13-3 P = Principal M = Periodic payment Y = Interest rate Fixed Rate Mortgage 102n PMMM
13-4 P = $100, y = 10%, n = 20 Example Total Payments = (20)(11.75) = 235. Interest = 235 100 = 135 = Total Principal.
13-5 Repayment Time P Interest of P 0100 1 98.25 101.75 = 11.75 10.00 2 96.33 9.831.92 = 11.75 9.83 3 9.63
13-6 AM j = Amortization of principal in period j Amount of Repayment of Principal Called Amortization If n = 20, P = 100, y = 10%, j = 10
13-7 The interest in period j = I j I j = M AM j $ Interest = $ Amortization I 10 = 11.75 4.12 = 7.63. Mortgage Payment
13-8 Remaining Principal at time j = P j P j = [M][PVA n-j ] P 10 = [11.75][PVA 20-10,10% ] = [11.75][6.1446] = 72.20.
13-10 Current rate = Index + Premium. Annual cap on change Lifetime cap + minimum Teaser rate Borrower bears risk of changing interest rates Variable Rate Mortgage, Floating Rate, Adjustable Rate
13-11 Due on sale clause Assumable
13-12 Borrower has right to repay early. Reasons: A.Moving B.Lower interest rates C.Improved financial condition of borrower Prepayment Option
13-13 Refinancing Because of Lower Interest Rates Costs include points, loan initiation fees, legal costs, surveying, etc. j0n IssuedPrepayMaturity
13-14 P = $100, n = 20, y Old = 10%, y New = 7%, j = 10, costs = 6%. Refinancing Example 10 Years Remaining
13-15 Prepayment Pattern Public Securities AssociationPSA Constant Prepayment RateCPR Change in Interest Rates Moving & Other Lower Rates Lower Rates 0 Higher Rates % Prepaid
13-16 Phase 1 of Mortgage Market until 1980 Borrowers Bank or Savings & Loan Depositors
13-17 1.Bank or savings & loan holds mortgages and absorbs defaults. 2.Prime borrowers A.Sizable down payment B.Verified income C.Good credit rating 3.FDIC insures deposits. 4.Typically fixed-rate loans.
13-18 Phase 2 of Mortgage Market 1980 2000 Borrower Bank Savings & Loan Mortgage Originator Default Guarantees FHA, VA, GNMA, Private Pool of MortgagesInvestors
13-19 1.Typically fixed-rate loans Investors bear prepayment risk. 2.Default guarantees make pools of mortgages Essentially default free. Trade like U.S. Treasuries except for prepayment risk.
13-20 Original pools PassThroughs All investors share proportionally. Later pools divided into tranches or slices. Tranche 1 Tranche 2 Tranche 3
13-21 1.Many ways of setting up tranches. 2.Typically Tranche 1 gets first prepayments, then #2, etc. 3.Some tranches were divided into interest only and principal only parts.
13-22 Phase 3 of Mortgage Market 2000 Now Borrower Bank Savings & Loan Mortgage Broker Pool Organizer TrustInvestors
13-23 1.Many floating-rate loans with teaser rates for first two years. 2.Many subprime and Alt-A mortgages Prime has A.Down payment B.Verified income C.Good credit rate Alt-A is missing one or two. Subprime is missing all three. 3.Typically no default guarantee.
13-24 I.Qualifying 1)High credit score 2)Adequate down payment 3)Documented sufficient income II.Alt-A yMissing one or two of the above III.Subprime yMissing all three of the above Three Types of Mortgage Borrowers
13-25 Example Borrower 1Borrower 2Borrower 3Borrower 4 Originator 1Originator 2 Pool Organizer Trust Tranche 1Tranche 2Tranche 3 Rating Percent of Pool AAA A BB 60%20%
13-26 1)Borrower lies. 2)Originator falsifies documents. 3)Originator gets fees from borrower and/or pool organizer. 4)Once mortgage is sold into pool, originator has no liability. 5)Pool organizer works with rating agency to set up tranches. Potential Problems
13-27 6)Rating agency gets paid by pool organizermay give rating agencies incentives to give higher ratings to attract more business. 7)Pool organizer has no liability once mortgages are put into the trust. 8)Originators and pool organizers have incentives to process as many mortgages as possible to maximize fees. Potential Problems
13-28 Advantages of Marketable Mortgages Advantage: Diversification Disadvantages: 1.Conflicts of Interest. 2.Asymmetric Information. 3.Moral Hazard.
13-29 EXAMPLES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF TRANCHING 1. Sequential Pay 2. Planned Amortization Class 3. Principal Only and Interest Only
13-30 Sequential Pay Prepayments go to Class 1 until paid off. Then prepayments go to Class 2, then to Class 3. Suits some buyers better. Some get higher prepayment risk and some get lower prepayment risk. Size of each class is small, resulting in reduced liquidity.
13-31 Early classes have precisely defined cash flows. Residual class cash flows vary widely in timing. Planned Amortization Class (PAC)
13-32 Principal Only (PO) Interest Only (IO) Division of Principal and Interest Classes