Light of Wisdom: Commentary on the Dharmadharmatvibhga (chos dang chos nyid rnam byed grel pa ye shes snang ba), in Collected Works,

    vol. 4 ( pa), 611.3613.1; English translation in Jim Scott, trans.,Distinguishing Maitreyas Phenomena and Pure Being, 5965.66. Khenpo Zhenga (mkhan po gzhan dga, 18711927), for instance,

    says that the Abhisamaylakra is a Svtantrika scripture in hisInterlinearCommentaries on the Thirteen Great Scriptures (gzhung chen bcu gsum gyi mchengrel), vol. 1, 72.4.

    67. See Mipam,Words That Delight Guru Majughoa, 6869; Englishtranslation in Doctor, trans.,Speech of Delight, 75.

    68. The eight qualities are: (1) inconceivable, (2) nondual, (3)nonconceptual, (4) pure, (5) clear, (6) antidotal, (7) freed from attachments(cessation), and (8) freeing from attachments (path). From theUttaratantra I.10:

    Since it is inconceivable, nondual, nonconceptual, pure, clear, and antidotal,it is freed from attachments and frees from attachment; that with the characterof the two truths is the dharma.

    69. The eight qualities are: (1) awareness and (2) freedom; which aresubdivided into three qualities of awareness: (3) wisdom that knows whatis, (4) wisdom that knows whatever there is, and (5) inner wisdom; andthree qualities of freedom: (6) freedom from attachment, (7) freedom fromobscuration, and (8) unsurpassabilty. See underUttaratantra I.14, Kongtrl,Roar of the Non-Returning Lion, 5051; English translation in Rosemary Fuchs,Buddha Nature: The Mahayana Uttaratantra Shastra, 10910.

    70. Maitreya,Uttaratantra I.21.

    71. The eight qualities are: (1) unconditioned, (2) spontaneously present,(3) not realized by an extrinsic condition; possessing (4) knowledge, (5) love,and (6) powers; and endowed with the twofold benet of (7) self and (8)other. From theUttaratantra I.5: The Buddha is unconditioned, spontaneouslypresent, not realized by an extrinsic condition; possessing knowledge, love,and powers; and the twofold benet.

    72. Maitreya,Uttaratantra I.21: In the ultimate meaning, the refuge of beings is solely the Buddhadue to the sage possessing the Truth Body and being the consummated assembly, too.

    73. Maitreya,UttaratantraI.21.74. The three attitudes are as follows: (1) like a shepherd leads all the

    sheep rst, and follows behind, one wishes to bring all beings to becomeBuddhas before oneself; (2) like a ferryman rides along with his passengers,one wishes to become a Buddha at the same time as everyone else; and (3)like a king, who saves himself rst before his subjects, one wishes to rst become a Buddha oneself, and then bring others to become Buddhas.

    75. Mipam,Sword of Insight (don rnam par nges pa shes rab ral gri mchanbcas), Collected Works, vol. 4 ( pa), 789.3790.1.

    76. Lalitavistarastra XXV. P.763, vol. 27, p. 238, 211b.6.77. Mipam,Difcult Points of Scriptures in General, 427710.78. The ve aggregates are: forms, feelings, perceptions, formations, and

    consciousnesses; and the ve Buddha families are: Tathgata, Vajra, Padma,

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    311Notes to Ornament of Majughoas Viewpoint

    95. The meaning-commentary is Candrakrtis Madhyamakvatra; theword commentary is CandrakrtisPrasannapad .

    96. Candrakrti, Madhyamakvatra VI.23. In the second verse, the Madhyamakvatra reads thusness (de nyid) rather than ultimate (don dam)as in Btrls citation. See Autocommentary of the Madhyamakvatra, 104. Seealso Guy Newland,The Two Truths, 95.

    97. The Collection of Reasonings (rigs tshogs) refers to six texts ofNgrjuna:Prajmlamadhyamakakrik(dbu ma rtsa bai shes rab), Ratnval(rinchen phreng ba),Vigrahavyvartan(rtsod zlog), nyatsaptati (stong nyid bdun cu pa), Vaidalyatra(zhib mo rnam thag), andYuktiaik(rigs pa drug cu pa).

    98. See Mipam,Words That Delight Guru Majughoa, 56; Englishtranslation in Doctor, trans.,Speech of Delight, 57.

    99. The seven ultimate treasures (don dam dkor bdun) are: exalted

    body (sku), exalted speech ( gsung), exalted mind (thugs), qualities ( yon tan),enlightened activities ( phrin las), expanse (dbyings), and wisdom ( ye shes).100. Maitreya,Uttaratantra I.155.101. Maitreya,Uttaratantra I.155.102. Glossing this verse from theUttaratantra I.28, Mipam explains these

    three reasonsof efcacy, dependency, and the nature of thingsto supportthe existence of Buddha-nature in hisLions Roar: Exposition of Buddha-Nature.See English translation in Duckworth, Mipam on Buddha-Nature, 14967.

    103. See Mipam,Words That Delight Guru Majughoa, 56; Englishtranslation in Doctor, trans.,Speech of Delight, 57.

    104. Sakya Paita,Elegant Sayings of the Sakya(sa skya legs bshad),

    III.7, 19.105.It is not possible to dene the uncategorized ultimate by statingwhat it is through inclusion ( yongs gcod); yet it can be characterized by statingwhat it is not through exclusion (rnam gcod). See Mipam,Commentary on theWisdom Chapter of the Bodhicaryvatra, 13.

    106. Candrakrti, Madhyamakvatra VI.23: That which is the object ofauthentic seeing is thusness. . . .

    107. ntideva,Bodhicaryvatra IX.2: The ultimate is not the domainof mind. . . .

    108. Candrakrti, Madhyamakvatra VI.23: . . . false seeings arerelative truths; ntideva,Bodhicaryvatra IX.2: . . . the [domain of] mindis relative.

    109. Candrakrti, Madhyamakvatra VI.36.110. Candrakrti, Madhyamakvatra VI.81.111. Candrakrti, Madhyamakvatra VI.25.112. I am using two sets of English termscategorized/nominal and

    uncategorized/actual to translate the same Tibetan terms here. I do so becauseBtrl is showing a difference between the way his tradition represents theuncategorized ultimate (as free from all conceptual constructs) and the wayhis opponent represents the actual ultimate (as a non-implicative negation). Ifeel thatuncategorized is a translation that reects Btrls own representation

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    of such an ultimatethat is beyond the mindwhereas the quality of beinguncategorized (or unschematized) by thought does not represent the way his

    opponent conceives such an ultimate. Hence, given that I useuncategorized to convey the meaning in the distinctive way that is understood in Btrlstradition, the context here calls for two terms.

    113. See Mipam,Shedding Light on Thusness, 303304.114. Toh. 3881,dbu ma, sa, ff.13. The text is also printed in Tibetan and

    translated into English in Malcolm David Eckel, Jnagarbhas Commentary onthe Distinction Between the Two Truths.

    115. Mipam,Commentary on the Wisdom Chapter of the Bodhicaryvatra,9.

    116. Ngrjuna,Bodhicittavivaraa (byang chub sems gyi rnam par bshad pa), P.5470, vol.103, pp. 274, 244b.2.

    117. The four faults of each are stated in chapter III of theSadhinirmo-canastra. If the relative and ultimate truths were not different, then (1) ordinary beings would realize the ultimate and attain nirva just like Sublime Ones,(2) the ultimate would be characterized by the afictions just like the relative,(3) the relative would be undifferentiated just like the ultimate, and (4) yogiswould not seek the ultimate truth because there would be no ultimate otherthan ordinary beings perceptions of the relative. If the relative and ultimatetruths were different, then (1) realizing the ultimate would not sufce forliberation, (2) the ultimate would not be the universal character of relativethings, (3) the ultimate would not be the empty nature of relative things, and(4) afiction and complete purication would be simultaneous within one

    mind. John Powers, trans.,Wisdom of the Buddha: The Sadhinirmocana Mahyna

    Stra, 3645. See also Donald Lopez, A Study of Svtantrika, 21315.118. Sadhinirmocanastra, chapter III: The character of the conditioned

    realm and the ultimate is a character free from being the same or different;thus, those who conceive [them] as the same or different have entered intoan improper view. See John Powers, trans.,Wisdom of the Buddha, 4849.

    119. The prologue to Ngrjunas Madhyamakakrik states: I pay homageto the best of teachers, the perfectly awakened one who taught dependentarisingthe pacication of conceptual constructswithout ceasing or arising,not annihilated nor eternal, neither coming nor going, and neither differentnor the same. P.5224, vol. 95, pp. 1, 1a.41b.2.

    120. See, for instance, Mipam,Lions Roar: Exposition of Buddha-Nature,585; English translation in Duckworth, Mipam on Buddha-Nature, 164.

    121. On the four stages of the Middle Way view, see Mipam,EssentialNature of Luminous Clarity, 46162; see also Duckworth, Mipam on Buddha-Nature, 4042.

    122. Mipam,Difcult Points of Scriptures in General, 427710.123. In the famous eighth-century debate at Samy, Hvashang was the

    Chinese monk who advocated a sudden path to enlightenment that rejects allanalysis and mental engagement. In Tibetan historical accounts, he lost thedebate to the Indian scholar, Kamalala.

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    mtshan mtshungs pai mgo snyoms), (3) [pointing out that evidence is] notestablished due to the proof not being distinct from what has yet to be proven

    (sgrub byed bsgrub bya dang mtshungs pai ma grub pa), and (4) inference that isrenowned to others ( gzhan la grags pai rjes dpag). See Kongtrl,Encyclopediaof Knowledge, 559.

    138. A Tibetan expression of wonderment.139. Father and sons in this context refers to Tsongkhapa (the father)

    and his two main disciples, Gyeltsapj and Khedrupj.140. This refers to Saraha, as stated by Khenpo Chkhyap.141. Heruka in this context refers to a practitioner of yoga who has

    generated the view and conduct of Mantra within his or her continuum. Thiswas stated to me by Khenpo Tsltrim Namdak.

    142. According to G Lotswa, the three monks were Mar kyamuni

    (dmar ban shkyamune), Yo Gejung ( g.yo dge byung), and Tsang Rapsel ( gtangsrab gsal). See G Lotswa (gos lo ts ba gzhon nu dpal,13921481),Blue Annals(deb ther sngon po), vol. 1, 89; English translation in George Roerich, trans.,Blue Annals, 63.

    143. Lachen Gongpa Rapsel (bla chen dgongs pa rab gsal, 892975) playedan inuential role in the transmission of the Vinaya in Tibet. For Lachen GongpaRapsels ordination history referenced here, see Butn (bu ston rin chen grub,12901364), History of Buddhism(bde bar gshegs pai bstan pai gsal byed chos kyibyung gnas gsung rab rin po chei mdzod), 19394; English translation in EugeneObermiller,The History of Buddhism in India and Tibet, 203205.

    144.Lakvatrastra, 265a.

    145.Guhyagarbhatantra

    II.2.146.SamdhirjastraIX.23. P.795, vol. 31, p. 283, 29a.1.147. See Mipam,Light of the Sun(brgal lan nyin byed snang ba), 46579.148. See Longchenpa,Precious Wish-Fullling Treasury,7.38.4.149. Candrakrti, MadhyamakvatraVI.89.150. The eight examples of illusion are: (1) a dream (rmi lam), (2) an

    echo (brag ca), (3) a city of scent-eaters (dri zai grong khyer), (4) an apparition(mig yor), (5) a mirage (smig rgyu), (6) an illusion (sgyu ma), (7) a reectedimage ( gzugs brnyan gyi snang ba), and (8) an emanated city (sprul pai grongkhyer).

    151. Longchenpa,Precious Wish-Fullling Treasury,8.18.2.152. Longchenpa,Precious Wish-Fullling Treasury,8.28.4.153. See Longchenpa,White Lotus,16265.154. SeeMipam,Words That Delight Guru Majughoa, 208. Here Mipam

    states that in the end, inference (rjes dpag) comes down to direct perception(mngon sum), and direct perception to reexive awareness; hence, reexiveawareness is indispensable when asserting a presentation of valid cognitionof confined perception; English translation in Doctor, trans.,Speech ofDelight,273. In the same text, Mipam states that the universal ground isindispensible when appearances are accepted as mind. See Mipam,WordsThat Delight Guru Majughoa, 266; English translation in Doctor, trans.,Speechof Delight,357.

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    155. See Mipam,Commentary on the Wisdom Chapter of the Bodhicaryvatra,31.

    156. Ngrjuna, MadhyamakakrikXXV.13.157. Candrakrti, MadhyamakvatraVI.39.158.Karmaataka(mdo sde las brgya pa). P.1007, vol. 39.159. One enumeration of four inconceivable phenomena is as follows:

    (1) the ripening of karma, (2) the different domains of sentient beings, (3)the liberation of Buddhas, and (4) the completely pure births of bodhisattvas.See the Dictionary of Internal Knowledge(nang rig pai tshig mdzod), ed. PurbuTsering ( phur bu tshe ring), 268.

    160. Candrakrti, Madhyamakvatra, VI.42.161. See Longchenpa,White Lotus,1166.41168.3162. See Mipam,Words That Delight Guru Majughoa,6970; English

    translation in Doctor, trans.,Speech of Delight,77.163. Candrakrti, MadhyamakvatraVI.81.164. Rather, in his eight unique features of Prsagika, Tsongkhapa

    asserts that external objectsexist as do cognitions.165. Unfortunately, this text by Btrl is no longer extant; it is not

    published in hisCollected Works.166. See Mipam,Lions Roar: Exposition of Buddha-Nature, 589.4591.4;

    English translation in Duckworth, Mipam on Buddha-Nature,16768.167. See Mipam,Lions Roar: Exposition of Buddha-Nature, 591.4593.4;

    English translation in Duckworth, Mipam on Buddha-Nature,16870.168. See Mipam,Lions Roar: Exposition of Buddha-Nature, 569.6571.2;

    593.4597.2; English translation in Duckworth, Mipam on Buddha-Nature,

    15152; 17073.169. In the phrase Longchenpa, father and son, the son of

    Longchenpa (the father) commonly refers to Jikm Lingpa (jigs med gling pa,1729/301798). The lord of doctrine at Minling, father and son, apparentlyrefers to Terdak Lingpa ( gter bdag gling pa gyur med rdo rje,16461714) andhis student and younger brother, Lochen Dharmar.

    170.LalitavistarastraXXV. P.763, vol. 27, p. 238, 211b.6.171. This is a paraphrase ofUttaratantra I.47: According to the

    progression of impure, impure/pure, and extremely pure, they are calledsentient beings, bodhisattvas, and Tathgatas.

    172. See Mipam,Lions Roar: Exposition of Buddha-Nature, 589.4591.4;English translation in Duckworth, Mipam on Buddha-Nature,16768.

    173. See Mipam,Lions Roar: Exposition of Buddha-Nature, 591.4593.4;English translation in Duckworth, Mipam on Buddha-Nature,16870.

    174. In his commentary on the three vows, Lochen Dharmar states:Regarding the view of what is to be experienced in meditation, according tothe explicit teaching of the middle wheel explained in the way of [Ngrjunas]Collection of Reasonings (rigs tshogs), since the denitive meaning is acceptedas a non-implicative negation, meditating on nothing whatsoever is said to bemeditation on emptiness, and seeing nothing at all is said to be the realizationof thusness. According to the viewpoint of the last wheel explained in the

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    way of the texts of Maitreya, Asaga and [half-]brother [Vasubandhu], aswell in Ngrjunas Collection of Praises (bstod tshogs), meditating on just

    the wisdom which is free from duality is what is to be experienced, and thisalso accords with the viewpoint of the profound tantras of Secret Mantra.Lochen Dharmar,Cluster of Supreme Intentions, 377.1377.4.

    175. Again in his commentary on the three vows, Lochen Dharmarstates: In the traditions of the Middle Way that ascertain other-emptiness,due to the difference of asserting all objects of knowledge within the threenatures or condensing objects of knowledge into the imagined and thoroughlyestablished natures, there are two ways of identifying the subject (chos can):(1) in Yogcra texts, the empty-ground is the dependent nature, the imaginednature is the object of negation, and the emptiness of the imagined nature inthe dependent nature is the thoroughly established nature; (2) in texts such

    as theUttaratantra, suchness, the thoroughly established nature, is empty ofthe imagined nature. Therefore, in the essence of the thoroughly establishednaturewhich is the ultimate expanse and the suchness of mindthereare no delements to remove, nor previously absent qualities to newlyestablish, because it is primordially pure by nature and has qualities thatare spontaneously present. Lochen Dharmar,Cluster of Supreme Intentions,374.1374.5.

    176. Maitreya, Uttaratantra I.155.177. Lochen Dharmar,The Lord of Secrets Words( gsang bdag zhal lung),

    Collected Works, vol. 7.178. In a text summarizing the four philosophies, Gets Pachen (dge rtse

    pa chen, gyur med tshe dbang mchog grub,

    17611829) says that the viewpointfree from assertions that is stated by Prsagikas accords with the essenceof primordial puritys mode of abiding. He goes on to say that the aspect ofspontaneous presence lies in the viewpoint of the last wheel and the doctrinesof Maitreya. Gets Pachen,Elucidating the Denitive Meaning Viewpoint: AShort Explanation of the Four Great Philosophies( grub mtha chen po bzhii rnam par gzhag pa mdo tsam phye ba nges don dgongs pa gsal byed), Collected Works,vol. 1, 70.771.2.

    179. This is a reference to the ten powers of a Buddha, which are: (1) thepower of knowing what is and is not correct ( gnas dang gnas ma yin), (2) thepower of knowing the ripenings of karma, (3) the power of knowing variousinclinations (mos pa), (4) the power of knowing thorough afiction and completepurication, (5) the power of knowing faculties that are supreme and thosethat are not, (6) the power of knowing the path of all transmigrations (thamscad gro bai lam), (7) the power of knowing various dispositions (khams snatshogs), (8) the power of remembering previous existences (sngon gyi gnas), (9)the power of knowing death, transference, and birth, and (10) the power ofknowing the exhaustion of contamination (zag pa). The Dictionary of InternalKnowledge(nang rig pai tshig mdzod), ed. Purbu Tsering, 671.

    180. This refers to the process of determining the validity of a scripture.The three analyses are: (1) that the demonstration of what is evident (mngon gyur) is not invalidated by direct perception (mngon sum), (2) that the

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    the middling on the sixth ground, the lesser of the middling on the seventhground, the great of the lesser on the eight ground, the middling of the lesser

    on the ninth ground, and the lesser of the lesser on the tenth ground. Forreferences regarding these nine discards of the nine bodhisattva grounds, see Jos Cabezn and Geshe Lobsang Dargyay,Freedom from Extremes, 321n288.

    198. Maitreya, Abhisamaylakra, 10b. For Btrls comments on theselines, see Btrl,Words of Maitreya, 25152.

    199.rmldevsihandastra, P.760.48.200. ntideva, BodhicaryvatraIX.54.201. That is, the object, or domain (spyod yul), is expressed as if it were

    distinct from the subject, the wisdom of reexive awareness (so so rang rig ye shes), but it is not.

    202. Mipam states inLight of the Sun, 544: The categorized ultimate is

    in the context of a novice progressively engaging in emptiness from merelya conceptual perspective. As such, it cannot roam in the territory of a mindlike the nonconceptual meditative wisdom of a Sublime One, for whichduality has subsided, like a beggar that has no power to sit on the universalemperors throne.

    203. The full quote, which Mipam attributes to RhulabhadrasPraise tothe Mother,is: Unspeakable, inconceivable, and inexpressiblethe transcendentperfection of wisdomI pay homage to the mother of the Victorious Onesof the three times, the domain of the wisdom of reexive awareness that isunborn and unceasing, with the nature of space. See Mipam,Light of theSun, 547.

    204. Ngrjuna, Madhyamakakrik

    XVIII.7.205. ntideva,Bodhicaryvatra IX.2.206. Maitreya, Abhisamaylakra, 6a. For Btrls comments on these

    lines, see Btrl,Words of Maitreya, 13536.207. Candrakrti, MadhyamakvatraVI.23. The wording here deviates

    slightly from Candrakrtis statement: That which is the object of authenticseeing isthusness. Btrl says ultimate where Candrakrti said thusness. Candrakrti, Autocommentary of the Madhyamakvatra, 104.

    208. Maitreya, Dharmadharmatvibhga v. 42.209. See, for instance, Mipam,Shedding Light on Thusness,29394. 210. Maitreya, Abhisamaylakra, 6a.211. Maitreya, Abhisamaylakra, 6a. For Btrls comments on this

    stanza, see Btrl,Words of Maitreya, 13536.212. Ngrjuna, Ratnval,III.12.213. The space-treasury meditative stabilization (nam mkha mdzod

    kyi ting nge dzin) is the ability to make whatever you want manifest outof space. For more on this, see Mipam, A Feast on the Nectar of the SupremeVehicle,166.4166.5

    214. Sixteen types of emptiness are found in the Perfection of WisdomStras, referenced in the Madhyntavibhga.The sixteen are: (1) the emptiness ofthe internal, (2) the emptiness of the external, (3) the emptiness of the externaland internal, (4) the emptiness of the great, (5) the emptiness of emptiness,

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    (6) the emptiness of the ultimate, (7) the emptiness of the conditioned, (8)the emptiness of the unconditioned, (9) the emptiness of the limitless, (10)

    the emptiness of the beginningless and endless, (11) the emptiness of thenon-discarded, (12) the emptiness of intrinsic nature, (13) the emptiness ofown characteristics, (14) the emptiness of all phenomena, (15) the emptinessof nonentities, and (16) the emptiness that is the nature of nonentities. Thereis a variation in the enumeration of sixteen emptinesses cited by Candrakrtiin MadhyamakvatraVI.180223; see Autocommentary of the Madhyamakvatra, 30136. Candrakrti cites the emptiness of the unobserved (mi dmigs pastong pa nyid) for the fteenth instead of the emptiness of nonentities asin the Madhyntavibhga. Although Candrakrti uses the same term as the Madhyntavibhga for the sixteenth, the emptiness that is the nature ofnonentities, a better translation to reect his explanation of it would be

    the emptiness of the nature of nonentities. These two interpretations of thesixteenth, reected in the translations as the emptinessof . . . (Candrakrti)or the emptinessthat is . . . ( Madhyntavibhga), reveal the crucial distinction between emptiness interpreted as a quality (in the former) or a substrate (inthe latter); the distinction here pregures the self-emptiness versus other-emptiness controversy in Tibet.

    215. The sequence of the nature of nonentities (dngos med ngo bo nyidkyi mthar gyis pa) is that which perfects the accumulations in meditativeequipoise without appearance. On the sequence of the nature of nonentities,see Btrl,Words of Maitreya, 258.

    216. A Self-Realized One realizes the selessness of persons, but only

    half of the selessness of phenomena (the emptiness of objects, not of subjects).This was stated to me by Khenpo Tsltrim Namdak.217. The four gates of retention ( gzungs kyi sgo bzhi) are: (1) patient

    retention (bzod pai gzungs), (2) mantra retention (sngags kyi gzungs), (3) wordretention (tshig gi gzungs), and (4) meaning retention (don gyi gzungs).

    218. The eight great treasuries of courageous eloquence (spobs pai gterchen brgyad) are: (1) the treasury of memory (dran pai gter), (2) the treasuryof intelligence (blo gros kyi gter), (3) the treasury of realization (rtogs pai gter),(4) the treasury of retention ( gzungs kyi gter), (5) the treasury of courage(spobs pai gter), (6) the treasury of doctrine (chos kyi gter), (7) the treasuryof the mind of awakening (byang chub sems kyi gter), and (8) the treasury ofaccomplishment (sgrub pai gter).

    219. For a discussion of the thorough trainings ( yongs sbyong) on the bodhisattva grounds, see Btrl,Words of Maitreya, 6786.

    220. Citing Knchok Jikm Wangpo (dkon mchog jigs med dbang po,17281791), Jeffrey Hopkins enumerates the twelve hundred qualities of the bodhisattva grounds as follows: The twelve sets of a hundred qualitiesduring one instant on the rst ground after a Bodhisattva has risen frommeditative equipoise are: (1) seeing a hundred Buddhas in one instant, (2)receiving the blessings of a hundred Buddhas, (3) going to a hundred BuddhaLands, (4) illuminating a hundred lands, (5) vibrating a hundred worldlyrealms, (6) living for a hundred aeons, (7) seeing with true wisdom the past

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    and future of a hundred aeons, (8) entering into and rising from a hundredmeditative stabilizations, (9) opening a hundred different doors of doctrine,

    (10) ripening a hundred sentient beings, (11) emanating a hundred versionsof ones own body, (12) surrounding each of the hundred bodies with ahundred Bodhisattvas.

    The number increases with each ground:1st 1002nd 10003rd 100,0004th 100 ten million5th 1000 ten million6th 100,000 ten million7th 100,000 ten trillion

    8th a number equal to the particles of a billion worlds9th a number equal to the particles in ten million billion worlds10th a number equal to the particles of an inexpressible number of an

    inexpressible number of Buddha Lands. Jeffrey Hopkins, Maps of the Profound, 97576.221. For a discussion of the 173 features, see Btrl,Words of Maitreya,

    14659.222. Vasubandhu, Abhidharmakoa, 23b.223. Candrakrti, MadhyamakvatraI.16.224. Maitreya, MahynastrlakraV.8.225. The four Sublime Ones are: (1) the Sublime Auditors, (2) the

    Sublime Self-Realized Ones, (3) the Sublime bodhisattvas, and (4) the SublimeBuddhas.226. ryadeva, Catuataka XII.13.227. ntideva, Bodhicaryvatra IX.44.228. ntideva, Bodhicaryvatra IX.40.229. Knowledge of the distant ground is a clear realization that is lacking

    the distinctive method. For more on knowledge of the distant ground, seeBtrl,Words of Maitreya, 13132.

    230. Ngrjuna, RatnvalIII.86.231. Ngrjuna,Lokttastavav. 27.232. ryadeva,Catuataka VIII.15.233. ntideva, BodhicaryvatraIX.45.234. Candrakrti, Madhyamakvatra VI.179.235. The whole verse reads: Forms are like a mass of foam, feelings

    are like bubbles, perceptions resemble mirages, formations are like the trunksof banana trees, consciousnesses resemble magical illusions. SeeSayuttaNikya III,ed. Leon Feer, 14142. Reference cited from Donald Lopez, A Studyof Svtantrika,451n4.

    236. The three knowledges are the rst three among the eight topics ofthe Perfection of Wisdom (sher phyin dngos po brgyad): (1) knowledge of theground ( gzhi shes), (2) knowledge of the path (lam shes), and (3) omniscience(rnam mkhyen).

    320 Notes to Ornament of Majughoas Viewpoint

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    237. Citing the Perfection of Wisdom Stras, Candrakrti enumeratestwenty emptinesses in MadhyamakvatraVI.180223. In addition to the

    enumeration of sixteen emptinesses (see note 214 above), there are four, whichsummarize the sixteen: (1) emptiness of entity, (2) emptiness of nonentity, (3)emptiness of nature, and (4) emptiness of another entity. See also EdwardConze, trans.,The Large Sutra on Perfect Wisdom, 14448.

    238. There are two superimpositions, of existence and nonexistence, foreach of the sixteen aspects of the four noble truths (see note 88).

    239. For the distinctions of the Mahyna Path of Joining, see Btrl,Words of Maitreya,4247.

    240. For a discussion of the greatness of the Mahyna knowledge ofthe path, see Btrl,Words of Maitreya,106107.

    241. For a discussion of the knowledge of the ground, see Btrl,Words

    of Maitreya,12846.242. For a discussion of the sixteen signs of the knowledges offorbearance (bzod shes), see Btrl,Words of Maitreya,198201.

    243.mdo sde sa bcu pa.Toh. 44, phal chen, kha,chapter XXXI. P.761,li.244. On this, Candrakrtis autocommentary on the Madhyamakvatra

    states under I.8: Since the bodhisattvas on the seventh ground abide in thegreatness of wisdom, they go far beyond the Auditors and the Self-RealizedOnes. Autocommentary of the Madhyamakvatra, 19.

    245. Candrakrti, Madhyamakvatra VIII.2. Btrl cites the text using theword qualities ( yon tan) where the Madhyamakvatra states endowments(byor ba).

    246. Candrakrti, autocommentary under Madhyamakvatra

    VII.1, in Autocommentary of the Madhyamakvatra, 340.247. The three practices are: perfecting (rdzogs), ripening (smin), and

    training (sbyangs).248. Candrakrti, autocommentary under Madhyamakvatra VIII.2, in

    Autocommentary of the Madhyamakvatra, 345. Btrl adds the gloss How isthat? ( ji ltar na) in his citation.

    249. Ngrjuna, Ratnval,III.12.250.Vajracchedik(rdo rje gcod pa), P.739, vol. 21, p. 255, 74a.474a.5.

    Btrul cites a slightly modied version of this passage.251. For the sixty qualities of the Buddhas speech, see Mipam,Gateway

    to Scholarship, 33034; English translation with Tibetan edition in Erik PemaKunzang, trans.,Gateway to Knowledge,vol. III, 24649.

    252. The eighteen unshared qualities are enumerated as follows. Thereare six non-endowments (mi mnga ba drug): (1) bodily delusion (sku la khrulba), (2) cacophonous speech ( gsung la ca co), (3) forgetful mind (thugs la dran panyams pa), (4) non-meditative equipoise (mnyam par ma bzhag pa), (5) attitudeof separatedness (tha dad pai du shes), and (6) undiscerning indifference (sosor ma brtags pai btang snyoms); there are six endowments (mnga ba drug):(7) aspiration (dun pa), (8) diligence (brtson grus), (9) mindfulness (dran pa),(10) meditative stabilization (ting nge dzin), (11) insight (shes rab), and (12)freedom (rnam par grol ba); wisdom precedes and follows after the activities

    321Notes to Ornament of Majughoas Viewpoint

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    of the (13) body, (14) speech, and (15) mind; and wisdom is not attached to,nor obstructed by, events of the (16) past, (17) future, and (18) present. See

    also Mipam,Gateway to Scholarship, 31820; English translation with Tibetanedition in Erik Pema Kunzang, trans.,Gateway to Knowledgevol. III, 23637.253. Dharmakrti,PramavrttikaII.8.254. The twelve hundred qualities of the transformed faculties can

    be found in the Mahynastrlakra X.41. Mipam explains these twelvehundred qualitieshow in the six directions, each of the ve sense facultiescan perceive the objects of the other four sense faculties in ten directions(6 x 5 x 4 x 10 = 1,200)in his commentary on the Mahynastrlakra: Bydividing into the six directions, and through the ve objects divided againinto the ten directions, it is as followsas illustrated by the eye: throughapprehending sounds, scents, tastes, and textures, the eye has two hundred

    forty qualitiesseeing forms is not counted because it is not a special quality.When adding together all ve [faculties], there are one thousand two hundred.Mipam, A Feast on the Nectar of the Supreme Vehicle,164.1164.2.

    255. Dongak Tenp Nyima (mdo sngags bstan pai nyi ma) is one ofBtrls names.

    256. The seven qualities of high birth (mtho ris yon tan bdun) are:(1) long life, (2) good health, (3) beauty, (4) good fortune, (5) high class,(6) great wealth, and (7) great intelligence. Mipam,Gateway to Scholarship,176.

    257. The three types of beings are: lesser beings (who seek their happinessin sasra), mediocre beings (who seek their personal liberation), and great

    beings (who seek Buddhahood for everyone).258. The four modes of birth are: (1) birth from an egg, (2) birth froma womb, (3) birth from warmth, and (4) miraculous birth.

    259. The Fifth Dzokchen Rinpoch, Tupten Chdor (thub bstan chos kyirdo rje,18721935).

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    Index

    333

    Abhidharma, 70, 120, 254, 303n7 Abhidharmakoa,320n222

    Abhisamaylakra,34, 3132, 63,70, 10710, 11516, 223, 23031,234, 242, 256, 25961, 309n66,318n198, 318n206, 318nn21011

    abiding reality, 35, 42, 56, 58,12526, 139, 15859, 199200,204207, 213, 215, 217, 239, 246,249, 256, 26465, 282

    accumulations, two, 9, 2223, 6970,73, 81, 237, 24950, 25254,27274

    adventitious delements, 24, 73,13233, 211, 27273afictive emotions, 22, 60, 6364,

    21820, 22225, 23134, 257,26769, 302n57

    Akayamatistra,106, 307n54layavijna. Seeuniversal ground

    consciousnessannihilationism, 18, 4547, 55, 57,

    126, 162, 16671, 174, 201, 205Anuyoga, 9798, 130, 132

    appearance in accord with reality (authenticexperience).See undertwotruths

    in discord with reality(inauthentic experience).Seeundertwo truths

    apprehension (dzin stangs), 23, 37,6667, 13638, 23839, 244

    ryadeva, 4, 25657, 320n226Asaga, 102103, 115, 316n174

    Ata, 8890, 304n16Atiyoga.SeeGreat Perfection

    Auditor (nyan thos, rvaka), 23, 61,65, 7072, 92, 105, 198, 216, 223,23536, 240, 25162, 26670,302n57, 321n244

    autonomous argument (rang rgyudkyi sbyor ba, svatantraprayoga),18, 47, 152, 17073, 198, 302n57

    awareness (rig pa), 63, 75, 11213,229, 281, 309n69

    main awareness, 115 and mind, 6667, 24042

    basic element (khams), 14, 36, 5459,103, 109, 13234, 199215

    See alsoBuddha-natureBeacon of Certainty,1, 80, 97, 299n1,

    305n39Bodhicaryvatra,6, 95, 13940, 146,

    190, 229, 233, 305n37, 311n105,311nn107108, 312n115,315n155, 317n191, 318n200,318n205, 320nn22728, 320n233

    bodhicitta. See mind of awakeningBodhicittavivaraa,40, 14748,312n116

    Btrl (bod sprul mdo sngags bstan pai nyi ma), 19

    life, 59 students, 45 works, 35Buddha-nature, 10, 1317, 98109,

    13134, 201208Buddha-Nature Stras, 14, 301n5253

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    334 Index

    Candrakrti, 4, 11, 1415, 3638, 43,52, 58, 63, 71, 97, 133, 13644,

    154, 16063, 18889, 210, 212,22930, 260, 319n214See also Madhyamakvatra

    categorized ultimate.See underultimate truth

    Causal Vehicle.SeeStra Vehiclecausality, 1920, 5254, 19096 See alsokarmaChangkya Rolp Dorj (lcang skya rol

    pai rdo rje), 89, 101, 14041, 144,164, 186, 220, 313n133, 317n181

    Chying Rangdrl (chos dbyings rang grol), 7, 301n37Collection of Praises (bstod tshogs),

    316n174Collection of Reasonings (rigs

    tshogs), 130, 132, 211, 256, 311,315n174

    compassion, 16, 57, 206, 208, 252,26869

    compassionate resonance (thugsrjes). Seecompassion

    conceptuality, 22, 60, 62, 69, 21920,22528, 25253Concise Summary of the Philosophies

    from the Wish-Fullling Treasury,305nn2930

    conventional truth, 19, 38, 54,14142, 162, 197, 313n130

    See alsorelative truthconventional valid cognition, 1013,

    19, 34, 4546, 5758, 73, 11723,13031, 140, 16768, 17071

    based on conned perception(tshur mthong), 1011, 3334,11920, 273

    based on pure vision (dag gzigs),58, 105106, 149, 185, 204, 207,209, 213, 27274, 279

    Daabhmikastra,251, 266, 268delement.Seeadventitious

    delements

    denitive meaning (nges don,ntrtha), 1314, 3031, 3637,

    5658, 101107, 109, 121,12829, 13132, 135, 139,20614, 301n51, 307n54, 307n56,308nn5758, 315n174

    deity. Seedivinedependent arising, 42, 46, 48, 5253,

    57, 151, 158, 161, 16469, 17378, 19097, 208, 249, 318n119,313n136

    dependent nature.See underthreenatures

    Dhravararjastra,14, 103, 106,302n52, 307n55Dharmadharmatvibhga,23, 110,

    303n61, 314n59, 318n208dharmadhtu. Seeexpanse of

    phenomenaDharmakrti, 11, 303n2 See alsoPramavrttikaDifcult Points of Scriptures in

    General,153, 164, 302n59,309n77, 312n122, 313n132

    direct perception, 61, 12122, 243,314n154, 316n180

    sense-faculty direct perception,19, 21415

    yogic direct perception, 20, 59, 68,216, 238, 24748, 251

    divine, 6, 911, 9899Dlpopa (dol po pa shes rab rgyal

    mtshan), 17, 155, 157, 200,301302n52

    Drakar Trlku (brag dkar dpal ldanbstan dzin snyan grags), 261

    dream, 4, 6, 75, 92, 130, 27980,314n150

    Drigung (bri gung), 4, 6, 8duality, 44, 6769, 133, 139, 161, 164,

    241, 24446, 25253Dzokchen (rdzogs chen) monastery,

    4, 6, 286Dzokchen Rinpoch, the Fifth.See

    Tupten Chkyi Dorj

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    335Index

    Eliminating Doubts(dam chos dogssel), 110, 126, 188, 308n64,

    310n89, 310n93emptiness as endowed with all supreme

    aspects (rnam kun mchog ldan gyi stong nyid), 99

    other-emptiness, 1617, 2021, 44,51, 58, 157, 161, 164, 200, 20811, 302n59, 312n47, 316n175,319n214

    self-emptiness, 17, 2021, 58, 209,211, 312n47, 319n214

    sixteen types, 69, 25051, 31819n214

    twenty types, 259, 321n237 See also undertwo truths;See also

    ultimate truthentity of disintegration, 19, 5253,

    19194epistemology.Seevalid cognitionequality, 48, 75, 84, 97, 12022, 129

    30, 132, 151, 17475, 17778,212, 281, 313n55

    Essential Body (ngo bo nyid sku,svabhvikakya), 72, 113, 26768,279

    essential nature (snying po), 5557,102, 199, 206208, 213

    Essential Nature of Luminous Clarity,7, 301n38, 305n41, 306nn4445,310n79, 312n121

    exalted body (sku), 75, 277, 28081expanse of phenomena (chos kyi

    dbyings, dharmadhtu), 29, 57,74, 9697, 99, 107, 131, 157,206207, 239, 241, 246, 266,275

    faith, 76, 28384Form Body, 7374, 250, 27376Four Applications of Emptiness Stra.

    See Heart Strafreedom from conceptual constructs.

    Seenonconceptuality

    Gateway to Scholarship,92, 304n28,32122nn25152, 322n256

    Geluk (dge lugs), 2, 1617, 2021,8485, 8889, 94, 95, 101, 107108, 11416, 125, 128, 13637,14041, 144, 147, 150, 15253,155, 159, 174, 17980, 184, 186,191, 199, 201, 21819, 221, 230,235, 238, 240, 244, 253, 261, 271,274, 301n57, 310n90

    Gets Pachen (dge rtse pa chen, gyur med tshe dbang mchog grub), 212, 316n178

    Gorampa ( go rams pa bsod nams seng ge), 17, 147, 150, 202, 223, 261 gotra. SeeheritageGreat Perfection, 1, 7, 16, 97100,

    121, 130, 132Great Prsagika.See under

    PrsagikaGuhyagarbhatantra,11, 310n79,

    314n45 Gyeltsapj (rgyal tshab rje dar ma

    rin chen), 108, 140, 238, 244,

    314n139habitual tendency.Seelatency (bag

    chags)Haribhadra, 110, 115, 233 Heart Essence in Four Parts,67,

    304n20 Heart Stra,48, 148, 17678, 259heritage, 31, 5457, 103, 105, 107,

    200208 See also basic element; Buddha-

    natureHnayna, 910, 23, 29, 6566,

    9295, 120, 261, 26466, 26970Hvashang, 154, 240, 312

    imagined nature.See underthreenatures

    inference, 1920, 121, 145, 153,21415, 31314n137, 320n154,317n180

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    336 Index

    inherent existence.Seetrueestablishment

    innate mind ( gnyug sems), 5859,120, 21316inner-tantra (nang rgyud), 81, 305n38instantaneous, 16, 2930, 40, 48,

    9496, 15051, 17577interdependence.Seedependent

    arising

    Jamgn Kongtrl.SeeKongtrl Jamyang Khyents Chkyi Lodr

    (jam dbyangs mkhyen brtse chos

    kyi blo gros), 100 Jamyang Zhepa (jam dbyangs bzhad pa ngag dbang brtson grus), 88

    Jonang ( jo nang), 1617, 2021, 101,155, 157, 200

    Kagy (bka brgyud), 8485, 101, 155,199200

    Katok (ka thog) monastery, 8Klacakratantra,7karma, 1920, 5054, 59, 142, 189

    96Karmaataka,195kya. See exalted bodyKham (khams), 6, 8Khedrupj (mkhas grub rje), 201,

    314n139Khenpo Chkhyap (chos dbyings

    khyab brdal), 45, 2526Khenpo Gangshar ( gang shar dbang

    po), 90Khenpo Knpel (kun bzang dpal

    ldan), 7Khenpo Zhenga (mkhan po gzhan

    dga), 8, 309n66Kongtrl (kong sprul blo gros mtha

    yas), 301n51, 302n58, 304n26,306n47

    Lachen Gongpa Rapsel, 183Lalitavistarastra, 159, 205, 309n76,

    315n170Lakvatra,15, 109, 301n51, 314n144

    latency (bag chags), 60, 63, 21920,223, 22829

    Light of the Sun, 18687, 305n37,314n147, 318nn202203Lions Roar: Exposition of Buddha-

    Nature, 4, 7, 58, 106, 200202,209, 213, 300n13, 308n57,308n60, 312n120, 315nn16668,315nn17273

    Lochen Dharmar (lo chendharmar ), 2, 58, 106, 115,21012, 306n46, 307308n56,315n169, 31516n17475

    Longchenpa (klong chen rab byams),23, 67, 33, 49, 52, 58, 61, 90,93, 106, 11415, 17879, 186,18890, 196, 203, 21012, 224,302n58, 305n30, 315n169

    luminous clarity (od gsal), 10, 1516,2931, 42, 5457, 6668, 74,96102, 105, 107, 109, 13132,15859, 199212, 23842, 24546,279

    madhyamaka. SeeMiddle Way Madhyamakakrik. See

    Mlamadhyamakakrik Madhyamaklakra, 84, 111, 126,

    129, 131, 134, 140, 190, 197,233

    Madhyamakvatra, 13, 1516, 54,109, 12930, 13435, 13842,166, 189, 191, 19598, 220, 22325, 22930, 253, 25657, 26770,301n49, 313n130, 31819n214,321n237, 321n244

    Madhyntavibhga,226, 317n187,31819n214

    Mahparinirvastra,302n52,307n56, 308n60

    Mahyna, 910, 23, 29, 55, 6063,7072, 9295, 11115, 200203,21922, 25354, 25761, 26470,305n30

    Mahynastrlakra,93, 226, 254,317n189, 320n224, 322n254

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    337Index

    Mahyoga, 9798, 100, 121, 12930,132

    main awareness.See under awarenessmain mind.Seemain awarenessMaitreya, 4, 36, 60, 71, 109, 115,

    13334, 21011, 218, 220, 243,25657, 260

    Mangt Ludrup Gyatso (mang thos klu sgrub rgya mtsho), 202

    Majughoa, 76, 79, 284Mantra, 1011, 16, 2930, 58, 75,

    95100, 120, 305n42, 306n47meditation, 10, 93, 95, 16062, 239

    40, 25054, 25859, 31516n174meditative equipoise, 6569, 139,216, 237, 251

    without appearance, 65, 24752 without (representational) mode

    of apprehension (rnam pai dzinsdangs), 23, 66, 23846

    mental state (sems byung), 115, 243,279

    Middle Way, 14, 1621, 3537,4041, 50, 58, 9799, 12427,

    15860, 16370, 17781, 19398,20911mind of awakening (bodhicitta), 29,

    32, 69, 9293, 11316, 252Mind-Only, 14, 1819, 52, 102103,

    106, 18889, 21112, 301n51Mipam (ju mi pham rgya mtsho),

    17, 10, 32, 34, 44, 61, 64, 82,84, 92, 9798, 103, 106, 108,11011, 120, 126, 129, 131, 134,146, 149, 153, 164, 166, 17880,18690, 197200, 22425, 229,23233, 23940, 245, 302n59,304n28, 305n37, 308n57,314n154, 318n202

    Mlamadhyamakakrik,11011, 124,148, 194, 242

    Ngrjuna, 50, 53, 71, 81, 103,18283, 192, 194, 213, 25657,263, 318n212, 320nn23031

    See also Mlamadhyamakakrik

    negation, 130, 146, 159, 161, 216 implicative negation, 14445, 153

    non-implicative negation, 3940,70, 109, 14446, 15356, 236,25354, 308n60, 315n174

    See alsoobject of negationNirgrantha, 109, 308n60nirva, 95, 14950, 196, 25657,

    308n60two types of, 264, 26970

    nonconceptuality, 10, 23, 6670,24244, 25254

    nonduality, 6770, 13941, 25558

    nonsectarian (ris med), 2, 21, 28586Notes on the Essential Points of

    [Mipams]Exposition [ofBuddha-Nature], 4, 7, 58, 213

    Nyingma (rnying ma), 15, 1011,1623, 8485, 90, 9798, 103,10611, 149, 18083, 262,302n58, 305n38

    object of negation, 18, 20, 4148,15981 passim, 209, 316n175

    obscuration, 22, 6062, 21834 afictive obscuration (nyon sgrib),

    22, 24, 6062, 21926, 231, 262,266, 269

    cognitive obscuration (shes sgrib),22, 6066, 110, 21836, 264,26769

    imputed aspect (kun brtags), 63,229

    innate aspect (lhan skyes), 6263,22829, 231

    omniscience, 7475, 27580other-emptiness.See under

    emptinessOverview: Essential Nature of

    Luminous Clarity.SeeEssentialNature of Luminous Clarity

    Padmasambhava, 82Pachen Sonam Drakpa.SeeSonam

    Drakpa, Pachen

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    Pari Rapsel (dpa ris blo bzang rab gsal), 125, 180, 238, 240, 244,

    263, 310n91Path of Meditation, 63, 231, 233Path of Seeing, 61, 63, 72, 22324,

    22930, 237, 265Patrul Rinpoche.SeePeltrlPeltrl (dpal sprul o rgyan chos kyi

    dbang po), 7Perfection of Wisdom Stras;

    Prajpramitstra,16, 105, 129,230, 23334, 25152, 25560,299n8, 302n55, 305n31, 318n214

    postmeditation, 23, 38, 62, 65, 6869,143, 22728, 23738, 24554Prajpramitstra. SeePerfection of

    Wisdom StrasPramavrttika,120, 310n86,

    322n253Prsagika, 11, 1623, 10811, 119

    23, 13435, 13859, 16977, 194,216, 22930, 24748, 26061,302nn5758, 313n137, 316n178

    Great Prsagika, 17, 20, 3132,

    41, 48, 107109, 111, 138, 141,15253, 17476, 190, 192, 242,261

    See also underSvtantrikaPrasannapad,122, 154, 166, 310n80,

    313n124 pratyekabuddha. SeeSelf-Realized

    OnePrecious Wish-Fullling Treasury,90,

    93, 115, 18687, 190, 305n34,314n148, 314nn15152

    primordial purity, 97, 121, 132,316n178

    provisional meaning (drang don,neyrtha), 1314, 16, 3031, 55,101109, 200201, 211, 301n54,301n56, 308n58

    quintessential instructions, 7, 34,4950, 72, 76, 8184, 118, 120,17882, 267, 271, 284

    Rapsel Rejoinder.See Shedding Lighton Thusness

    Ratnagotravibhga.See

    UttaratantraRatnval,311n97, 318n212, 320n230,

    321n249reference (dmigs pa), 18, 20, 41, 69,

    153, 25253, 256reexive awareness (rang rig), 52,

    6667, 190, 23942, 314n154refuge, 29, 32, 8892, 11114,

    304n28, 309n72relative truth, 1215, 1819, 21,

    3942, 50, 13642, 151, 15557,18385, 215

    See alsoconventional truthrepresentational mode of

    apprehension (rnam pai dzinsdangs). See undermeditativeequipoise

    Resultant Vehicle.SeeMantraRongtn Sheja Knrik (rong ston

    shes bya kun rig), 202Rongzom (rong zom chos kyi bzang

    po), 3, 7, 82, 85, 97

    Sakya (sa skya), 1617, 8485, 128,147, 150, 155, 184, 186, 199,202203, 223, 261, 271, 274

    Sakya Paita (sa skya paita), 95,108, 303n4, 305n42, 311n104

    Samdhirjastra,13, 311n83, 314n146Sadhinirmocanastra,14, 103, 148,

    301n51, 307n56, 312nn11718,317n183

    ntarakita, 18, 52, 8182, 18890ntideva, 13839, 234, 242, 25657,

    311nn107108Secret Mantra.SeeMantraself-appearance (rang snang), 19, 39,

    5152, 74, 14344, 18690, 279self-emptiness.See underemptinessself-existing wisdom, 132selessness, 9, 15, 44, 7072, 9396,

    251, 25759, 26367, 310n88,319n216

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    339Index

    of persons, 64, 99, 120, 125,23336, 257

    of phenomena, 23, 64, 92, 198,233, 26769Self-Realized One (rang rgyal,

    pratyekabuddha), 251, 255,319n216

    Shedding Light on Thusness, 305n37,308n63, 310n92, 312n113,318n209

    Sherap Gyeltsen.SeeDlpopaSonam Drakpa, Pachen ( pa chen

    bsod nams grags pa), 115

    special insight (lhag mthong), 220spontaneous presence, 30, 58, 96,100, 121, 132, 213, 322n178

    rvaka. SeeAuditorrmldevsihandastra,301n52,

    318n199sudden. SeeinstantaneousStra Vehicle, 16, 30 as distinct from Mantra, 1011,

    96100Svtantrika, 1011, 3132, 40, 4648,

    53, 10711, 12023, 17276,313n136 as distinct from Prsagika,

    1720, 68, 13335, 14052,15556, 166, 16972, 24748,260

    Sword of Insight,34, 118, 120,307n53, 309n75

    tantra, 1011, 2930, 96, 129, 132,305n38

    Trantha, 157tathgatagarbha. SeeBuddha-natureTerdak Lingpa ( gter bdag gling pa

    gyur med rdo rje), 315n169thoroughly established nature.See

    underthree naturesthree natures (mtshan nyid gsum),

    316n75 dependent nature ( gzhan dbang,

    paratantra), 52, 92, 189, 212

    imagined nature (kun btags, parikalpita), 52, 188, 212

    thoroughly established nature( yongs grub, parinipanna),316n75

    thusness (de bzhin nyid), 13, 123,152, 198, 269

    treasure text ( gter ma), 4Treasury of Philosophies,302n58Trisong Detsen, 82true establishment (bden grub),

    4144, 119, 150, 154, 15964, 174Truth Body (chos sku, dharmakya),

    7274, 113, 132, 208, 26768,27379Tsongkhapa (tsong kha pa blo bzang

    grags pa), 2, 17, 19, 91, 95,107108, 147, 156, 174, 179, 220,230, 235, 302n57

    Tupten Chkyi Dorj, the FifthDzokchen Rinpoch (thub bstanchos kyi rdo rje), 68, 322n259

    two truths, 1113, 1522, 3148,5759, 101, 103, 11720, 12429,13335, 160, 16278, 196, 208,210, 249, 281

    as appearance and emptiness(snang stong bden gnyis), 3637,57, 12931, 13552, 206207,21415

    as authentic and inauthenticexperience ( gnas snang bden gnyis), 40, 57, 13133, 207,302n59

    See alsorelative truth; ultimatetruth

    ultimate truth, 1215, 17, 21, 36, 41,12933, 13741, 15159, 180,200, 216

    categorized ultimate (rnam grangs pai don dam), 1011, 3334,3947, 59, 6667, 11723, 14551, 160, 162, 166, 169, 17273,21516, 258, 318n202

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    ultimate truth (continued) uncategorized ultimate (rnam grangs

    ma yin pai don dam), 1011, 1823,3942, 4548, 59, 65, 70, 11823,138, 14559, 16566, 171, 17576,21516, 258, 311n105

    ultimate valid cognition, 10, 13, 34,36, 57, 105, 11723, 12930, 142,164, 171, 204, 209

    unity, 917, 30, 49, 57, 66, 81,96, 99100, 151, 17578, 205,20810, 308n57

    universal ground [consciousness]

    (kun gzhi [rnam shes]), 52, 102,108, 190, 19496, 198, 302n57,314n154

    Uttaratantra,11, 1316, 31, 36, 103,106109, 11214, 123, 13235,203, 205, 21112, 225, 309nn6873, 316nn17576

    Vajracchedik,312n250Vajrayna.SeeMantravalid cognition.Seeconventional

    valid cognition; ultimate validcognitionVasubandhu, 115, 303n2, 316n174,

    320n222Vehicle of Characteristics.SeeStra

    Vehicle

    Vimuktasena, 110, 115, 233Vinaya, 6, 81, 85, 303n3, 303nn67,

    303n12, 314n143wheels of doctrine (chos khor,

    dharmackra), 1317, 3031,3637, 101107, 12335, 20612,307n56, 308n57, 315n174,316n178

    White Lotus,52, 90, 188, 190, 305n30wisdom ( ye shes), 12, 14, 2223,

    6670, 7476, 13132, 13739,196, 204, 23854, 27582

    See alsoself-existing wisdomWisdom Chapter. See under Bodhicaryvatra

    Wish-Fullling Treasury. See PreciousWish-Fullling Treasury

    Words That Delight Guru Majugoa,309n67, 310n94, 314n154,315n162, 317n185

    Yogcra, 1820, 189, 316n175 See alsoMind-Only

    yogic direct perception.See under

    direct perception

    Zhechen Kongtrl (zhe chen kongsprul padma dri med), 8

    Zhechen (zhe chen) monastery, 8

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    State University ofNew York Presswww sunypress edu

    This is an essential work of Tibetan Buddhist thought written by an inuential

    scholar of the twentieth century. Drawing upon the Nyingma tradition of the

    great Tibetan visionary Mipam, Btrl provides a systematic overview of

    Mipams teachings on the Middle Way. Presenting the Nyingma school within

    a rich constellation of diverse perspectives, Btrl contrasts Nyingma views

    point by point with positions held by other Tibetan Buddhist schools. Btrls

    work addresses a wide range of complex topics in Buddhist philosophy and

    doctrine in a beautifully structured composition in verse and prose. Notably,

    Btrl sheds light on the elusive meaning of emptiness and presents an

    interpretation that is unique to his Nyingma school.

    Distinguishing the Views and Philosophies exemplies a vigorous tradition of

    Tibetan Buddhist scholarship that is widely practiced in contemporary

    monastic colleges in Tibet, India, and Nepal. Douglas Samuel Duckworths

    translation will make this work widely available in English for the rst time,

    and his thoughtful introduction and annotations will provide insight and

    context for readers.

    Btrl (18981959) was an ordained monk from central Tibet, who was

    recognized as an incarnate lama. He taught at several monastic colleges in

    eastern and central Tibet, and many of his students were among the mostinuential leaders of the Nyingma school. Douglas Samuel Duckworth is

    Assistant Professor of Philosophy and Humanities at East Tennessee State

    University. He is the author of Mipam on Buddha-Nature: The Ground of the

    Nyingma Tradition , also published by SUNY Press.

    BUDDHIST STUDIES