# 13-1 Mortgages Chapter 13. 13-2 uStandard Fixed Rate uVariable Rate uRefinancing and Prepayments uMarketable Mortgages Mortgages

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• Slide 1
• 13-1 Mortgages Chapter 13
• Slide 2
• 13-2 uStandard Fixed Rate uVariable Rate uRefinancing and Prepayments uMarketable Mortgages Mortgages
• Slide 3
• 13-3 P = Principal M = Periodic payment Y = Interest rate Fixed Rate Mortgage 102n PMMM
• Slide 4
• 13-4 P = \$100, y = 10%, n = 20 Example Total Payments = (20)(11.75) = 235. Interest = 235 100 = 135 = Total Principal.
• Slide 5
• 13-5 Repayment Time P Interest of P 0100 1 98.25 101.75 = 11.75 10.00 2 96.33 9.831.92 = 11.75 9.83 3 9.63
• Slide 6
• 13-6 AM j = Amortization of principal in period j Amount of Repayment of Principal Called Amortization If n = 20, P = 100, y = 10%, j = 10
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• 13-7 The interest in period j = I j I j = M AM j \$ Interest = \$ Amortization I 10 = 11.75 4.12 = 7.63. Mortgage Payment
• Slide 8
• 13-8 Remaining Principal at time j = P j P j = [M][PVA n-j ] P 10 = [11.75][PVA 20-10,10% ] = [11.75][6.1446] = 72.20.
• Slide 9
• 13-9
• Slide 10
• 13-10 Current rate = Index + Premium. Annual cap on change Lifetime cap + minimum Teaser rate Borrower bears risk of changing interest rates Variable Rate Mortgage, Floating Rate, Adjustable Rate
• Slide 11
• 13-11 Due on sale clause Assumable
• Slide 12
• 13-12 Borrower has right to repay early. Reasons: A.Moving B.Lower interest rates C.Improved financial condition of borrower Prepayment Option
• Slide 13
• 13-13 Refinancing Because of Lower Interest Rates Costs include points, loan initiation fees, legal costs, surveying, etc. j0n IssuedPrepayMaturity
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• 13-14 P = \$100, n = 20, y Old = 10%, y New = 7%, j = 10, costs = 6%. Refinancing Example 10 Years Remaining
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• 13-15 Prepayment Pattern Public Securities AssociationPSA Constant Prepayment RateCPR Change in Interest Rates Moving & Other Lower Rates Lower Rates 0 Higher Rates % Prepaid
• Slide 16
• 13-16 Phase 1 of Mortgage Market until 1980 Borrowers Bank or Savings & Loan Depositors
• Slide 17
• 13-17 1.Bank or savings & loan holds mortgages and absorbs defaults. 2.Prime borrowers A.Sizable down payment B.Verified income C.Good credit rating 3.FDIC insures deposits. 4.Typically fixed-rate loans.
• Slide 18
• 13-18 Phase 2 of Mortgage Market 1980 2000 Borrower Bank Savings & Loan Mortgage Originator Default Guarantees FHA, VA, GNMA, Private Pool of MortgagesInvestors
• Slide 19
• 13-19 1.Typically fixed-rate loans Investors bear prepayment risk. 2.Default guarantees make pools of mortgages Essentially default free. Trade like U.S. Treasuries except for prepayment risk.
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• 13-20 Original pools PassThroughs All investors share proportionally. Later pools divided into tranches or slices. Tranche 1 Tranche 2 Tranche 3
• Slide 21
• 13-21 1.Many ways of setting up tranches. 2.Typically Tranche 1 gets first prepayments, then #2, etc. 3.Some tranches were divided into interest only and principal only parts.
• Slide 22
• 13-22 Phase 3 of Mortgage Market 2000 Now Borrower Bank Savings & Loan Mortgage Broker Pool Organizer TrustInvestors
• Slide 23
• 13-23 1.Many floating-rate loans with teaser rates for first two years. 2.Many subprime and Alt-A mortgages Prime has A.Down payment B.Verified income C.Good credit rate Alt-A is missing one or two. Subprime is missing all three. 3.Typically no default guarantee.
• Slide 24
• 13-24 I.Qualifying 1)High credit score 2)Adequate down payment 3)Documented sufficient income II.Alt-A yMissing one or two of the above III.Subprime yMissing all three of the above Three Types of Mortgage Borrowers
• Slide 25
• 13-25 Example Borrower 1Borrower 2Borrower 3Borrower 4 Originator 1Originator 2 Pool Organizer Trust Tranche 1Tranche 2Tranche 3 Rating Percent of Pool AAA A BB 60%20%
• Slide 26
• 13-26 1)Borrower lies. 2)Originator falsifies documents. 3)Originator gets fees from borrower and/or pool organizer. 4)Once mortgage is sold into pool, originator has no liability. 5)Pool organizer works with rating agency to set up tranches. Potential Problems
• Slide 27
• 13-27 6)Rating agency gets paid by pool organizermay give rating agencies incentives to give higher ratings to attract more business. 7)Pool organizer has no liability once mortgages are put into the trust. 8)Originators and pool organizers have incentives to process as many mortgages as possible to maximize fees. Potential Problems
• Slide 28
• Slide 29
• 13-29 EXAMPLES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRANCHING 1. Sequential Pay 2. Planned Amortization Class 3. Principal Only and Interest Only
• Slide 30
• 13-30 Sequential Pay Prepayments go to Class 1 until paid off. Then prepayments go to Class 2, then to Class 3. Suits some buyers better. Some get higher prepayment risk and some get lower prepayment risk. Size of each class is small, resulting in reduced liquidity.
• Slide 31
• 13-31 Early classes have precisely defined cash flows. Residual class cash flows vary widely in timing. Planned Amortization Class (PAC)
• Slide 32
• 13-32 Principal Only (PO) Interest Only (IO) Division of Principal and Interest Classes

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