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23124819 Positive Negative Politeness

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Text of 23124819 Positive Negative Politeness

Positive Politeness and Negative PolitenessProf: A. Elhaloui

The three things we have seen so far

1. A model person: face + rationality 2. Some acts are Face-Threatening Acts 3. Examples of the ways some acts can threaten face (Ss face or Hs face).

Strategies for doing the FTA In the context of the mutual vulnerability of face, any rational agents will seek to avoid these Face Threatening Acts, or will employ certain strategies to minimize the threat.

How?

Summary of the Four Politeness Strategies

1. Do FTA on record (baldly, with no redressive action) 2. Do it off record 3. Do it on record with redressive action (Positive Politeness) 4. Do it on record with redressive action (Negative Politeness)

Note ...Can you pass me the salt? Three questions: 1. How do we derive a request from a question? 2. Why do we have indirectness (a question instead of a request)? 3. Why does the question sound like a conventional way of making a request?

Note ...Can you pass me the salt? 1. We learnt how to derive a request from a question ... 2. Now we understand why we have indirectness:Indirectness means we are NOT imposing: a negative politeness strategy. 3. One question we still need to deal with, however, is: why does indirectness sound conventional?

Note ...on record requirement negative politeness

Conventionalized indirectness.

Hoe do people assess threat?1. Social distance 2. Relative power 3. Absolute rankingWeightiness of threat = S (S,H) + P (H, S) + Rx

Summary of the Four Politeness Strategies

Low Threat1. Do FTA on record (baldly, with no redressive action) 2. Do it off record 3. Do it on record with redressive action (Positive Politeness) 4. Do it on record with redressive action (Negative Politeness) High Threat 5. Dont do the FTA

How do pariticipants infer politenes strategies?The four highest level (the most general) strategies of politeness are referred to as:

Super-strategies

Summary of the Four Politeness Strategies

1. Do FTA on record (baldly, with no redressive action) 2. Do it off record 3. Do it on record with redressive action (Positive Politeness) 4. Do it on record with redressive action (Negative Politeness) 5. Dont do the FTA

Super-strategies

How do pariticipants infer politenes strategies? Strategies emanating from them are referred to as higher-order strategies Output Strategies are those that emanate from higher order strategies and are linguistically expressed.

A Graphic Representation of the PS

Do the FTAOff record On record

With redressive action Without redressive action

Positive Politeness

Negative Politeness

Super-strategies

higher-order startegies

output strategies

Positive Politeness

Higher order strategies of positive politeness1. Claim Common Grounds. 2. Assume that S and H are Cooperators. 3. Fulfill Hs want for some X.

Claim Common Grounds Exaggerate (interest, approval, sympathy with H) Intensify interest to H (e.g., by Switching back and forth between past and present tenses) Exaggerate facts Repetition Avoid disagreement Hedges

Claim Common GroundNotice, attend to H (her interests, wants, needs, goods)

You must be hungry, its a long time since breakfast. How about some lunch?

Claim common grounds: Notice attend to H

What a beautiful vase this is! Where did it come from?

Claim common grounds: Notice attend to H

God! Youre farty tonight! We ate too many beans tonight, didnt we?Claim common grounds: Notice attend to H

Claim Common GroundExaggerate (interest, approval, sympathy with H)

What a fantastic garden you have!

Claim common grounds: ExaggerateThank you!

How absolutely marvelous / extraordinary / devastating / incredible

Claim common grounds: Exaggerate

Claim Common GroundIntensify interest to H (e.g., by Switching back and forth between past and present tenses)

Black I like. I used to wear it more that I do now. I very rarely wear it now. I wore a black jumper, and when I wear it my mum says Ah she said. But Len likes it; he thinks it looks ever so nice and quite a few people do. But when my mum sees it she said, Oh its not your color, youre more for pinks and blues Claim common grounds: Intensify interest to H

I come down the stairs, and what do you think I see? a huge mess all over the place, the phones off the hook and the clothes are scattered all over...

Claim common grounds: Intensify interest to H

Claim Common Ground

In-group identity markers

1. Here mate, I was keeping that seat for a friend of mine. 2. Come here, mate/honey/darling

Claim common grounds: In-group identity markers

Claim Common GroundJoke

1. Ok if I tackle those cookies? 2. How about lending me this old heap of junk? (Hs new Cadillac)

Claim common grounds: Joke

Claim Common GroundExaggerate facts

Dear Jimmy, you always do the dishes! Ill do them this time.

Claim common grounds: Exaggerate facts

Ill be done in one second (half a sec / half a mo)Claim common grounds: Exaggerate facts

Claim Common GroundRepetition

I had a flat tyre on the way home.

Oh God! A flat tyre!Claim common grounds: Repetition

Claim Common Ground

Avoid disagreement

Claim common grounds: Avoid disagreement

Thats where you live, Florida?

Thats where I was born.

So is this permanent? Yeah, Its permanent- Permanent until I get married again.

Have you got friends? I have friends- So-called friends. I had friends. Let me put it that way!

Claim common grounds: Avoid disagreement And they havent heard a word, huh?

Not a word. Not at all. Except Mrs H maybe. What is she? Small? Yes, yes, shes small, smallish,um,not really small but not really very big.

Claim Common Ground

Hedges

1. 2. 3. 4.

You really sort of botched it. You really should sort of try harder. You really are sort of loner, arent you? That knife sort of chews bread.

Claim common grounds: hedges

Assume S and H are cooperatorsAssert, presuppose Ss knowledge of and concern for Hs wants.

Assume S and H are cooperators:Assert, presuppose Ss knowledge of and concern for Hs wants.

Look, I know you want the car back at 5:00, so should I go to town now?

1. I know you cant bear parties, but this one will really be good- do come 2. I know you love roses but the florist didnt have any more. I brought you geraniums instead (offer, apology).

Assume S and H are cooperators:Assert, presuppose Ss knowledge of and concern for Hs wants.

Assume S and H are cooperators: Beoptimistic

Youll lend me your lawnmower for the weekend, I hope.

Assume S and H are cooperators: Beoptimistic

1. Ive come to borrow a cup of flower 2. Look! Im sure you wont mind if I remind you to do the dishes tonight. 3. You dont have any objections to me helping myself to a bit of cake, do you?

Negative Politeness

Higher order strategies of negative politeness1. Dont presume or assume 2. Dont coerce.

Dont presume or assumeQuestion/hedge Hedges addressed to Felicity Conditions

1. Thats just how it is, in a sense/in a way/as it were/in all probability/I shouldnt be surprised/it seems to Dont presume or assume: me/dont you agree. Question/hedge 2. Close the window, if you can/if it closes/if Hedges addressed to Felicity Conditions it isnt already closed/if you want.

Dont presume or assumeHedges addressed to Cooperativeness (Quality)

Dont presume or assume: Hedges addressed to Cooperativeness (Quality)I think you and I both know what the traffic law has to say about these traffic violations.

1. I think/believe/ think that 2. As you know/is well known/you and I both know 3. As I remember it 4. Dont My best recollection would have been/is presume or assume: Hedges 5. you might say addressed to Cooperativeness (Quality)

Dont Coerce Be pessimistic

1. I dont imagine/suppose there is any chance/possibility/hope of you 2. Perhaps youd care to help me/for a lift.

Dont coerce: Be pessimistic

Dont CoerceMinimize imposition

Okay .. Just a miute/ a second

Dont coerce: Minimize imposition

I just want to ask you if I can borrow / you could lend me/ a tiny/little/single sheet of paper.

Dont coerceImpersonalize

1.Lets have a cookie, then! (i.e. me) 2.Lets get on with dinner, eh? (i.e. you) 3.Lets stop for a bite. (I want a bite, so lets stop) 4.Give us a break. (i.e. me)

Dont coerce: Impersonalize

1. Indefinites- One shouldnt do things like that. 2. Okay, folks/guys, lets get on with it.

Dont coerce: Impersonalize

Dont coerceDont coerce: Point of view distancing

1. I have been wondering whether you could do me a little favor. 2. I was a kind of interested in knowing if

Dont coerce: Point of view distancing