1405 Kolumbien Red

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    Peter Cornel, Susanne Bieker

    Technische Universitt Darmstadt

    Institute....

    Integrated urban water management the semizentral approach for fast

    growing urban areas

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    | TU Darmstadt | Institute IWAR | Peter Cornel | 2

    Outline

    The challenges

    - Population growth

    - Urbanization

    - Limited resources

    Related questions

    From challenges to future strategies- Components of 21th century urban infrastructure

    - The future will be different from the past

    Nodal, distributed, semicentralized, diversified, adapted

    The Semizentral approach- System components

    - Case study Qingdao

    Conclusions and obstacles

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    Challenge I: World Population Growth

    actual

    7,000,000,000

    100,000,000

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    Challenge II: Urbanization

    TU Darmstadt | IWAR, Abwassertechnik | Susanne Bieker und Peter Cornel | 4

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    Challenge II: Urbanization

    TU Darmstadt | IWAR, Abwassertechnik | Susanne Bieker und Peter Cornel | 5

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    Challenge II: Urbanization

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    Challenge II: Urbanization

    TU Darmstadt | IWAR, Abwassertechnik | Susanne Bieker und Peter Cornel | 7

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    Population growth takes place in Cities

    Example China

    millionin

    habitants

    Chineseurban

    regions

    Chineserural

    regions

    0

    500

    1000

    1500

    1

    952

    1

    957

    1

    970

    1

    980

    1

    990

    2

    000

    2

    007

    Stadt LandChineseurbanregions

    Chineserural

    regions

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    Challenge III: Dynamic of Urban Growth

    (Capita/hr)

    The Speed of Urban Change (Burdett & Rode 2007, 28f. modified)

    The example of Shanghai

    In total around 1 Million per week in cities

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    Population growth:

    32 C/h 280,320 C/y

    Consequences of Growth rates e.g. Shanghai

    Additional water:132 L/(Cd) 36,442 m/d

    Additional solid waste:

    1 kg/(Cd) 280 Mg/d

    biological waste

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    Challenge iV: Limited Resources

    1. Water

    Jialing/Chongqing 2006;www.zeitenschrift.com/magazin/54-wasser.jpg26.5.2013

    http://www.hvv-mobility.com26.5.2013

    www.baecktrade.de26.5.2013

    2. Energy

    3. Nutrients (P, N, ..)

    TU Darmstadt | IWAR, Abwassertechnik | Susanne Bieker und Peter Cornel | 11

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    Challenges III: Limited resources

    Water

    - Population Growth

    - Increasing living standards

    Higher personal water consumption

    Increasing meat consumption higher water consumption in agriculture perperson

    Energy

    - Energy and Water are linked

    Fuel Abstraction, Power Production, Cooling

    Energy for extracting, treating and distributing water

    Energy for (domestic) water heating

    Nutrients

    - Nitrogen, unlimited but energy intensive

    - Phosphorus, a limited resource

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    We have to answer the Question

    Can a system that evolved

    - more than 100 years ago- for global population < 1 billion

    - mostly rural

    - with lacking modern technology

    be the solution when

    - global population is > 9 billion

    - mostly urban- experiencing resource constraints ??

    Adapted from IWA-President Daigger, G.;Change in Paradigm: Waste to Resource,Weftec 10; New Orleans

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    Further Questions

    Can we effort not to re-use limited resources ?

    Water

    Energy

    Phosphorus

    .

    What does it really cost to do nothing ? Dramatically decreasing ground water tables by overexploitation

    Pollution of rivers

    water born diseases

    endangering potable water supply and agricultural irrigation

    running out of fertilizer

    climate change

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    From Challenges to future strategies

    To achieve

    - Improved public health protection

    - Less water abstraction from environment- Reduced discharges

    - Reduced resource consumption

    - Easier system upgrade and expansion

    - We need

    - concepts for transition e.g. centralized to de-centralized / semicentralized

    - public awareness, e.g. reuse and material flow management

    - new integrated techniques (water, wastewater, solid waste, .)

    - adapted management strategies

    - integration in administration and governance

    it is rather a challenge in administration andmanagement than in technique

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    Components of 21st century urban water

    management

    Water conservation

    Distributed stormwater management

    Rainwater harvesting

    Water reuse

    distributed (nodal, semicentralized) systems

    Low energy demand Integrated treatment (Water, waste water, solid waste)

    Source separation

    Heat recovery

    Nutrient recovery

    High flexibility and adaptability

    - a system being able to react to changes in development-reality

    - growing system for growing cities Adapted from IWA-President Daigger, G.;Change in Paradigm: Waste to Resource,

    Weftec 10; New Orleans

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    Total water use cycle energy intensity(without end use energy demand)

    0.53 5.3 kWh/m

    Water Use Cycle and energy intensities forCalifornia. Numbers according to California

    Energy Commission (2005), p. 144, figure adaptedfrom Reiter (2008)Source

    Water SupplyandConveyance

    0 - 1.06

    kWh/m

    WaterTreatment

    0.026 - 4.23kWh/m

    WaterDistribution

    0.18 - 0.32kWh/m

    End User

    ResidentialCommercialIndustrial

    WastewaterCollection

    WastewaterTreatment

    WastewaterDischarge

    0 0.11 kWh/m

    waterbodies

    RecycledWater

    Treatment

    RecycledWater

    Distribution

    0.29 - 1.22 kWh/m

    0.11 0.32 kWh/m

    Example: Energy and Water

    Reuse cycle

    0.4-1.5 kWh/m

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    Resources recovery fosters new infrastructure

    solutions

    1. Water reuse fosters decentralization

    - minimizing energy demand for pumping

    - minimizing capex for sewer and pipe systems

    - minimizing water losses

    2. Energy recovery fosters decentralization

    - heat recovery from greywater (showers, laundry,) as close as possible tothe source

    3. Adjusted growth and reduced vulnerability fosters decentralization

    4. Fulfilling high quality standards fosters professional operation

    rathersemicentral as decentral5. Energy self sufficiency fosters

    combined treatment of water and (organic) waste

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    Integrated Semicentralized Systems

    therefore

    focus on smaller,

    more compact units

    Each district has its own

    Semicentralized Supply and TreatmentCentre (STC)

    integrated approach,

    focussing material flow-basedmanagement,

    utilizing synergy effects andre-use potentials

    Integrated treatment on district level

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    (C)

    domestic wastetreatment

    (B)

    waste watertreatment

    (A)

    grey water treatment

    The Semicentralized Approach

    reclaimed

    non-potab

    le

    water

    black water

    potable

    water

    grey water

    raw/ tap water

    solid waste biosolids

    treated

    waste water

    energy

    energy

    caloric heat

    Supply and Treatment Unit

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    Stepwise implementation gives flexibili ty

    2011/09/20 | TU Darmstadt | Institute IWAR | Peter Cornel | 212011/09/20 | TU Darmstadt | Institute IWAR | Peter Cornel | 21

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    (A)

    grey water treatment

    Water reuse and heat recovery

    reclaimed

    non-potab

    le

    water

    grey water

    caloric heat

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    Water reuse and heat recovery from greywater

    Ea