# 15. 10% of the energy is passed on 9, 000 kc 90 kc 900 kc 9 kc

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• 15.

• 10% of the energy is passed on9, 000 kc90 kc900 kc9 kc

• Energy PyramidAn energy pyramid is a diagram that shows the amount of energy at each level of a food chain.The bottom of the pyramid shows the producers. The producers hold the most energy in an ecosystem. The upper levels show the consumers.

• Energy PyramidThe shape of the diagram represents two things: the decrease in the amount of energy moving from producers to primary consumers to secondary consumers to tertiary consumersthe decrease in the number of organisms in an ecosystem as you move up the food chain. Video

• Energy Pyramid

• 16. The triangular face shows that there are more organisms at the bottom (producers) and fewer organisms as you move up to higher trophic levels.

17. There are multiple faces to show the population sizes and the amount of energy available at each level, and that the amount of energy decreases as you move up to the top.

• QuestionsWhy is there less energy available to move from one level to the next?

• The reason there is less energy available from one level to the next is because most (90%) of the energy taken in is used up by organisms to carry out life processes. Only about 10% of the energy taken in is passed on to the next level.

• Why would an ecosystem have fewer organisms as you move up the food chain?

2. If there is less energy passed on to each level, then there is not enough energy to support a lot of organisms at the higher levels.

• What happens when populations of organisms increase or decrease dramatically?If a population increases dramatically, the organisms will run out of food and starve.If a population decreases dramatically, the predators will run out of food and starve.

Lets take a look!interface

• Biomes

• HOT TEMPERATURE COLDTUNDRASAVANNA- Tropical GrasslandsTROPICAL RAIN FORESTTAIGATEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FORESTLOW RAINFALL HIGH

• coniferoustrees with cones and thin, needle-shaped leaves; evergreen trees such as pine, fir, and spruce

• deciduoustrees that have flat leaves that change color and fall off before winter

• Desert

• Desert

• desertsLand covered by rocks or sand. Poor soil.Extreme temperature changes between day and night. 77-120oFVery little rain--receives less than (10 in.) 25 cm of rain each yearSome have cold winters, some have cold nighttime temperatures, but they have high daytime temperatures

• desertsA few plants that are able to store water such as the saguaro cactus and creosote bushes. Animals mainly come out at nightSnakes, other reptiles, rodentsOwls, hawks, roadrunnersVery few large animals.Barren, windblown sand dunes (hot deserts).

• BiomeLocated nearTemperature (hot, cold, moderate)Rainfall(high, low, moderate, fewer than 10 in./year)Plant and animal species(many, few, most, least)

18. Deserts

The equatorHot days,Cool nightsLow, fewer than 10 inches per yearFew plant and animal species

• Tundra

• Tundra

• tundraLand covered with ice for most of the yearmade up of permafrosta layer of permanently frozen soila cold biome that does not support trees Extremely cold and dry.Ave. temp -10-40oF; ave. rainfall 8 in. (a cold desert)

• tundraLow grasses and lichens. No/few trees.Fewer species than other biomes.caribou, arctic foxes, snowshoe hares, owls, voles (rodents)Amphibians and reptiles are rare.A cold, treeless plain; Arctic regionsThe largest biomecovers about 20% of Earths land.

• BiomeLocated nearTemperature (hot, cold, moderate)Rainfall(high, low, moderate, fewer than 10 in./year)Plant and animal species(many, few, most, least)

19. tundra

The poles

Extremely coldthe coldest

Low--fewer than 10 in./year

Fewest plant and animal speciesNO TREES

• Taiga

• Taiga

• taiga (ty-guh)Land covered by coniferous trees.Long, cold winters with little precipitation, but warmer and wetter summers.Ave. temp. 14-60oF; ave. rainfall 12 in.Plants include evergreen trees such as pine, fir, and spruce (coniferous forests)

• taiga (ty-guh)Deer, elk, caribou, wolves, moose, black bears, shrews, other rodents, and migratory birds.Some animals migrate to warmer climates in the winter; some hibernateA cold forest of coniferous trees.

• BiomeLocated nearTemperature (hot, cold, moderate)Rainfall(high, low, moderate, fewer than 10 in./year)Plant and animal species(many, few, most, least)

20. taiga

The tundra (one level down)

Cold winters, cool summers

Low amounts of rainfallSome plant and animal speciesA FOREST OF CONIFER-OUS TREES

• Temperate Deciduous Forest

• Temperate Deciduous Forest

• Land covered by deciduous trees.Moderate temperatures (average 50oF)Abundant rainfall throughout the year. (average 30-60 in.)Four distinct seasons.

• temperate deciduous forestMostly deciduous trees such as beech, oak, maple, elm, hickory and some coniferous trees. Animals include earthworms, birds, white-tailed deer, foxes, squirrels, raccoons, etc.Deciduous trees.Georgia is located in this biome.

• BiomeLocated nearTemperature (hot, cold, moderate)Rainfall(high, low, moderate, fewer than 10 in./year)Plant and animal species(many, few, most, least)

21. Temperate deciduous forest

GA! Eastern half of the US is TDF. The central part is temperate grassland.

Cold winters, warm summers (4 distinct seasons with temperature variations)

Moderate rainfall (all year round)

Many plant and animal species

• Temperate Grasslands

• Temperate Grasslands

• temperate grasslandCovered with grasses, not trees; found at the same latitude as temperate deciduous forestsNot enough rain to support many trees.Ave. temp -40-70oF; ave. rainfall 10-30 in.Grasses such as wheat. Scattered trees.Also called pampas, steppe or veldt.

• temperate grasslandMostly grazing animals like antelope,, bison/buffalo; also prairie dogs, coyotes skunks, badgers, and songbirds.Called the Bread baskets of the world because of the crops grown there. (cerealswheat, barley, corn)Great Plains in the US/prairie

• BiomeLocated nearTemperature (hot, cold, moderate)Rainfall(high, low, moderate, fewer than 10 in./year)Plant and animal species(many, few, most, least)

22. Temperate grasslands

Central US; same latitude as TDF; called the Breadbasket of the World

moderate

low to moderate

Many plant and animal species; FEW TREES

• Tropical Grasslands

• Savanna

• tropical grassland or savannaa grassland biome near the equatorWarm temperatures (~70o F)Wet and dry seasonsDry 4 of rain, wet 15-25 of rainGrasses, shrubs, and a few treesAnimals like zebras, giraffes, wildebeest, gazelles, lions, leopards, elephantsWhere the zoo animals live. (Lion King)

• BiomeLocated nearTemperature (hot, cold, moderate)Rainfall(high, low, moderate, fewer than 10 in./year)Plant and animal species(many, few, most, least)

23. Tropical grassland/ savanna

The equator

warm

Moderate to low (wet and dry seasons)

Many plant and animal species; FEW TREES

• Tropical Rain Forest

• Tropical Rainforest

• tropical rain forestLocated around or near the equator.Land covered by tall trees and lush plant growth.Warm/hot temperatures year round 68-93oFhigh amounts of rain 50-260Ferns, orchids, and tall (canopy) treesParrots, snakes, frogs, monkeys, lizards

• Thousands of species of trees and other plants.

Thousands of species of animals: monkeys, frogs, birds, insects, etc.

A lot of rain and an astonishing variety of organisms.

Produce 40% of Earths oxygen

• BiomeLocated nearTemperature (hot, cold, moderate)Rainfall(high, low, moderate, fewer than 10 in./year)Plant and animal species(many, few, most, least)

24. Tropical rainforest

The equator

Warm/hot

High (highest amount of rainfall)

The most plant and animal species

• HOT TEMPERATURE COLDTUNDRASAVANNA- Tropical GrasslandsTROPICAL RAIN FORESTTAIGATEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FORESTLOW RAINFALL HIGH

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