THE HARVARD ORIENTAL SERIESVOLUME TWENTY-SEVEN
T H E volumes of the H A R V A R D O R I E N T A L
SERIES are printed at the expense of funds given to Harvard University by Henry Clarke Warren (1854-1899), of Cambridge, Massachusetts. The third volume, Warren's Buddhism, is a noble monument to his courage in adversity and to his scholarship. The Series, as a contribution to the work of enabling the Occident to understand the Orient, is the fruit of an enlightened liberality which now seems to have been an almost prophetic anticipation on his part of a great political need.
A brief Memorial of M r . Warren, as a scholar and as a man of patriotic and practical public service, is given at the end of volume SO of this Series. It has been reprinted at the end of the seventh and eighth issues of Warren's Buddhism; and also at the end of the Descriptive List of this Series, issued as a separate pamphlet, to be had free upon application to the Harvard University Press. The Descriptive List of the volumes of this Series is given at the end of this volume.
HARVARD ORIENTAL SERIESEDITED
WITH THE COOPERATION OF VARIOUS SCHOLARSBY
CHARLES ROCKWELL L A N M A N
VIKRAMA'S ADVENTURESOR A COLLECTION OF STORIES ABOUT KING VIKRAMA, AS TOLD BY THE THIRTY-TWO STATUETTES THAT SUPPORTED HIS THRONEEDITED IN FOUR DIFFERENT RECENSIONS OF THE SANSKRIT ORIGINAL (VIKRAMA-CHARITA OR STNHASANA-DVATRINCA.KA) AND TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH WITH AN INTRODUCTION
F R A N K L I N EDGERTONProfessor of Sanskrit at the University of Pennsylvania, Sometime Instructor in Sanskrit and Johnston Scholar at the Johns Hopkins University, Joint Editor of the Journal of the American Oriental Society, Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
PART 2: T E X T , I N FOUR PARALLEL RECENSIONS
Volume 27, Text, first issue: 1000 copies Copyright, 1926, by the Harvard University Press
Composed on the monotype, and printed from the monotype matter, by the Harvard University Press at Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A.
N O T E FOR L I B R A R I A N S A N D CATALOGUERS T H E Library of Congress issues printed catalogue-cards made to follow rules now generally approved by the best experts. The cards for this work bear the serial number 23-26324, and the main entry is " Vikrama-charita." Complete sets of these cards may be had (at a nominal price of 12 cents for each set of 8 or less) upon application to "The Library of Congress, Card Division, Washington, D. C." But (to foreign librarians, at least) the suggestion may be welcome that this work be recorded in Library Catalogues under the following entries: Vikrama-charita (as title of the Sanskrit text) Vikrama's Adventures (as equivalent English title) Edgerton, Franklin, 1885(as editor and translator) Sinhasana-dvatrineaka (as cross-reference to Vikrama-charita) Harvard Oriental Series (as whole, of which this work is part) Lanman, Charles Rockwell, 1850(as editor of the Series) NOTE AS TO PRONOUNCING SANSKRIT NAMES Short a, as in organ, or like the u in but. The other vowels, as in the key-words far, pin, pique, pull, rule, (and roughly) they, so. Pronounce c like ch in church, and j as in judge. The "aspirates" are true aspirates: thus, th, dh, ph, as in hothouse, madhouse, uphill. They are not spirants, as in thin, graphic. The underdotted \, d, n, etc. are pronounced (by the Hindus, at least) with the tip of the tongue turned up and drawn back. Dotted m or n indicates nasalization of the preceding vowel.
Table showing the stories of the four Recensions, and how they differ in sequence M e t h o d of citing the Vikrama-charitaV l K R A M A - C H A K I T A OB V I K R A M A ' s ADVENTURES
Presented in four horizontally parallel recensions The Frame-story in eight Sections, Roman I to VIIISection
I . Invocation, and announcement o f theme I I . K i n g Bhartrhari and the f r u i t that gave i m m o r t a l i t y I I I a . The treacherous ascetic and the winning of the vampire or vetala I I I b . T h e gift of Indra's throne I V . Death of V i k r a m a and hiding of the throne V. Finding of the throne by Bhoja V I . The jealous king and the ungrateful prince, Part 1 V I I . The jealous king and the ungrateful prince, Part 2 V I I I . Bhoja's first attempt to mount the throne The thirty-two Stories told by the t h i r t y - t w o StatuettesStory
3 5 13 15 18 22 29 34 44
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.
Vikrama\s rule for giving in alms The brahman's unsuccessful sacrifice The sea-god's gift of four magic jewels Vikrama's gratitude tested by Devadatta The jewel-carrier's dilemma V i k r a m a gratifies a l y i n g ascetic T w o headless bodies brought to life by V i k r a m a Vikrama causes a water-tank to be filled The fair courtezan who was visited by a demon Vikrama obtains a magic charm from an ascetic Vicarious sacrifice for a man who was dedicated to an ogre . . . The spendthrift heir, and the woman tormented by an ogre . . . Vikrama shames the wise men by an example of unselfishness . . A n ascetic warns V i k r a m a against neglect o f k i n g l y d u t y . . . . E m b o x t story: The fatalist k i n g The heavenly n y m p h and the kettle of boiling o i l The spring festival and the brahman's daughter Vikrama offers himself for his rival's benefit Vikrama visits the sun's orb Vikrama visits B a l i , k i n g of the nether w o r l d V i k r a m a visits a forest ascetic V i k r a m a is entertained by personifications of the eight Magic PowersX
47 48 53 61 68 73 78 84 88 95 99 106 114 121 122 128 133 137 141 147 153 159
Contents22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. Vikrama wins Kamakshi's quicksilver for another man Vikrama's daily life: his evil dream A strange inheritance: Qalivahana and Vikrama Vikrama averts an astrological evil omen Vikrama and the cow that grants every wish (" Wish-cow ") . . Vikrama reforms a gambler Vikrama abolishes the sacrificing of men to a bloody goddess . . . Vikrama's lavishness praised by a bard The clever mountebank Vikrama and the vampire or vetala Emboxt story: The prince who insulted a brahman 32. Vikrama's power and magnanimity  Conclusion: T h i r t y - t w o nymphs, curst to be statuettes, releast . .
166 171 176 184 189 194 201 206 210 217 218 224 225 229 233 233 236 238 239 240 241 245 247 250 251 253 256
Seven tales peculiar to single recensions of the Vikrama-charita Metrical Recension ( M R ) 32: B h a t t i becomes Vikrama's minister . . Jainistic Recension (JR) V: Vikrama wins the kingdom from Agnivetala Jainistic Recension (JR) V I I : Vikrama's conversion t o J a i n i s m . . . . Jainistic Recension (JR) I X : Brilliancy of Vikrama's court Jainistic Recension (JR) 29: Vikrama and the sign-reader Jainistic Recension (JR) 3 1 : The haunted house Jainistic Recension (JR) 32: The poverty-statue Appended text of the story of Vikramaditya's birthCRITICAL APPARATUS
Remarks as to general procedure The manuscripts, enumerated and described 1. Manuscripts of the Southern Recension 2. Manuscripts of the M e t r i c a l Recension 3. Manuscripts of the Brief Recension 4. Manuscripts of the Jainistic Recension 5. Manuscripts of the Vararuci Recension Variant readings of the 32 authorities, manuscript (30) or printed (2) The variants are given for each Section or Story (each text-unit), pages 257-34.8, and in the same sequence as that in which the text-units are printedA P P E N D I X : T H E STANZAS O F T H E V I K R A M A - C H A R I T A
Stanzas included in the index The number and the languages of the stanzas Meters of the stanzas: and Table of the meters Abbreviations and signs and typographical devices explained Alphabetic index of the stanzas of all four recensions
349 349 350 351 353 369
TABLE SHOWING THE STORIES OF THE FOUR RECENSIONS, AND HOW THEY DIFFER IN SEQUENCEThis is page x i i .Original Order Section
For Explanation of the Table, see page oppositeSouthern Recension SR Metrical Recension MR Brief Recension BR Jainistic Recension JR
SECTIONS OF FRAME-STORY Here V = Vikrama
I . I n v o c a t i o n : announcement I I . B h a r t r h a r i a n d the f r u i t (Here JR has V and Agnivetala) I l i a . False ascetic a n d v a m p i r e (Here JR has V's conversion) I l l b . T h e gift o f I n d r a ' s throne (Here JR has V's b r i l l i a n t court) I V . V's d e a t h : h i d i n g o f the throne V . F i n d i n g o f the throne b y B h o j a V I . Jealous k i n g and bad prince, 1 V I I . Jealous k i n g and bad prince, 2 V I I I . B h o j a tries t o m o u n t throneStory STATUETTE-STORIES
I II IIIa
IlIa IllbIV V VI VII
IlIa IllbIV V VI VII
IllbIV V out out VI 1 2 3 4 7 6 5 9 29 10 8 11 13 14 out 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 12 30 31 out 32
IV V VI VII VIII IXX II III 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
VIII1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
VIII1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 9 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
X I (in 1) X I I (in 1)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.
V ' s rule for g i v i n g in alms Brahman's futile sacrifice Sea-god's gift of magic jewels Vikraraa's g r a t i t u d e tested Jewel-carrier's d i l e m m a V gratifies a l y i n g ascetic Headless bodies revived by V V causes w a t e r - t a n k t o fill F a i r courtezan and demon V gets charm f r o m ascetic V ' s vicarious sacrifice Spendthrift heir, w o m a n , ogre V shames the wise by goodness Ascetic warns V i k r a m a Emboxment: Fatalist kin