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1'13 Acarina Occurring in Domestic Animal Manure1 RICHARD C. AXTELP 3 Department of Entomology, Cornel! University, Ithaca, N. Y. ABSTRACT A total of 211 samples from 92 different farms in New (Berlese, 1889), M. sllbbadius (Berlese, 1904), Glyptho- York State were collected from manure of dairy cattle, laspis confllsa (Foa, 1900), M. glaber (Muller, 1804), horses, sheep, chickens, and ducks. Macrochelidae, Uro- 1M. matrius (Hull, 1925), and M. robllstllius (Berlese, podidae, Parasitidae, Oribatidae, and Laelaptidae were 1904). These seven species are illustrated. The first collected in that order of abundance. Seven species of four were common in manure from dairy cattle, the last Macrochelidae were found, in order of abundance: M~ac- three rare. In chicken manure M. muscaed.omesticae rocheles muscaedomesticae (Scopoli, 1772), M. mt!aari~ls was usually the only macrochelid species found. ,< Mites are common in manure and increased hause fly (Musca domestica L.) production results from destroying the natural mite population in dairy cattle manure (Axtell, 1963). Several .species af the family Macrochelidae (Acarina: Mesos.tigmata) are pre- dacious on hause fly eggs and first-instal' larvae. One species, 111 acrocheles muscaedomesticae (Sco- pali, 1772), has been investigated as a possible bio- logical control agent for the house fly (Filipponi 1955, Rodriguez and Wade 1961, Wade and Rodri- guez 1961). The rates of predation on house fly. eggs and first-instal' larvae by four af five species of Macrochelidae found in manure in New York State were reported by Axtell (1961). The only comprehensive survey af the mite fauna of manure was by Leitner (1946a, 1946b), working in Europe. Hyatt (1956) 'reparted the mite fauna of bullack manure in England. A survey of the mites found in domestic animal manure in N ew York State was conducted during the period June 1959 to January 1962. The present report summarizes the results of that survey with particular emphasis on the Macrochelidae. MATERIALS AND METHODS COLLECTION.-Manure samples were collected in 4-liter paper containers having an alumintUTI fail lining. In the case of calf pen manure (straw- bedded) each container held 70 to 110 grams dry weight and 700 to 1000 grams wet weight. Mammal manure was collected from the top 5 to 10 cm. af accumulated' manure, since mites were observed to occur mostly in this outer layer. The mites were ex- tracted from each sample into 700/0 ethyl alcohol by a modified Tullgren funnel, with a ISO-watt reflector flood bulb suspended about 18 cm. above the upper surface of the manure. The alcohol containing mites was poured intO' a 9-cm. petri dish whose bottam was marked into a grid of squares 4 mm. on a side. Counts were made under a binocular dissecting microscope providing magnifications of 9X, 27x, and 54x. Aliquots of the mites were cleared by 1 From a thesis submitted in June 1962 to the graduate School, Cornell University, in partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. This investigation was carried out during the tenure of a Predoctoral Fellowship from the National Institutes of Health, United States Public Health Service. Accepted for publication August 22, 1962. 2Present address: Department of Entomology, North Carolina State College, Raleigh, North Carolina. 3 The writer acknowledges the assistance of T. E. Eisner in the preparation of the photographs used in this publication. The advice of J. G. Matthysse is gratefully acknowledged. heating in 850/0 lactic acid and were mounted in Hoyer's medium an glass slides. All mounted speci- mens were examined under a phase-.contrast micro- scope. IDENTIFICATION.-Samples of males and females of Glyptholaspis confusa (Faa, 1900) ,M acrocheles muscaedomesticae (ScopoE, 1772), M. subbadius (Berlese, 1904), and M. robustultts (Berlese, 1904) were identified by Alessandro Filipponi, Istituto di Sanita, Rome, Italy. Filipponi (1961) established the follawing synanymies: (1) M acrocheles robusttt- lus (Bel' lese, 1904) =H olostaspis subbaditts var. robustttlus Berlese, 1904, =N othrholaspis pttnctillatus Vlillmann, 1939, =lvIacrocheles rothamstedensis Evans and Browning, 1956; and (2) M acrocheles subbadius (Berlese, 1904) = H olostasPis subbadius Berlese, 1904, non Macrocheles subbadius (Berlese) of Evans and Browning, 1956, Bregetova and Kora- leva, 1960. Species referred to in this report as M. mttscae- domesticae (Scopoli, 1772), M. glaber (Miiller, 1804), M. me(Ja1'itts (Berlese, 1889), and M. matrius (Hull, 1925{ conform to the descriptions by Evans and Browning (1956) and Bregetova and Koroleva (1960). M. robustulus (Berlese, 1904) conforms to the descriptions for M. rothamstedensis by Evans and Browning (1956) and for M. pttnctillatus (Will- mann) by Bregetova and Koroleva (1960). M. sltb- baditts (Berlese, 1904) conforms to specimens fur- nished by Filipponi, who compared these farms with the type specimen, and differs fram the descriptions by Evans and Browning (1956) and Bregetova and Karoleva (1960) mainly by having short, stout, smooth Dl dorsal setae inMead af slender, plumose- tipped Dl setae as shawn by those workers. G. con- fttsa (Foa, 1900) conforms to the descriptian by Filipponi and Pegazzano (1960). In addition to the chaetotaxy of the dorsal shield,the major diagnostic characters far these species are the patterns an the ventral shields of the adult females (figures 1 to 7). All figures are oriented on the page so that the an- terior end of the mite is nearest the top af the page. The lengths of the Merna! and ventri-anal plates were measured along the medial axis on the speci- mens photagraphed. ~ RESULTS A total of 211 samples from 92 different farms in New Yark were colleoted from manure of dairy c3ittle, horses, sheep, chickens, and ducks. Seven 628

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Page 1: 1'13 - NCSU

1'13

Acarina Occurring in Domestic Animal Manure1RICHARD C. AXTELP 3

Department of Entomology, Cornel! University, Ithaca, N. Y.ABSTRACT

A total of 211 samples from 92 different farms in New (Berlese, 1889), M. sllbbadius (Berlese, 1904), Glyptho-York State were collected from manure of dairy cattle, laspis confllsa (Foa, 1900), M. glaber (Muller, 1804),horses, sheep, chickens, and ducks. Macrochelidae, Uro- 1M. matrius (Hull, 1925), and M. robllstllius (Berlese,podidae, Parasitidae, Oribatidae, and Laelaptidae were 1904). These seven species are illustrated. The firstcollected in that order of abundance. Seven species of four were common in manure from dairy cattle, the lastMacrochelidae were found, in order of abundance: M~ac- three rare. In chicken manure M. muscaed.omesticaerocheles muscaedomesticae (Scopoli, 1772), M. mt!aari~ls was usually the only macrochelid species found.,<

Mites are common in manure and increased hausefly (Musca domestica L.) production results fromdestroying the natural mite population in dairy cattlemanure (Axtell, 1963). Several .species af the familyMacrochelidae (Acarina: Mesos.tigmata) are pre-dacious on hause fly eggs and first-instal' larvae.One species, 111acrocheles muscaedomesticae (Sco-pali, 1772), has been investigated as a possible bio-logical control agent for the house fly (Filipponi1955, Rodriguez and Wade 1961, Wade and Rodri-guez 1961). The rates of predation on house fly. eggsand first-instal' larvae by four af five species ofMacrochelidae found in manure in New York Statewere reported by Axtell (1961).

The only comprehensive survey af the mite faunaof manure was by Leitner (1946a, 1946b), workingin Europe. Hyatt (1956) 'reparted the mite fauna ofbullack manure in England. A survey of the mitesfound in domestic animal manure in N ew YorkState was conducted during the period June 1959 toJanuary 1962. The present report summarizes theresults of that survey with particular emphasis onthe Macrochelidae.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

COLLECTION.-Manure samples were collected in4-liter paper containers having an alumintUTI faillining. In the case of calf pen manure (straw-bedded) each container held 70 to 110 grams dryweight and 700 to 1000 grams wet weight. Mammalmanure was collected from the top 5 to 10 cm. afaccumulated' manure, since mites were observed tooccur mostly in this outer layer. The mites were ex-tracted from each sample into 700/0ethyl alcohol bya modified Tullgren funnel, with a ISO-watt reflectorflood bulb suspended about 18 cm. above the uppersurface of the manure. The alcohol containing miteswas poured intO' a 9-cm. petri dish whose bottamwas marked into a grid of squares 4 mm. on a side.Counts were made under a binocular dissectingmicroscope providing magnifications of 9X, 27x,and 54x. Aliquots of the mites were cleared by

1 From a thesis submitted in June 1962 to the graduateSchool, Cornell University, in partial fulfillment of requirementsfor the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. This investigation wascarried out during the tenure of a Predoctoral Fellowship fromthe National Institutes of Health, United States Public HealthService. Accepted for publication August 22, 1962.

2Present address: Department of Entomology, North CarolinaState College, Raleigh, North Carolina.

3 The writer acknowledges the assistance of T. E. Eisner inthe preparation of the photographs used in this publication. Theadvice of J. G. Matthysse is gratefully acknowledged.

heating in 850/0 lactic acid and were mounted inHoyer's medium an glass slides. All mounted speci-mens were examined under a phase-.contrast micro-scope.

IDENTIFICATION.-Samples of males and femalesof Glyptholaspis confusa (Faa, 1900) ,M acrochelesmuscaedomesticae (ScopoE, 1772), M. subbadius(Berlese, 1904), and M. robustultts (Berlese, 1904)were identified by Alessandro Filipponi, Istituto diSanita, Rome, Italy. Filipponi (1961) establishedthe follawing synanymies: (1) M acrocheles robusttt-lus (Bel' lese, 1904) =H olostaspis subbaditts var.robustttlus Berlese, 1904, =N othrholaspis pttnctillatusVlillmann, 1939, =lvIacrocheles rothamstedensisEvans and Browning, 1956; and (2) M acrochelessubbadius (Berlese, 1904) = H olostasPis subbadiusBerlese, 1904, non Macrocheles subbadius (Berlese)of Evans and Browning, 1956, Bregetova and Kora-leva, 1960.

Species referred to in this report as M. mttscae-domesticae (Scopoli, 1772), M. glaber (Miiller,1804), M. me(Ja1'itts (Berlese, 1889), and M. matrius(Hull, 1925{ conform to the descriptions by Evansand Browning (1956) and Bregetova and Koroleva(1960). M. robustulus (Berlese, 1904) conforms tothe descriptions for M. rothamstedensis by Evansand Browning (1956) and for M. pttnctillatus (Will-mann) by Bregetova and Koroleva (1960). M. sltb-baditts (Berlese, 1904) conforms to specimens fur-nished by Filipponi, who compared these farms withthe type specimen, and differs fram the descriptionsby Evans and Browning (1956) and Bregetova andKaroleva (1960) mainly by having short, stout,smooth Dl dorsal setae inMead af slender, plumose-tipped Dl setae as shawn by those workers. G. con-fttsa (Foa, 1900) conforms to the descriptian byFilipponi and Pegazzano (1960). In addition to thechaetotaxy of the dorsal shield,the major diagnosticcharacters far these species are the patterns an theventral shields of the adult females (figures 1 to 7).All figures are oriented on the page so that the an-terior end of the mite is nearest the top af the page.The lengths of the Merna! and ventri-anal plateswere measured along the medial axis on the speci-mens photagraphed.

~

RESULTS

A total of 211 samples from 92 different farms inNew Yark were colleoted from manure of dairyc3ittle, horses, sheep, chickens, and ducks. Seven

628

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1963J AXTELL: ACARINA IN DOMESTIC ANLMAL MANURE 629

species of Macrochelidae were found (table 1). M.muscaedomesticae and M. mli!arius were collectedfrom all five types of manure, and G. confusa fromall types except horse. f!owever, only two samplesof horse manure were collected. 1 he otheLspeciesotMacrochelidae were less widely distributed among

the manure types. Among the non-Macrochelidae,Parasitidae and Uropodidae were most widely dis-tributed. Parasitids were observed in the laboratoryfeeding on house fly eggs.

Most of the samples were from dairy cattlemanure (136 samples from 79 barns) as shown in

FIG. l.-Macrocheles muscaedomesticae (ScopoIi, 1772). A, sternal plate (length, 221.u); B, ventri-anal plate(length, 338.u) and genital plate.

FIG. 2.-Macrocheles glaber (Muller, 1804). A, sternal plate (length, 216.u); B, ventri-anal plate (length,J38.u) and genital plate.

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630 ANNALS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA [VoL 56

table 1. Some barns were sampled i110re times thanothers. Table 2 shows the proportion of dairy cattlebarns and proportion of samples in which eachcategory of mites was found. Among the species ofMacrochelidae, lvI. muscaedo'mesticae was most. com-mon. lVI. 11!fr1arius,M. subbadius, and G. confusa"

ranked second, third, and fourth, respectively, infrequency of occurrence on either a per barn or persample b3!sis. The other species of Macrochelidaewere relMive1y uncommon. Parasitidae and Uropod-idae were the most common families of non-Macro-chelidae found in dairy cattle manure.

FIG. 3.-M acrocheles subbadhts (Berlese, 1904). A, sternal plate (length, ISO,"); B, ventri-anal plate(length, 225,") and genital plate.

FIG. 4.-M acrocheles matrius (Hull, 1925). A, sternal plate (length, 174,"); B, ventri-anal plate(length, 300,") and genital plate. .

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1963J AXTELL: ACARINA IN DOMESTIC ANIMAL MANURE 631

Since extraction of the mites from some dairycattle manure samples was incomplete, further anal-ysis of the collection data was based on 110 samplestaken from 60 barns and processed under uniformconditions assuring complete drying of the manure.

As shown in table 3, M. muscaedomesticae and M.

mt!!arius occurred in more samples and in greaternumbers than did other macrochelids. }.iI. glaber,M. matrius) and M. robustulus were present in few

. samples and in low numbers, while G. confusa and

FIG. 5.-Macrocheles robustulus (Berlese, 1904). A, sternal plate (length, 188fk); B, ventri-anal plate(length, 285fk) and genit;a1 plate.

FIG. 6.-M acrocheles m!}larius (Berlese, 1889). A, sternal plate (length, 103fk); B, ventri-anal plate(length, 141fk) and genital plate. .

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<632

Table I.-Acarina found in manure in New York State.

ANNALS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA [VoL 56

a-\-= presen't in one or more samples, 0 = not present in anysample.

b I = inside bam, A = outdoor piles, P = pastme.

lvi. subbadius were intermediate in abundance.Among the non-Macrochelidae, Parasitidae andUropodidae were most abundant on the basis of theuniformly processed samples.

The families of Acarina in dairy cattle manureranked in order of abundance were: Macrochelidae(79), Uropodidae (15), Parasitidae (2), Laelaptidae(1) and Oribatidae (0). The numbers in paren-theses are the numbers of samples out of 110 inwhich that family was more abundant than any otherfamily. The species of Macrochelidae in dairy cattlemanure ranked in order of abundance were lVI. mus-

caedomesticae (54), M. m~arius (23), M. subba-dius (5), G. confusa (3), M. glaber (1), M. matrius(0), and M. rob~tstulus (0). The numbers in paren-theses are the numbercs of samples out of 110 inwhich that species was the most abundant macro-chelid present. In 34 of the 110 smllples there wereeither no Macrochelidae present or two or more

Table 2.-Frequency of occurrence of Acarina in 136samples of dairy cattle manure from inside 79 barnsin New York State.

Species or family

OccurrencePercentage Percentage

of barns of samples

Macrochelidae:G. confusaM. muscaedomesticaeM. mttLarius1.1. subbadiusM. glaberM. matriusM. robustullls

ParasitidaeU ropodidaeLaelaptidaeAcaridaeOribatidae

13.973.450.622.8

8.83.83.8

55.749.419.011.48.8

12.568.453.717.68.12.92.2

41.243.411.09.65.1

species occurred in equal numbers in the alcoholextractions.

Female macrochelids were usually more abundantthan the males. Accurate counts of males were keptonly for M. muscaedomesticae. Out of a total of 110samples, 74 contained this species. Of these 74, fe-

FIG. 7.-Glyptholaspis confusa (Foa, 1900). A, sternalplate (length, 329fL) and genital plate; B, ventri-analplate (length, 493fL).

Occurrence it.Different Types of Manurea

Dairy.Speci,s or Cattle"family I A P Horse Sheep Chicken Duck

Macrochelidae:G. confusa -\- -'- -\- 0 -\- -\- -\-

M. m'ljcaedomesticae-\- -I- -\- -\- -\- -\- -\-

AI. me arius -\- -\- -\- -\- -\- -\- 0AI. subbadius -\- -\- -\- -\- -\- 0 0M. glaber -\- i- -\- 0 0 0 -\-M. mMrius -\- 0 0 0 0 0 0M. robustul"s -I- 0 0 -\- -\- 0 -\-

Parasitidae + -\- -\- -\- -\- -\- -\-Uropodidae -\- -\- -\- 0 -\- -\- 0Lae1aptidae -\- 0 0 0 -1-' -\- 0Oribatidae -\- -\- -\- 0 + 0 0Acaridae -\- -\- 0 0 -\- -\- 0Trombidiidae 0 0 0 0 0 -\- 0Dermanyssidae 0 0 0 0 0 -\- 0Pachylaelaptidae 0 0 -\- 0 0 0 0Number of

farms sampled 79 4 8 2 2 8 2Number of

samples taken 136 II 36 2 4 19

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1963] AXTELL: ACARINA IN DOMESTIC ANIMAL MANURE 633

Table 3.-Abundance of mites in 4-liter samples ofdairy cattle manure, based on 110' samples from inside60 barns in New York State.

Number of samples containing numbersof mites within the indicated ranges'

. Females of Macrochelidae and both sexes of other familieswere counted.

males occurred in 72 and males in 46. In 69 of thesesamples females were more abundant than maleswhile the converse was true in only 5 samples.

As manure ages in the absence of dairy cattle, anincrease in the numbers of Oribatidae and Uropodi-dae and decrea;se in the numbers of Macrochelidaewas observed inside barns and in piles of manureoutdoors.

The largest mite populations were observed in alltypes of manure during the summer months (Juneto September), which is also the time of greatesthouse fly breeding. Smaller numbers of macrochelidswere collected from manure inside certain dairybarns during the other months of the year. Duringall months, M. muscaedomesticae and G. confusawere repeatedly collected from dairy cattle manurein an outdoor pile to which fresh manure wasadded daily. M. mo/jarius and M. muscaedomesticaewere collected from pa!sture manure during thewinter (January and February), but larger numberswere found in the summer months.

"

DISCUSSION

Although the results of the survey of macrochelidsin manure demonstrated that the most abundant

sPhcies are usually M. muscaedomesticae and ~M.meJ!arius, the less common species may be abundanton occasions. G. confusa often achieved large num-bers, as did M. subbadius. In one collection, M.glaber was abundant and the only macrochelid pres-ent. It is reasonable to expect M. muscaedomesticaeand M. m[;j}arius to be usually present in dairycattle manure and 1'vI.subbadius and G. confusa willoften accompany these species or replace one. Inchicken manure },if. muscaedomesticae is usually, butnot exclusively, the only macrochelid present. Thepossibility exists that low numbers of additionalspecies of Macrochelidae exist in manure in NewYork State.

Among the factors affecting the abundance ofmacrochelids in manure are the extent of manureaccumulation and phoresy. Routine removal ofmanure from dairy cattle calf pens or from undercaged chickens is seldom complete and small pocketsof mites remain. This is probably the major sourceof new mite population development and is assistedby the influx of adult female macrochelids phoreticon flies and' beetles. Continued addition of feces bythe animaLs is conducive to macrochelid increase.This may be due to nutritional advantages of manureitself or due to the continued attractiveness of thefresh manure for fly oviposition, resulting in con-tinual provision of fly eggs and larvae for the mitesto feed on.

The presence of seven species of Macrochelidaein manure suggests that more than one species areimportant predators of the house fly. Certain Para-sitidae may also be important predators since largenumbers were collected and they were observed inthe laboratory to feed on house fly eggs. Thebiology of these species should be studied further toprovide a basis for evaluating the feasibility ofutilizing mites in conjunction with chemicals tocontrol house fly breeding in manure.

REFEREN CES CITED

Axtell, R. C. 1961. New records of North AmericanMacrochelidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata) and theirpredation rates on the house fly. Ann. Entomo1.Soc. Amer. 54(5) : 748.

1963. Effect of Macrochelidae (Acarina: Mesostig-mata) on house fly production from dairy cattlemanure. Jour. Econ. Entomol. 56(3) : 317-21.

Bregetova, N. G., and E. V. Koroleva. 1960'. Themacrochelid mites (Gamasoidea, Macrochelidae) inthe USSR. (In Russian, with English summary.)Parazitol. Sb. Zool. Inst. 19: 32-154.

Evans; G. 0., and E. Browning. 1956. British mitesof the subfamily Macrochelinae Tragardh (Gama-sinia-Macrochelidae). Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.),Zool. Ser. 4(1): 1-55.

Filipponi, A. 1955. Sulla natura dell'associazione traM acrocheles muscaedomesticae e Musca d01nestica.Riv. Parassitol. 16 (2) : 83-10'2.

1961. Personal communication.

Filipponi, A., and F. Pegazzano. 1960'. Acari delgenere Glyptholaspis nom. novo pro Macrocheles(Macrocheles) Berl., 1918 (Mesostigmata, Macro-chelidae). Redia 45: 133-71.

Hyatt, K. H. 1956. A collection of mites from stablemanure. Entomo1. Monthly Mag. 92: 36-38.

Leitner, E. 1946a. Zm Kenntnis der Milbenfauna aufDungerstatten. Zentralbl. Gesamtgeb. Entomo1.1(3): 75-95.

1946b. Zur Kenntnis der Milbenfauna auf Dunger-statten. Ibid. 1(5-6): 129-56.

Rodriguez, J. G., and C. F. Wade. 1961. The nutri-tion of M acrocheles muscaedomesticae (Acarina:Macrochelidae) in relation to its predatory actionon the house fly egg. Ann. Entomo1. Soc. Amer.54(6) : 782-8.

Wade, C. F., and J. G. Rodriguez. 1961.tory of M acrocheles muscaedomesticaeMacrochelidae), a predator of the houseEntomo1. Soc. Amer. 54(6): 776-.81.

Life his-(Acarina:fly. Ann.

Reprinted from theANNALS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMEIUCA

Volume 56, Number 5, pp 628.633 September, 1963

Species or 0' 1- 11- 31- 51- 101- 30'1-family 10 30' 50' 10'0' 300 600

Macrochelidae :M. m71scae-

dOHr1Isticae38 35 11 9 6 8 3

M. m arius 48 31 13 5 8 3 2M. subbadius 90 12 3 2 a 2 1G. confusa 95 10 3 0' 2 0' 0'M. glaber 101 7 1 0' 0' a 0'M. matrius 10'7 3 0' a a 0' aM. robustulus 10'7 3 a a 0' 0' 0'

Parasitidae 66 32 7 3 a 0' aUropodidae 56 27 5 4 2 5 1Oribatidae 10'5 4 a a 1 a aLaelkptidae 10'5 4 0' a a a a