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CORNELLUNIVERSITY LIBRARY

BRV.16

Cornell University Libraru

1710.B25 1898Lives of the saints.

3

1924 026 082 689

Thetine

original of

tliis

book

is in

Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions intext.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924026082689

*-

->^

THE

3Ltt3e0 of ti)eREV.

faints

S.

BARING-GOULD

SIXTEEN VOLUMESVOLUME THE SIXTEENTH

^

^

-

-lj

This Volume containsto

Two

INDICES

Sixteen Volumes of the work, one an INDEX of the SAINTS whose Lives are given, and the other u. Subject Index.the

B-J(

&-

-1^

THE

ilttieg of tt)eBY THE

^amtsiM.A.

REV.

S.

BARING-GOULD,Editionin

New

i6

Volumes

Revised with Introduction and Additional Lives ofEnglish Martyrs, Cornish and Welsh Saints,

and a

full

Index

to the Entire

Work

ILLUSTRATED BY OVER

400

ENGRAVINGS

VOLUME THE SIXTEENTH

LONDON

JOHN:

C.

NIMMOGREEN,&- CO.II

NEW YORK LONGMANS,MDCCCXCVIII

*-

J-i-^*^

^S^d /I?

Printed by

Ballantyne, Hanson &' Co.

At the Ballantyne Press

>i5i

Brittany,in fact, only

its

Princes and Saints.

95

two years, and then, as the legend says, rather than become bishop, probably thinking to obtain a wider

field for his energies, fled to Armorica, where he disembarked in the island of Ouessant, at a port which he named

after his

native place, Porz Ejenned (Port of the Oxen). His community consisted of twelve priests, twelve laymen of noble birth, nephews or cousins of the saint, all impatient to found tribes, and each taking with him wife

and

children,

and clansmen and

clients,

who threw

in

their fortunes with their leader.

Finally, they

brought with

them a quantity of slaves and priests were saints, and foundedmemorial chapels erected overhis

servants.lanns,

All the twelveto

and meritedS.still

have

their graves.

Paul erected

own

llan at a place in the island

called after him,

Lampaul, which is the principal village of the island. But the limits of Ouessant were too contracted for Paul's ardent spirit, and he crossed over to the mainland and founded another llan in a clearing of the forest, whereremains tothis

day

his

foundation of Lampaul-Ploudal-

same time one of his lay companions, named Pedr, founded a plou and established himself in amezan.thefortified caer thatstill

At

carries his

name, Ker-Ber, or the

castle of Peter.

But Paul could not remain quiet at this new station. on the move again, and now he went along the north coast in an easterly direction till he reached a Plou-Meinin, a rocky land colonised by some of the clansmen of Withur, whom he resolved on visiting,After two years he waspartly because he could not settle in his district withouthis consent,

and

also because

he was aisle

relative.

He

ac-

cordingly boated over to the

of Batz.

Paul was wel-

comed by

the count,

whom

he found engaged on making

Withur, who was now very much a copy of the Gospels. taken up with making his peace with God, made over the

*-

;

>5(

.,

.

^

96island of Batz

Lives of the Saints.to

Paul,

Childebert to negotiate for him

ToS.

this

he agreed.

on condition that he went to some political settlement. Finally Paul settled where is now

Pol de Leon, where he ruled as a true saint-prince over ten trefs or, as the monastic scribes translate them, tribes,the whole constituting one ecclesiastical principality, con-

terminous in later times with the diocese of L^on.

On

the

death of Withur without children his principality was absorbed into Domnonia, with the exception of that portion

which Paul had claimed and received by right of kinship tothe tiern or chief

The

later writers of the lives of

some

of the saints could not understand early systems of partition of lands,

and they make Paul go

to Childebert

receive the episcopate whilst with him, forced

and on him by

the king. The course of affairs was probably this. Paul, knowing well that Withur was without heirs, went to him and demanded as his right as a kinsman a large slice of his principality. Withur consented, acknowledging the right, but bade him get Childebert's consent. Paul visited Paris, and there the Frank king expressed his willingness to ratify the negotiation on condition of Paul's being made

bishop over theall

district.

Paul did not see that

this

was

at

necessary.

An

abbot kept his bishops on hisit

staff to

ordain, but according to his ideasto

accumulate

offices in his

own handssteward.

was quite unnecessary ; he might as well

constitute himself his

own

However, Childebertecclesiastics

had been taught

differently

by the Latin-Frank

he associated the idea of jurisdiction with episcopacy, as essential he persisted, and Paul acquiesced reluctantly. Again, another arrival from Gwent is to be noted, and;

that

about the same time

;

this

was the immigration of

Carenkinal and Arthmael.the latter as ecclesiastical

The former came as secular, chief. They landed, where hadAberIldut,

others, in the estuary of the

and there Plou-

^-

-ij.

Brittany,Arzelbears the

its

Princesof the

andfirst

Saints.

97

still

name

colony planted byhis

Arthmael and

his cousin.

This remained in the hands ofvisit

Carenkinal, and Arthmael went east to

fellow-

countryman Paul, and see whether he could be useful to him, and perhaps also better himself. It is, however, possible that there may have been a quarrel between him and Carenkinal, and that the layman turned out the ecclesiastic. Such is the story as we have it, very fragmentary, of the colonisation of Lyonesse or Leon.

We

will

now

turn to that of Domnonia, that

is

to say,

the whole of the north coast from the river Keffleut or

Morlaix to the Couesnon at Pontorson, roughly speaking,of the present departments of C6tes-du-Nord and of the

northern portion of Ille-et-Vilaine.

The

early history

is

vague and legendary.

We know

so much, that before

460low

S.

Budoc was

settled

as abbot of a monastery in the isle of Lauret, near that of

Brehat, and connected with

it

at

tides.

He

would not

have been there unless he had powerful relatives establishedas secular chiefs near.

He

was doubtless a brother or son

of one of the

Domnonian

princes in Britain.

He

is

not to

be confounded with his namesake. Bishop of Dol, who diedin 588.

wife

Gwen and

In or about 460 one Fragan or Brychan, with his his sons, arrived in the bay of S. Brieuc

andstill

settled near the river Gouet,

and founded a plou

thathis

bears his name.

He

was a native of Gwent, andsettlements in Brittany.S.

wifetiern

was

grand-daughter of Aldroen or Alder, king or

of the

West Welsh

Their

son, Winwaloe, they to

committed to

Budoc, to be trained

become an ecclesiastical chieftain. Another arrival was Rhiwal, from Cardiganshire, at the head of a large body of clansmen, who landed where had Fragan, and who sought to establish themselves between the Gouet and the Urne in close proximity to Fragan, G VOL. XVI.4,

ii(

98wheretheis

Lives of the Saints.nowS. Brieuc.

About 485

arrived in the

same

harbour

S. Brioc,

with at least sixty persons with him in

same

vessel.

Brioc was probably from Ceredigion, the

present Cardiganshire; the date of his arrival was about 485.

Rhiwal received him favourably, and gave him land on which to settle, and when he died constituted him his successor,as they

were kinsmen

;

consequently the whole of the colonyecclesiastical

land and tribesmenprincipality..

was converted into anprinceor

We

next

hear of a

king over

Domnonia

bearing the same name, possibly the same man, Hoel ori.e. Rhi (the chief) Hywel, who lived between 511 and 520; but at precisely the same time we find a prince This Riwal is reported of the same name in Cornouaille. to have been son of Deroc, and to have had two brothers, Erbyn or Urbinian and Dinothus. Hoel of Cornouaille was the son of Budic I., who had been expelled from Armorica, and had taken refuge in Britain. It is possible that Budic and Deroc are the same man, and that Deroc is merely an epithet attaching to him for his churlishness. The brother Dinothus is probably an importation from

Riwal,

the legend of S. Ursula by the monastic compiler of thelegend.

In

this latter,

Dinothus, successor to Caradoc on

the throne

of Cornwall,

was the father of the mythical

Ursula.

Hoel Mawr, king of

Cornouaille, probably claimed at this

time some sort of sovereignty over the northern coast of Armorica.

The

next prince of

DomnoniaHere

of

whom we

hear

is

again;

a Deroc,cation,

who

is

thought to have ruled from 520 to 535

he was son of Riwal.

arises a difficulty of identifi-

if we assume Riwal of Domnonia to have been the same as Hoel Mawr of Cornouaille. The latter had a son, Budic II., who succeeded him, but not at once. He was

S

^

tit.-

_Brittany,its

Ij,

Princes and Saints.and did not returnto

99

in exile in or about 510,till

Armorica

545, and he certainly was only in Cornouaille, for Canao

had usurped all Domnonia and murdered Hoel II. This Deroc of Domnonia may have been chief or prince placed there by his father, Hoel Mawr, during his lifetime, on his return from Britain in 520 ; if so, he was the father of HoelII.

(Vychan), alsohaving

known

as Jonas.

It is very difficult to

unravel the descents of the princes of Brittany owing totheir

been known by so many names or nick-

names.ablethis Deroc appeared in Armorica a very remarkman, Tugdual. His mother was Alma Pompaea, and His appearance in Brittany synhis father Hoel Mawr. chronised with the recovery of his patrimony by Hoel. But

Under

he did not

visit

Cornouaille, but occupied himself in obtain-

ing settlements,

and founding lanns or

llans

throughoutin the

Domnonia fromthe western sea,ties

Finisterre to the Couesnon,

andin

Pou

Caer, that basin between the arms of high land opening to

and watered by the Aune,

which now

the celebrated pilgrimage shrine of Huelgoet.

He seems to have demanded everywhere grants of land, and to have had these conceded to him readily by Deroc, who seems to be the same as Hoel 11.,^ who died suddenly in 549 j and it was suspected that he had been murdered by his brother Canao, acting in collusion with Conmor,count or chief ofCornouaille.

usurped rule

Canao took possession of all hold of Ldon, and then S. Tugdual over the whole of Domnonia.

Pou Caer. Conmor first

laid

had to

fly for

refuge to Childebert at Paris.story, I

To

understand the rather complicated

must leave

Domnonia and go to Cornouaille.

Here we

find at the

The kings were 1 By some it is supposed that Hoel II. was the son of Deroc. sometimes known by their titles, sometimes by their names, at other times by their nicknames, and this makes the unravelling of the history of their succession mostpuzzling.

\

^

^lOO

^

:

^)i.

Lives of the Saints.named Gradlo Mawr, whocameto

close of the fifth century a king

ruled with a strong hand

till

about 505.disciple of S. Patrick,

In

his time S.

Ronan, a

the coasts.

He

landed in the west of Leon, at Aber-Ildut,

but came south

and

settled

Porzoed, between Chateaulinfirst

in the pou or and Quimper.

district

ofat

He

was

coldlyis

then

favourably

received

by Gradlo.

This

no other than the saint who has left indelible Cornwall and Devon, where he is known as Ruan, Roman, and Rumon. It was perhaps not

Ruan

traces of his presence in

wonderful that havingCornwall he shouldvisit

spent so long a time in insularthe Cornouaille, inhabited by the

same people, and governed by descendants of the same princely house of Domnonia. Winwaloe also made his appearance in Cornouaille afterleaving his master Budoc.

He foundednorthern

his great

monastery

on the estuary of the Aune. But he had another Landevennec in Cornwall, and his time must have been distributed between visits to Another his monasteries in Cornwall and in Cornouaille. saint who worked in the Armorican peninsula was Tudi, a contemporary of Gradlo and Winwaloe, but of whose life no continuous record remains. There was again another,of Landevennec nearits

limit,

S. Corentin,

regarded as the

first

bishop of Quimper, but athe British, implied some-

bishop at that time, and

among

thing very different from what was supposed by the latewriter

who compiledS.

his Life.

He

also

was a founder in

Cornwall of the church of Cury.Another,Cornwalls.

Day, was a founder of churches in both

Thedifficult

early history of the kings of Brittany

is is

peculiarly

of

elucidation.

The

first

named

Hoel or

Riwalin Maccon, or King Hoel the Great, son of Conan,

and he

is

assumed

to

have been the son of the some-

*

^U(

;

Brittany,

its

Princes

and

Saints.

loi

what mythical Cynan Meiriadog. On his death Urbian or Erbyn Concaer, succeeded, butclear

his brother,it

is

not

whether they ruled

over

of Erbyn was surnamed Gweddol, or "the Handsome." He fell in battle against his own subjects about 434, and is esteemed a martyr. Here we are constrained to notice the identity of family names of the ruling house in Cornouaille and that in Cornwall. In both we have Howels, Erbyns, and Solomons, and I think, that when we put thisnouaille, or over

both together.

Domnonia The son

or over

Cor-

Selyf or Solomon,

together with the fact of the saints of both Cornwalls beingthe same,that

and the people of both calling themselves CernaUj we must conclude that Armorican Cornouaille was a

colony from Cornwall, and had nothing to do with theCornavii of Shropshire.

Theit is

next

name comes

to usis

from the Welsh genealogies

that of Cynfor.

He

notis

named

in Brittany as having

reigned,

and

if

he were, as

probable, the son of Solomon,

then after the death of his father he fled to Britain.son, however, Aldor, Aldroen, or Audrian,is

His

has been laid hold of by that

man who romancer Geoffrey of Monato

mouth.

He

is

known

alike

Welsh and

to

Breton

chroniclers.

At some

time, probably about 5

1 o,

he had to

return to Britain, whether to escape from an insurrection,or merely to look after his affairs in Cornwall,

we do not

know.

The

brother of Aldor was Constantine, surnamed

Gorneu, or " the Cornishman," but also known in Welsh pedigrees as Constantine Llydaw, or " the Armorican," andalso

as

Bendigaid, or " the Blessed."

The time

of his

assumption of the Domnonian throne in West Wales was 433) just about the time of the death of Solomon I. Aider's eldest son is known to the Welsh as Emyr Llydaw,or "the Armorican," but he seems to have been driven into

banishment, for he was for some years in Wales, in Morganwg

*

*

*1

)5

02

Lives of the Saints.

apparently, as his sons married the daughters of Mewrig,

king of that country.

At the same time there was anotherI.

refugee in Wales from Brittany, Budic

of Cornouaille,

son of Daniel, son of Ian Reith, who founded the dynasty.

Budic

settled in Carmarthenshire,is

and one of

his sons,to

accidentally killed,

buried at Llandeilo.sister,

According

Welsh accounts,S. lUtyd.

his

Rhian, became the mother of

After the restoration of Budic, in 490, S. Teilo

visited him,sister

and founded lanns

in his territories.

Another

of Budic was

Gwen

Teirbron,

who married .^neasalready

Llydewig, and by him became the mother of S. Cadfan.

Her second husband was Fragan, of whom we have heard, and to him she bore S. Winwaloe.

Budic died about 509, leaving several sons Hoel I., Melyan, Oudoc, Ishmael, and Tewdric. The territory was,after the usual

manner withdisciple

Celts, divided

among

the sons,

Oudoc and Ishmael become a devotedS.

excepted, for the former of these hadofS.

Teilo,

and Ishmael

of

David.

According to the Welsh accounts, Budic had lived in Dyfed when driven from his principality till the death of the usurper, who may have been, and probably was, Gradlo.

A

had been accidentally killed near and the pretty little church of Llandefeisant, in the park of Lord Dynevor, commemorates his name, andchild of his, Tyfei,

Llandeilo,

stands over his grave.

Tewdric became prince in Cornwall, and Hoel and Melyan divided the Brittany principality between them. But that happened in Armqrica which was of constant recurrence in Wales, one brother desired to get hold of the share of the other. Melyan reigned for seven years, from 530 to 537, and was then treacherously stabbed by Hoel.Melyan, by his wife Aurelia, hadleft

a son, Mellor,

who

was obliged to take refuge,ijj,

;

*

^

*its

Brittany,fromhis uncle,

Princesfirst

and

Saints.

103

who, however,

mutilated him and thenthis,

killed him.

He

died shortly after

and

this

sudden

death was regarded as due to the vengeance of Heaven forthe double crime.

Hoel left Armorica to be fought for between But of these, two, S. Tugdual and S. Leonore, had embraced the religious life, and would be content with the very ample endowments in Domnonia but the others, Hoel II., Vychan, also called Jonas, Canao, Ere or Gwerch, and Macliau, chose their shares of theofhis grandsons.

The death

secular

inheritance.

Budic

prince of Cornouaille.is

II. was at His relationship

this

time

tiern,

to

the brotherssister

not very certain.

He

was married to a

of S.

Teilo, so that

he had been in Wales with Budic

I.,

andtohis

was probably his son.^ Canao was an ambitious man, and he proceeded murdfer those of his brothers whom he could get into hands

Hoel Vychan and

Ere.

This was in 546.

Hoel,

his brother, had been married to a daughter of Maelgwn Gwynedd. Canao not only murdered his brother, but at Macliau once took to him the widow, his sister-in-law.

would have fallen a prey as well, but that he fled for refuge to Conmor, count of Bro-Weroc, and when Canao pursued him there he fled farther to Vannes, where he took orders, But he also was an and was promoted to be bishop. Budic II. had entrusted his young son, ambitious man. Macliau drove him into exile, and Tewdric, to his care. seized on all Cornouaille except Pou Caer. where Conmorwas too powerful for him to touch, and ruied it along with Hoel Vychan had left a son, his diocese of Vannes. Judual, who fled for his life and took refuge at the courtM. de la Borderie makes 1 It is very difficult to be at all sure of the descents. I But Hoel Vychan was their brother. Macliau and Canao sons of Gwerch I. attempt to give only a conjectural pedigree.Ij,

*

^104of Childebert.cretion in

^Lives of the Saints.Incensed atto givethis, Canao had the indisasylum to Chram, the revolted son

559

This induced the Frank king to invade Canao was killed in 560, and the prince, Chram, was overtaken on the, shore, where he was endeavouring to carry off his wife and daughters in a boat. The remorseless father had his son strangled, and the wife and daughtersof Clothair.Brittany.

burnt

alive.

Conmor had extended

his

power over Domnonia, and had

taken to wife Trifina, daughter of a former Gwerch or Ere,

count of Bro-Weroc, on the British portion of the territoryof Vannes, in the hopes of extending his possessions in thatdirection;

but for some

unknown

reason, in a

fit

of disgust,re-

he drove Trifina away, and she ended her days in aligious house.It

was long

after fabled that

he had

killed

her,

and

that she

pride, the tyranny of

had been resuscitated by S. Gildas. The Conmor had raised him a host of

enemies.

Judual, the claimant of the throne, was at the Frank court. Samson, son of Amwn the Black, and grandson of Emyr Llydaw, had been brought up in Wales. Amwn desiredto return to his native land,

Samson

started

for

Armorica.

Amwn, worn

out with age,

company with his son They crossed Cornwall. was left behind, but Samsonandinat-

waited his opportunity and crossed to the mainland

tended by a large body of monks and fighting men.planted himself at Dol.

He

About

the

son of Derwela,

sister of

Amwn

the Black,

same time S. Malo, a and therefore

cousin of Samson, settled near by at Aleth, at the head of

another large body of men, partly ecclesiastical and partlymilitary.

In

fact,

a host of adventurers, seeking a countrysaints,

to

conquer and appropriate, had joined these

asserted that they were going against an upstart

who who had

robbed them of their patrimony.

With Samson was another

^

>i(

Brittany,cousin,

its

Princes

and

Saints.

105

first

Maglorius.;

with dissatisfactionactive hostility,

Conmor heard of tiieir arrival made as yet no signs of and had posed as holy men seeking solibut they had

tude,

Samson nowJudual.

and he therefore did not venture on attacking them. slipped away, and went to Paris after

He

besought Childebert to allow Judual to return

to Armorica,

and by

force of

arms recover

his principality.

The Frank kingsented.

hesitated for a while, but at length con-

Thereupon Samson conveyed Judual into the Channel Islands, where they tarried awhile to concert measures and to drill a body of recruits. Meanwhile Malo and Maglorius and the disciple Mewan were acting on the minds of the people of Domnonia, exciting them to revolt. When all was ready, Samson and Judual crossed over, mustered their forces, and marched against Conmor. Three hardly contested battles were fought, and in thelast

Thus Judual ran the usurper through with a javelin. ended Conmor in 555. He had been a benefactor to the Church ; like other British chiefs he endeavoured to conciliate the saints to bless him and curse his enemies, but he had too many saints allied by blood to those whom he had supplanted to be able to maintain himself in the odourof sanctity, and he has gone

down

in tradition as a monster,

and

as the accursed of

Heaven.for the assistance giventerritorial concessions.

Judual was grateful to Samsonto him,

and made him manyIII.,

He

died in 580, leaving five sons, ofor

whom

the eldest, Juthael

Hoel

succeeded him in Domnonia.

Haeloc or

Alan was made count of Cornouaille.is

Of

Juthael nothing

known but

his marriage with Pritella,

daughter of Ausoc,

a petty chief of

Kemenet

lUi, that

is,

a district in

Leon

or

Finisterre running inlandIt

from Landillis to Landerneau.

had been colonised, probably from Gwent, by some

saint

named

lUi or

lUidius, of

whom

nothing has been

^

^

*

^1

Ij

06Thevisiting

Lives of the Saints.curious part of the storyis

recorded.

that Taliesin

was then

Domnonia, andsons.

his advice

was sought

in

the matter of the marriage.

Judicael died in or about 605, nextor Alan.

and

left

several

Juthael was the eldest, his

brother was Judoc, then

came Haeloc

Judicael was a feeble, amiable personage, very unfit torule,

and

at

once

his ambitious brother,

Haeloc (Alanableto

II.), seiz-

supported by his foster-father, Rethwal, resolved oninglife

on

the

throne.

Judicael

was

save

his

only by escaping into a monastery, and being shorn

as achild.

monk.

Seven brothers were murdered, one a mereyears later,

Some

610 or 615, Haeloc was

seized

with compunction for his crimes, converted by the wordsof S. Malo, and he surrendered the crown he had usurpedJudicael, who at once issued from the monastery in which he had been hiding, and took to himself a wife. He entered into an alliance with Dagobert, and formed a warmto

attachment for

S. Eligius

and

S.

Ouen.

In or about 640

Judicael resigned his crown; he had spent sohis

much

ofits

days in the monastery, that he pined to return to

quietude.

was taken by Solomonbrother or ait is

His brother Judoc refused the crown, and it II. Whether S. Winnoc were a

nephew

is

uncertain.age.

HeII.

died in 717, but

said at a very

advanced

Tomed,

return to Cornouaille.sister

Budic

had married Anau-

of S. Teilo, whilst he was in exile in Dyfed.

The Bretons

say that he was a son of Cybydan, descended from a colonist Ian Reith (Righteous Law), but he was

and when Budoc was settled came there to visit him, and S. Samson met him and took him back with him to Dol, where Teilo planted an immense orchard of apple-trees, with grafts brought by him from Wales. This orchard wasclearly closely akin to

Hoel

I.

;

into his principality, S. Teilo

called in the twelfth century "

Les Vergers de Tielo

et

deij,

4(

*

________Brittany,Samson."It

^Princes and Saints.107

its

was

summonedto

his

on this visit to Brittany that Teilo nephew Oudoc to accompany him backlife.

Wales

to enter the religious

Another

visitor

was

who has left numerous traces of his presence, and whose tomb is shown at S. Gildas, near Carnoel, in Pou Caer. As already said, Macliau, bishop of Vannes, hadGildas,

driven away T'ewdric, son of Budoc, prince of Cornouaille,

but in 577 Tewdric returned, gathered an army, fought the

and killed him and one of his sons. The other Ere or Gwerch II., retained his hold over Bro-Weroc, and he was not able to dispossess him. This Gwerch II. was one of the ablest and most heroic princes of whosebishop,son,

against the Franks record has been preserved. Tewdric died about 586. Nothing further is known of him, and with him ends the record of the princes ofexploits

Cornouaille.

But long before this S. Cadoc had appeared in Armorica ; he was one of the most restless of the Celtic saints. Unhappily his Life was not written till five or six centuriesafterhis

time;it

but although thus lacking

in

historical

accuracy,

retains]

manyfrom

features of greatearliertexts.

interest that

were

clearly derivedif

He

had

visited

Ireland, Italy, and,

we may

trust the legend, even

Greece

and Jerusalem.as in Wales.

visit S. Gildas, and he landed with a number of followers on an island in the great bay or inlet of Etel, near Beltz, in the Morbihan.

He has left his trace He went to Brittany to

in Cornwall as well

There

for a while

he

settled,

and the

islet

bears his

nameislet

to the present day.

He

built a

causeway from the

came on him again, and surrendering the conduct of the monks to a disciple,to the mainland, then his restlessness

Cadwalader, he returned to Britain.

About 585of a swarm.

arrived a virgin

named Ninnoc, at the head She was a daughter of one Brychan andti