13 SHIP OUTFITTING
13.1 AIMS OF THE LECTURE
a) To explore the ships typical outfits. b) To examine various methods in carrying out ship outfitting
13.2 SHIP OUTFITS
a) What is ship outfit Ship outfit is a set of machinery and/or equipment of a ship that comprises particular function of the ship. Ship outfits cover a wide range of items depended on the type, size, and mission of the ship. In general ships outfits can be categorised into five groups which include:
Ship operation outfits, Cargo handling outfits, Safety and environmental control related outfits, Ship control system outfits. Ship accommodation outfits
b) Ship operation outfits Ship operational outfits are machinery and equipment that related to the operation of the ship, they are the most complex ship system, and involve high number of items.
Propulsion system outfits
These are the outfits that support the operation of the propulsion system, which include: propeller, propeller shaft, gear box, shaft and propeller lubrication system, etc.
Figure 13.1 Ship propulsion system
Manoeuvring system outfits
Manoeuvring system outfits are the machineries and equipment that control the handling system of the ship such as: rudder, steering gear, steering gear hydraulic and piping system, stabiliser, steering gear and rudder control system, etc.
Main engine system outfits
These are the outfits that support the operation of the main engine such as: heat exchanger, fresh and sea water pumps, fuel oil pump, lubrication pump, fuel daily tank, all the related piping system, main engine control and monitoring system, etc.
Figure 13.2 Ship maneuvering system
Figure 13.3 Main engine system
Electrical and electronics system outfits
The electrical system outfits cover wide range of items from electric generation engines and machineries, electrical load and distribution control equipment, electrical and electronic cables, navigation and communication devices etc.
Figure 13.5 Electric control panel
Figure 13.4 Electric generator engine
Mooring and anchoring system outfits
Mooring and anchoring system outfits are machinery and equipment that are used for mooring and anchoring the ship. They include: winch and windlass, bollard, fairlead, and all related equipment.
Ship tanks outfits
There is much type of tanks in the ship and each of them is dedicated for a particular purpose such as Water ballast tank, fresh water tank, fuel oil tank, etc., typical outfits related to these tanks are: various functional pipes and pumps, tank cleaning system, etc.
For oil tanker the pipe outfits would also include cargo piping system which will be covered in cargo handling outfits section.
Figure 13.6 Bollard Figure 13.7 Fairlead
Figure 13.8 Tank pipes
c) Cargo handling outfits
Cargo handling outfits are the equipment and machineries used for cargo handling, cargo securing, and cargo protection, and very much depended on the type of ship, these may include: cargo cranes, hatch cover and its system, cargo stacking devices, cargo pumps, cargo piping system, conveyor, inert gas installation, tank monitoring system etc.
Figure 13.9 Hatch cover
Figure 13.10 Tank monitoring system
d) Safety and environmental control
Safety and environmental control related outfits are the equipment that mainly required by statutory rules and regulationscontrol purposes, therefore theregulations. This equipment would include:
Davits and life boats Life rafts stands and launcher Life buoy hangers Life jacket lockers Fire fighting system Smoke and fire detecting system Oily water separator Bilge pipes and pumps
Figure 13.12 Heat detector
and environmental control related outfits
Safety and environmental control related outfits are the equipment that mainly required by statutory rules and regulations for the safety of human and the ship,
therefore their number, capacity, and locations should be equipment would include:
Life rafts stands and launcher
Figure 13.11 Deck cargo crane
Heat detector Figure 13.13 Smoke detector
Safety and environmental control related outfits are the equipment that mainly required by and environmental
number, capacity, and locations should be referred to the
Figure 13.Figure 13.14 Davit, lifeboat, and liferaft
Figure 13.15 CO2 Fire fighting system
e) Ship control outfits
Ship control outfits are the equipment used for controlling and monitoring various functional systems in the ship, which include: Engine control system, bridge control system, electrical distribution system, cargo loading monitoring etc. Many of these outfits are electric and electronic operated devices.
Figure 13.16 Oily water separator
Figure 13.17 Engine control system
f) Ship accommodation outfits
Accommodation outfits are the equipment used for various functions in the accommodation spaces, which would include:
Galley outfits Cabin outfits Mess room and lounge outfits Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning outfits
Figure 13.18 Bridge control system
Figure 13.19 Ship accommodation
Figure 13.20 Galley
Figure 13.21 Mess room
Figure 13.22 Ventilation ducting
Figure 13.23 Insulation
13.3 SHIP OUTFITTING METHODS
In shipbuilding outfitting can be defined as the process of installing non-structural components, such as machinery, equipment, pipes, cables, ducts etc. That can run through several compartments.
Processes associated with outfitting include painting, plumbing and electrical installation, installation of engines and boilers, completion of super structure and deck equipment and rigging, etc.
Traditionally outfitting planning is carried out manually by experts with extensive experience, and the outfitting tasks are undertaken after the most of the structural works have been accomplished on the building berth.
In the modern shipyards in order to increase productivity and to obtain better product quality, there is a tendency to undertake the outfitting works as much as possible in the shop rather than on the berth or after the ship being launched.
With the advancement of computer programming the outfitting arrangement tasks can be done largely with the help of computer software, which is not only being used for planning and evaluating but also can simulate the plan for analysing and optimising purposes.
In general ship outfitting can be categorised into two main stages i.e. pre-launch and post-launch outfitting.
a) Pre and post launch outfitting Pre-launch outfitting is the process of ship outfitting which is carried out prior of the launching of the ship either in the workshop or on the building berth or dock, which are known as one-block outfitting, and on-berth outfitting. While post-launch outfitting is the process of ship outfitting conducted after the ship has been launched which is known as on-board outfitting. On-board outfitting is carried out on the outfitting quay.
b) On-block outfitting On-block outfitting is the stage of construction where most of the outfitting material is installed onto the blocks. Outfitting materials installed on block consist of ventilation systems, piping systems, doors, lights, ladders, railings, electrical assemblies and so on. Many modules are also installed at the on-block stage. Throughout the on-block outfitting stage, the block can be lifted, rotated and moved to efficiently facilitate installing outfitting materials on the ceilings, walls and floors. All of the shops and services in the shipyard must be in communication at the on-block stage to ensure that materials are installed at the right time and place.
There are three approaches in conjunction with on-block outfitting i.e. advanced outfitting, modular outfitting, and integrated hull construction outfitting and painting.
Advanced outfitting is an approach of doing the outfitting works as early as possible in the shop when the structure is relatively simple, and therefore more access are available for conducting the tasks, and the structure can be moved, rotated, and turned over to facilitate down hand welding, which will affect the quality and efficiency of the work being done.
Advanced outfitting is carried out immediately after the panels and sub-assemblies construction have been completed.
Figure 13.25 Advanced outfitting
Figure 13.24 On-block outfitting
Modular outfitting is an approach for doing the outfitting works by grouping the outfit components in accordance to their functional system or zones and welded them on structural frames, so that it can be lifted and attached to the block in the shop or on berth after its completion. Products of the modular outfitting are called modules.
Integrated Hull-construction Outfitting and Painting or IHOP in an approach to increase the efficiency of ship production process by constructing the block as complete as possible while it is still in the assembly shop, when there is better access for doing the outfitting tasks and then immediately paint the block before being moved to the building berth or dock.
The objective of this approach is to minimise difficult tasks to be undertaken when the blocks