1 Pushes and Pulls for IJSO training course for IJSO training course
2 Content 1.What are forces? 2.Measurement of a force 3.Daily life examples of forces 4.Useful mathematics: Vectors 5.Newtons laws of motion 6.Free body diagram 7.Mass, weight and gravity 8.Density vs. mass 9.Turning effect of a force
3 1. What are forces? Force, simply put, is a push or pull that an object exerts on another. We cannot see the force itself but we can observe what it can do: It can produce a change in the motion of a body. The body may change in speed or direction. It can change the shape of an object. A force is the cause of velocity change or deformation.
4 2. Measurement of a force Force is measured in units called Newton (N). We can measure a force using a spring balance ( ). (Wikimedia commons) The SI unit of force: N (Newton)
5 Many materials including springs extend evenly when stretched by forces, provided that the force is not too large. This is known as Hookes law ( ). A spring balance uses the extension of a spring to measure force. The extension is proportional to the force acting on it as shown below.
6 3. Daily examples of force The weight of an object is the gravitational force acting on it. Weight
7 A book put on a table does not fall because its weight is balanced by another force, the normal force, from the table. Normal: perpendicular to the table surface. Normal force normal force weight force by the hand normal force
8 Tension ( ) in a stretched string tends to shorten it back to the original length. Once the string breaks or loosens, the tension disappears immediately. Since tension acts inward to shorten the string, we usually draw two face-to-face arrows to represent it. Tension Draw face-to-face arrows to represent tension
9 Example face to face arrows representing tension These two forces counterbalance each other (suppose the weight of the hook is negligible). The tension balances the weight, therefore the mass does not fall down. tension 10 N weight 10 N 1-kg mass
10 Friction ( ) arises whenever an object slides or tends to slide over another object. It always acts in a direction opposite to the motion. Cause: No surface is perfectly smooth. When two surfaces are in contact, the tiny bumps catch each other. Friction Friction drags motion. motion friction
11 Friction can be useful We are not able to walk on a road without friction, which pushes us forward. In rock-climbing, people need to wear shoes with studs. The studs can be firmly pressed against rock to increase the friction so that the climber will not slide easily. backward push of foot on roadforward push of road on foot
12 The tread patterns on tyres also prevents the car from slipping on slippery roads. Moreover, road surfaces are rough so as to prevents slipping of tyres. Tread pattern on a car tyre Tread pattern on a mountain bicycle tyre (Wikimedia commons)
13 Disadvantages of friction There are some disadvantages of friction. For example, in the movable parts of machines, energy is wasted as sound and heat to overcome friction. Friction will also cause the wear in gears. Friction can be reduced by the following ways. bearings (Wikimedia commons)
14 using lubricating oil using air cushion streamlining (All pictures are from Wikimedia commons) BHC SR-N4 The world's largest car and passenger carrying hovercraft 1. Propellers 2. Air 3. Fan 4. Flexible skirt The streamlined shape cuts down the air-friction on the racing car.
15 4. Useful mathematics: Vectors A scalar ( ) is a quantity that can be completely described by a magnitude (size). Examples: distance, speed, mass, time, volume, temperature, charge, density, energy. It is not sensible to talk about the direction of a scalar: the temperature is 30 o C to the east(?). A vector ( ) is a quantity that needs both magnitude and direction to describe it. Examples: displacement, velocity, acceleration, force. A vector has a direction.
16 A mouse moves 4 cm northward and then 3 cm eastward. What is the distance travelled? Answer = 4 cm + 3 cm = 7 cm What is the displacement of the mouse? Answer = 5 cm towards N36.9 o E Example: displacement 3 cm 4 cm 5 cm How to find the angle?
17 A bird is flying 4 m/s northward. There suddenly appears a wind of 3 m/s blowing towards the east. What is the velocity of the bird? Answer = 5 m/s towards N36.9 o E What is the speed of the bird? Answer = 5 m/s Note 1: No need to specify the direction. Note 2: the answer is not simply = 3 m/s + 4 m/s = 7 m/s Example: velocity 3 m/s 4 m/s 5 m/s
18 You push a cart with 4 N towards north. Your friend helps but he pushes it with 3 N towards the east. What is the resultant force? Answer = 5 N towards N36.9 o E What is the magnitude of the force? Answer = 5 N Note: A magnitude does not have a direction. Example: force 3 N 4 N 5 N A magnitude does not have a direction.
19 Addition and resolution Two usual ways to denote a vector Boldface Adding an arrow Vectors can be added by using the tip-to-tail or the parallelogram method. If vectors a and b add up to become c, we can write c = a + b. F F a b c a b c Tip-to-tail method Parallelogram method
20 Two vectors can add up to form a single vector, a vector can also be resolved into two vectors. In physics, we usually resolved a vector into two perpendicular components. Below, a force F is resolved into two components, F x and F y.
21 5. Newtons laws of motion Isaac Newton developed three laws of motion, which give accurate description on the motion of cars, aircraft, planet, etc. The laws are important but simple. They are just the answers to three simple questions. Consider a cue and a ball.
22 Newtons 3 laws of motion answer 3 questions: If the cue does not hit the ball, what will happen to the ball? Newtons first law If the cue hits the ball, what will happen to the ball? Newtons second law If the cue hits the ball, what will happen to the cue? Newtons third law
23 Also called The law of inertia ( ) A body continues in a state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by some net force. Galileo discovered this. If the cue does not hit the ball, the ball will remain at rest. The first law
24 The second law The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to, and in the same direction as, the unbalanced force acting on it, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. In the form of equation, the second law can be written as F = ma F is the acting force m is the mass of the object a is the acceleration (a vector) of the object If the cue hits the ball, the ball will accelerate. Second law: F = ma
25 But.. what is acceleration? Consider an object moving from A to B in 2 hours with a uniform velocity. What is the velocity? E N A (3 km, 1 km) B (1 km, 3 km) O Final displacement from O = OB Initial displacement from O = OA Change in displacement = OB OA = AB Velocity = Change in displacement Time required = AB 2 hours
26 E N A (3 km, 1 km) B (1 km, 3 km) O AB = Velocity = 0.39 m/s towards NW. Speed = AB / 7200 s = 0.39 m/s (Note: This AB does not have an arrow. It indicates a length, which is a scalar.) (Note: speed is also a scalar.) Velocity = Change in displacement Time required
27 Consider a bird. At time t = 0 s, it was moving 5 m/s towards SE. Its velocity gradually changed such that at t = 2 s, its velocity became 5 m/s towards NE. Calculate the acceleration. E N Change in velocity = v c Acceleration = Change in velocity Time required = vcvc 2 s v1v1 v2v2 v c = v 2 - v 1
28 E N Acceleration = Change in velocity Time required v1v1 v2v2 v c = v 2 - v 1 v c = Acceleration = 3.54 m/s 2 towards N. Magnitdue of acceleration = v c / 2 s = 3.54 m/s 2 (Note: This v c does not have an arrow. It indicates a magnitude.)
29 Equations of motion in 1D In the 1D, there are only two directions, left and right, up and down, back and forth, etc. For these simple cases, once we have chosen a positive direction, we can use + and - signs to indicate direction. We can also use a symbol without boldface to denote a vector. Example: If we choose downward positive, the velocity v = -5 m/s describes an upward motion of speed 5 m/s.
30 Uniform acceleration Let t = the time for which the body accelerates a = acceleration (which is assumed constant) u = the velocity at time t = 0, the initial velocity v = the velocity after time t, the final velocity s = the displacement travelled in time t We can prove that
31 v t 0 u slope = a Velocity-time graph Displacement-time graph t 0 s parabola
32 Back to the second law: F = ma Mass is a measure of the inertia, the tendency of an object to maintain its state of motion. The SI unit of mass is kg (kilogram). 1 Newton (N) is defined as the net force that gives an acceleration of 1 m/s 2 to a mass of 1 kg. The same formula can be applied to the weight of a body of mass m such that W = mg. W: the weight of the body. It is a force, in units of N. g: gravitational acceleration = 9.8 m/s 2 downward, irrespective of m. W = mg
33 Force of man accelerates the cart. The same force accelerates two carts half as much. Twice as much force produces acceleration twice as much.
34 For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. When the cue hits the ball, the ball also hits the cue. The third law Action: the man pushes on the wall. Reaction: the wall pushes on the man. Action: Earth pulls on the falling man. Reaction: The man pulls on Earth.
35 The block does not fall because its weight is balanced by a normal force from the table surface. Are the weight and the normal force an action- and-reaction pair of force as described by Newtons third law? Answer: No! Example Normal force = mg (upward) Weight = mg (downward)
36 Action and reaction act on different bodies. They cannot cancel each other. The partner of the weight is the gravitational attraction of the block on the Earth. Explanation Weight = mg (downward) Gravitational attraction of the block on the Earth = mg (upward)
37 The partner of the normal force acting on the block by the table surface is the force acting on the table by the block surface. Both have the same magnitude mg. But they do not cancel each other because they are acting on different bodies. Explanation Normal force = mg (upward) The force acting on the table by the block = mg (downward)
38 To study the motion of a single object in a system of several bodies, one must isolate the object and draw a simple diagram to indicate all the external forces acting on it. This diagram is called a free body diagram. 6. Free body diagram N W Example For an object of mass m at rest on a table surface, there are two external forces acting on it: 1. Its weight W 2. Normal force from the table surface N. Obviously, W = -N, and W = N = mg.
39 Consider two blocks, A and B, on a smooth surface. Find (a) the pushing force on Block B by Block A. (b) the acceleration of the blocks. Block A 3 kg Block B 2 kg 10 N Worked Example 1
40 3 kg 10 N Take rightward positive. Let a be the acceleration of the blocks. Let f be the pushing force on Block B by Block A. Consider the free body diagram of Block A f (reaction force of the pushing force on Block B) a weight normal force from the table surface Solution: Method 1
41 3 kg 10 N f a Vertical direction: No motion. The weight and the normal force from the table balance each other. Horizontal direction: Applying Newtons second law (F = ma), we have (with units neglected) 10 - f = 3a (1)
42 2 kg Then consider the free body diagram of Block B weight normal force from the table surface f a We ignore the vertical direction because the forces are balanced. Consider the horizontal direction. Applying the second law again, we have f = 2a (2)
43 We now have 2 equations in 2 unknowns. f = 2a (2) 10 - f = 3a (1) Solving them, we have f = 4 N a = 2 m/s 2 (a) The pushing force on Block B by Block A = 4 N towards the right. (b) The acceleration of the blocks = 2 m/s 2.
44 Method 1 is a long method, below is a shorter one. The whole system is a mass of 5 kg. We take rightward positive and define the same f and a as those in Method 1. Applying the second law (F = ma), we have 10 = 5a, hence a = 2 m/s 2. Consider only Block B. The only force acting on it is f. Hence f = 2a = 4 N. Solution: Method 2
45 Consider a pulley and two balls, A and B. For convenience, take g = 10 m/s 2. Find (a) the acceleration of Ball A. (b) the tension in the string. Worked Example 2 A: 4 kg B: 1 kg
46 Solution Consider the free body diagram of Ball A: A: 4 kg Take downward positive. Let tension = T and acceleration of Ball A = a. T Weight = 4g We can apply F = ma and get 4g - T = 4a (1) a
47 Consider the free body diagram of Ball B: B: 1 kg T Weight = g We apply F = ma and get g - T = -a (2) a Solving Equations (1) and (2), we get a = 6 m/s 2 and T = 16 N. (a) The acceleration of Ball A = 6 m/s 2 downward. (b) The tension in the string = 16 N.
48 Consider a block on an inclined plane. Label all forces acting on the block and resolve them into components parallel and perpendicular to the plane. Worked Example 3
49 Find the acceleration a of the block in terms of g, given that Solution Consider the motion perpendicular to the motion. The forces are balanced, therefore we have
50 Now, consider the motion parallel to the motion. Applying Newtons second law F = ma, we have
51 7. Mass, weight and gravity In everyday life, people often confuse mass with weight. A piece of meat does not weigh 500 g, but its mass is 500 g and it weighs about 5...