16Hertz Electronics Starter Kit Guide

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A manual for starting electronics projects

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<ul><li><p>16HERTZ GUIDE </p><p>ELECTRONICS STARTER KIT </p></li><li><p>sd 2 16 hertz support@16hertz.com (718) 487 9085 www.16hertz.com </p><p>2 </p><p>16Hertz Electronics Project Starter Kit With over 30 items and 200 components, the 16Hertz Electronics Starter Kit is the kit you need to get started with electronics projects. It has all the components you need for beginner to moderately advanced projects. With just the components in the kit, you can build hundreds of projects, learn the basics of electronics and circuit building. It is also a great addition to any micro-controller like the Arduino or the Raspberry Pi. The following guide will introduce you to the key components in the kit and help you get started building electronic devices. There are detailed diagrams and explanations for all the circuits described thorough out this guide. </p><p>Please contact us at support@16hertz.com or visit us at www.16hertz.com for any further questions </p></li><li><p>3 education@16hertz.com (718) 487 9085 www.16hertz.com </p><p>3 </p><p>3 16 hertz Inventory of Parts Quantity Item 1 400 point breadboard 1 Jumper Wires, assorted lengths 1 AA battery holder 1 DC Motor (3V) 1 RGB LED (common cathode) 1 Thermistor 1 10k Potentiometer 2 Photoresistors 5 PN2222 Transistors 5 BC547 Transistors 5 1N4001 Diodes 1 RGB LED 2 Red LED (5mm) 2 Blue LED (5mm) 2 Green LED (5mm) 2 Yellow LED (5mm) 2 White LED (5mm) 1 Thermister 1 Piezo Buzzer 5 22pF Ceramic Capacitor 5 0.1 F Ceramic Capacitor 2 50V 100F Electrolytic Capacitor 2 50V 10F Electrolytic Capacitor 5 Push-button switches 1 9V Battery Connector 5 10, 100, 200, 330, 1k, 10k, 100k, 1m Resistors </p></li><li><p>sd 4 16 hertz support@16hertz.com (718) 487 9085 www.16hertz.com </p><p>4 </p><p>LED (Light Emitting Diode) </p><p>An LED is a semiconductor device that emits light. An LED has 2 leads, an anode (+) and a cathode (-). When a voltage difference is maintained across the two leads, a current begins to flow and depending on the configuration of the LED, it begins to emit light. The larger the current, the more intense the light it emits. Be careful not to send more current that the LED is rated for. Typically 5mm LEDs, like the ones in this kit are rated for around 25 mA of current. </p><p>This is the schematic symbol for an LED. The side with the arrows is the (-) side and the other is (+) </p><p>Ensure that the polarity of the LED leads match the polarity of your power source. If these leads are mixed up, your LED wont light up. It is a diode after all. </p><p>RESISTOR A resistor is a passive electrical component that acts to reduce the current flow while lowering the voltage across a circuit. The current flow through a resistor, or any component for that matter, is given by Ohms law (I=V/R) </p><p>Resistors are some of the most common elements in all circuits. In your kit you have resistors in 10 different values. </p><p>Description &amp; Applications of Key Components </p></li><li><p>5 education@16hertz.com (718) 487 9085 www.16hertz.com </p><p>5 </p><p>5 16 hertz </p><p>Remember, to create values of resistance you can always connect resistors in series, one after another. For instance, if you need 530 of resistance, you can combine a 200 resistor and a 330 resistor. </p><p>The color bands on the resistor arent just there to make it look pretty, the resistance value and the tolerance of the resistor are encoded in them. </p><p>Each color of each band represents a different value. You can read the resistance value of a resistor shown to the right the following way: </p><p>First band Red 2 Second band Black 0 Third band Blue 1M Fourth band Gold 5% tolerance </p><p>Value of the resistor 20M +/- 5% </p><p>A useful mnemonic to remember the corresponding color for the number is: </p><p>Better Be Right Or Your Great Big Venture Goes West </p><p>The schematic symbol for a resistor is a line that resembles a triangular wave. </p><p>Remember, resistors dont have a polarity, so it doesnt matter which way you connect them to your circuit. </p></li><li><p>sd 6 16 hertz support@16hertz.com (718) 487 9085 www.16hertz.com </p><p>6 </p><p>400 POINT BREADBOARD </p><p>The breadboard, sometimes referred to as a solderless breadboard, is an essential tool for quick and easy electronics prototyping. It is equally used by those learning about electronics and circuitry, and the more advanced circuit builders. </p><p>The breadboard eliminates the need for soldering components together every time you want to build a circuit by allowing for temporary and easily changeable connections. </p><p>Each point on a breadboard is connected by a rail to its neighboring points, either horizontally or vertically, depending on where they are on the board. When a component is pushed into a point, it locks into place. </p><p>On the 400 point breadboard, points along the two vertical columns labeled by a + and a on either side are connected by a rail i.e. if a component is inserted into one of the points on this column, it is then connected via the rail to every other point in the vertical column. </p><p>Much the same way as the columns, points along each of the horizontal rows in the center of the board (denoted by numbers) are connected by a rail. Mind the there is a gap in the middle; the rails dont extend past it. </p><p> LED connected to breadboard </p><p>The rail inside a breadboard </p></li><li><p>7 education@16hertz.com (718) 487 9085 www.16hertz.com </p><p>7 </p><p>7 16 hertz </p><p>Using the Breadboard </p><p>CIRCUIT 1: Let There Be Light! </p><p>This circuit should enable you to turn your LED on. LEDs are usually rated for a certain current. Sending anymore current through the LED might cause it to blow. </p><p>Given a set voltage (4.8 V in our case) you can control the amount of current by changing the resistance in the circuit. </p><p> The relationship between current (I), voltage (V) &amp; resistance (R) is given by Ohms law, I=V/R </p><p>Adding a 330 ohm resistor to our circuit means that the current in our circuit will be about 15 mA, and our LED can handle that. </p></li><li><p>sd 8 16 hertz support@16hertz.com (718) 487 9085 www.16hertz.com </p><p>8 </p><p>You can vary the brightness of the LED by increasing the resistance in the circuit. Now that you know how to get one LED to turn on, lets try getting a whole lot of them on! There are many different ways to connect components in a circuit. Lets explore a few of them and note their differences. The two of the simplest and most frequently occurring ways are connecting components in series or in parallel. </p><p>CIRCUIT 2: Series Circuit </p><p>Youve just built a series circuit. Components connected in series are all connected in a single path. </p></li><li><p>9 education@16hertz.com (718) 487 9085 www.16hertz.com </p><p>9 </p><p>9 16 hertz </p><p>CURRENT </p><p>Since there is one closed circuit, the same current flows through all the components. All 3 LEDs should light up, but notice the difference between the brightness between the LEDs in this circuit and the LED you lit up in Circuit 1. </p><p>Since the same current is flowing throughout the entire circuit, the brightness of all the LEDs should be the same. However, the current flowing </p><p>through the circuit is lower than what it was in Circuit 1. Ohms law (I=V/R) tells us that since the resistance in this circuit is larger than the resistance in Circuit 1, the current that flows must be lower. Since the overall current is lower, the brightness of each LED is also lower. </p><p>VOLTAGE </p><p>The voltage varies across each element. The voltage drop across each component can be calculated by Ohms law (V=IR).</p><p>CIRCUIT 3: Parallel Circuit </p></li><li><p>sd 10 </p><p>16 hertz support@16hertz.com (718) 487 9085 www.16hertz.com </p><p>10 </p><p>A parallel circuit is another way to build a circuit. In a parallel circuit, there is more than one way to form a closed loop, for instance, the battery R1 &amp; LED1 form a closed circuit on their own. This configuration leads to the voltage across the parallel circuit being the same, while the resistance in each of the individual closed circuits determines the current flow through each component. </p><p>PROS AND CONS </p><p>In a series circuit, every device must function for the circuit to be complete. One component malfunctioning in a series circuit breaks the circuit. However, in parallel circuits, there are many independent circuits, so all but one could be burned out, and the last one would still function. </p><p>RGB LED </p><p>In your kit, you shouldve gotten an RGB LED. The RGB LED is essentially 3 LEDs in one. It is a blue LED, green LED and a blue LED in one package. With the RGB LED you can create almost any color by varying the intensity of each each of the primary colors. Remember, you can vary the intensity of an LED by limiting the current that is sent to it. </p></li><li><p>11 </p><p>education@16hertz.com (718) 487 9085 www.16hertz.com </p><p>11 </p><p>11 16 hertz </p><p>RGB LEDs come in two common flavors, common cathode and common anode. Cathodes are normally (-) and anodes are (+). </p><p>The RGB LED in the kit is a common cathode LED. This means that each of the 3 LEDs that make up the RGB LED have a common cathode i.e. you can ground the long lead (the cathode) and a positive voltage to each of the other 3 leads. </p><p>CIRCUIT 4: The Colors of the Rainbow </p><p>If you connect all the 3 colors with the same resistance, the same amount of current will </p></li><li><p>sd 12 </p><p>16 hertz support@16hertz.com (718) 487 9085 www.16hertz.com </p><p>12 </p><p>flow through each of them and each color will glow with about the same intensity. We all know what happens when you combine the three primary colors, red, green and blue you get white! </p><p>So the RGB led in this circuit, with the same resistors connected to each color will glow white. </p><p>TO TRY </p><p>Try sending a different amount of current to each lead by changing the resistors around to see what other colors you can create. </p><p>QUESTION </p><p>Is this a series circuit or a parallel circuit? </p><p>POTENTIOMETER </p><p>A potentiometer or pot, is a variable resistor. Your kit comes with a rotary potentiometer with a range of about 10k. </p><p>As you turn the knob of the potentiometer, a sliding wiper inside moves along a track. This mechanism allows for varying resistances that depend on where the wiper is along the track at any given time. </p><p>Instead of changing resistors each time we want a new resistance in the circuit, we can use a potentiometer. Lets try using a potentiometer to control the intensity of one of the </p><p>colors in the RGB LED to see what colors we can create. </p><p>Potentiometers are used often in many devices from volume controls to scroll wheels on mice </p></li><li><p>13 </p><p>education@16hertz.com (718) 487 9085 www.16hertz.com </p><p>13 </p><p>13 16 hertz </p><p>CIRCUIT 5: A Pot at the End of the Rainbow </p><p>Lets go one step beyond Circuit 4 where we left having to change resistors every time we wanted to control the intensity of a color. </p><p>This circuit will allow you to control the amount of current going into one of the leads of the RGB LED by changing the resistance in that circuit by turning the knob. </p><p>TO TRY </p><p>Try connecting the potentiometer to different leads of the RGB LED to see all the different colors you can make by turning the knob. </p><p>TROUBLESHOOTING </p><p>Make sure to connect the middle lead of the potentiometer to the desired circuit to control. The other two leads go the (+) and (-) terminals of the battery pack. </p><p>PHOTORESISTOR </p><p>Photoresistors, sometimes called photocells or light dependent resistors (LDR), are variable resistors that change their resistance based on how much light is incident upon it. </p><p>The resistance of a photoresistor decreases as the intensity of the incident light increases. In other </p></li><li><p>sd 14 </p><p>16 hertz support@16hertz.com (718) 487 9085 www.16hertz.com </p><p>14 </p><p>words, the brighter the light, the lower the resistance and vice-versa. </p><p>Photoresistors are very versatile and easy to use. They are ideal for projects needing light sensitivity and dependency. </p><p>It is good practice to incorporate the photoresistor in a voltage divider circuit when using it. </p><p>CIRCUIT 6: Voltage Divider </p><p>A voltage divider circuit is one you will see a lot as you delve deeper into electronics. Lets say that we have a 9V signal that we want lowered to a 5V signal for simple and rudimentary purposes, where we dont mind energy loss and have a low current draw situation, voltage dividers are perfect. </p><p>Voltage divider circuits can spit out any fraction of the input voltage that you desire, as long as you have the components with the needed resistance values. </p><p>To calculate the needed resistance values, after applying Ohms law, you get the expression </p><p>You can see from this expression that when R1 decreases, Vout increases and when R2 increases, Vout also increases. </p><p>Voltage dividers might seem like a cure for everything, but be careful all that energy from reducing 9V to 5V has to go somewhere, this turns into heat. If you application is stepping down a large voltage or is drawing a considerable amount of current you will end up destroy resistors. </p></li><li><p>15 </p><p>education@16hertz.com (718) 487 9085 www.16hertz.com </p><p>15 </p><p>15 16 hertz </p><p>CIRCUIT 7: Night-Light #1 </p><p>This is our first attempt at a night-light. Try turning the lights on and off, or covering the photoresistor with your hand. What do you see? </p><p>After learning about the photoresistor as a resistor that changes its resistance depending on the light in the room, one might think that connecting it to an LED (Circuit 1) would suffice to create a night-light. </p><p>What do you think the issue is?</p></li><li><p>sd 16 </p><p>16 hertz support@16hertz.com (718) 487 9085 www.16hertz.com </p><p>16 </p><p>PROBLEMS WITH DESIGN </p><p>First of all, we know that the resistance of the photoresister goes down as the incident light gets brighter. This translates to the LED glowing brighter. Therefore, its really a night-light in reverse. </p><p>Secondly, the resistance range of the photoresistor in our kit is about 10k and at this much resistance, our power supply wont supply enough current for our LED to glow very brightly. </p><p>POSSIBLE FIXES </p><p>We will be able to remedy the first problem of the inverted response to light intensity by the photoresister by making it R1 in a voltage divider circuit. Recall that in a voltage divider circuit, as the resistance of R1 decreases, the voltage that comes out increases. Therefore, we can get the desired effect of the LED getting dimmer as the room is brighter and vice-versa. </p><p>For the second problem, this can be remedied by changing the value of R2 in the voltage divider circuit such that the right voltage is given out of Vout. </p><p>CIRCUIT 8: Night-Light #2 </p></li><li><p>17 </p><p>education@16hertz.com (718) 487 9085 www.16hertz.com </p><p>17 </p><p>17 16 hertz </p><p>R1 330 ohm | R2 1k ohm </p><p>TO DO </p><p> Experiment with different values for R2 and see how this affects the circuit. </p><p>SWITCH </p><p>CIRCUIT 9: Breaking the Circuit </p></li><li><p>sd 18 </p><p>16 hertz support@16hertz.com (718) 487 9085 www.16hertz.com </p><p>18 </p><p>Switches are a key part of any circuit. They allow for control by enabling you to break a circuit when you dont want any current flowing. </p><p>TRANSISTORS </p><p>Transistors are semiconductor devices. They are the sole reason why most of the modern electronics devices that we use today are possible. Their invention in 1947 lead to the modern electronics revolution of microchips and other semiconductor devices. </p><p>Transistors are essentially varia...</p></li></ul>