2014 Fall Hon Final Review 2

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  • 7/25/2019 2014 Fall Hon Final Review 2

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    Dougherty Valley HSChemistry Nuclear and electron Review

    1. Explain why most of the mass of an atom is in the nucleus and its volume is in the

    electron cloud.

    2. What force keeps the nucleus of the atom together? What force in the nucleustries to break it apart?

    3. ive the nuclear symbol for the elements below

    a. carbon ! 1"b. #alcium ! "3 c. $odium ! 2"d. %ranium & 23'

    ". What are the six types of radioactive decay we discussed in class?

    (. Explain each decay above and give its charge and nuclear symbol.). *ank +lpha, -eta, and gamma first by density and then by ease of stopping the

    particle. Explain the relationship between the density and ease of stopping the

    particle.

    . write out or finish the decays below.

    a. C614

    N714

    / 000000000

    b. %ranium ! 23( undergoes an alpha decayc. What is produced when protactinium ! 22' goes through two alpha decays.

    d. What element goes through a beta decay to produce cerium&1""e. eutron initiated fission of %&23( results in the release of 2 neutrons, the

    formation of #s&1"" and another nucleus.

    f. ritium and deuterium are fused to produce a neutron and a new nucleus.

    . What are the half&life e4uations?'. #alculate the ending half&life amount.

    a. 5ealth officials are concerned about radon levels in homes. he half&life of

    radon&222 is 3.2 days. 6f a sample of gas contains ".3 micrograms of radon&

    222, how much will remain in the sample after 1(.2 days?b. $odium&2" has a half&life of 1( hours. 5ow much sodium&2" will remain in an

    1.7 g sample after )7 hours?

    17. #alculate the original half&life amount.a. #arbon&1" has a half life of (,1(yrs. 6f 2.(g of a sample is left after

    23,"()yrs what was the mass of the original sample?

    b. + sample of *adon&222 is found to have a mass of 1.2 grams. 6f it has a half&life of 3.2 days and you have had it for 3 months how much did you start

    with?

    11. #alculate the percentage of sample left.a. %ranium&23 decays very slowly, with a half&life of "." billion years. What

    percentage of a sample of uranium&23 would remain after 13." billion years?

    b. he half&life of palladium&173 is 1 days. What is the percentage of your

    sample left if you keep it for 17 months?

    12. Calculate the halflife.a. + sample of $trontium&'7 is found to have decayed to one&eighth of itsoriginal amount after .3 years. What is the half&life of strontium&'7?

    !. + sample of 8rancium&212 will decay to one&sixteenth its original amountafter 7 minutes. What is the half&life of francium&212?

    1". Calculate the time.a. $odium&2" has a half&life of 1( hours. 5ow much sodium&2" will remain in an

    1.7 g sample after )7 hours?

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    Dougherty Valley HSChemistry Nuclear and electron Review

    !. #lement1$% has a halflife of $.&$ seconds. 'f one millionatoms of it were (re(ared) how many atoms would remainafter *.+ seconds,

    1*. -rder the color s(ectrum from hottest most energy/ tocoldest lest energy/.

    1+. #0(lain the (hotoelectric eect. Draw out a (icture of whatha((ens when an atom a!sor!s energy and releases energy.1%. hat is the ground state and e0cited state.13. hat is a line emission s(ectrum and how is it (roduced.14. #0(lain the Heisen!erg uncertainty (rinci(le.1&. 5ive the electron con6guration for the elements !elow.

    a. 7e!. Ca

    c. Cud. 6

    27. What elements are below.

    a. 1s22s22p)3s1

    b. 1s22s22(%"s2"(%*s2"d1$*(%+s2*d1$+("

    c. 1s2

    2s2

    2(%

    "s2

    "(%

    *s2

    "d*

    d. 1s22s22(%"s2"(%*s2"d1$*(2

    21. How many electrons can !e held in each ( or!ital,22. How many electrons can !e held in the d or!itals,2". rite all the electron con6gurations in 1314 in no!le gas

    con6guration.2*. hat are the charges of the electrons.2+. hat are the four 8uantum num!ers and what do they tell

    you.2%. 5ive the four 8uantum num!ers for the elements !elow.

    a. #s

    !. 9e

    c. :

    d. ;n23. 5ive the element re(resented !y the 8uantum num!ers

    !elow.a. ") 1) 1) 1

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    g.