1 MPC101 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY WRITING A THESIS OR PAPER Syllabus: Writing a (Report) Thesis or Paper General Formation Page and Chapter Formation The.

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1 MPC101 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY WRITING A THESIS OR PAPER Syllabus: Writing a (Report) Thesis or Paper General Formation Page and Chapter Formation The use of Quotation Footnotes Tables and Figures Referencing Appendices Revising the Paper or Thesis Editing and Evaluating the Final Product Proof Reading The Final Typed Copy Dr. K. SIVAKUMAR Department of Chemistry SCSVMV University chemshiva@gmail.com M.Phil (Physics & Chemistry) Unit - IV Slide 2 2 Report Writing Presentation & Syllabus Talking About Writing Writing About Writing The presentation.. The syllabus.. Slide 3 3 Report Writing Writing of Report is the last step in a research study. Report writing requires a set of skills somewhat different from those called for in respect of the earlier stages of research. This task should be accomplished by the researcher with utmost care. The researcher may seek the assistance and guidance of experts for writing the report. Slide 4 4 Report Writing Need for Research report Writing a research report is very challenging task for the researcher. A research report is needed due to the following reasons: The research must be reported in full and its results should be subjected to a CRITICISM AND VERIFICATION. The research work is done for the benefit of human being, therefore, it must be communicable to the general public for the practical use. The research should be considered to be the culminating act for reflective thinking. It encourages other persons to take up some problem for further investigation. The research report requires the creative thinking of a researcher to review the related studies and discussing the result of the study and also suggest some new problems for further studies. Slide 5 5 Report Writing Need for Research report A research report is needed due to the following reasons The research report is meant for popularizing the new contributions in the discipline. The research report is also necessary for giving shape and form to the investigation and solidifying it. It is needed for providing a clear picture of research method, sample and techniques used in conducting the research work. Slide 6 6 Report Writing Significance of Report Writing All Hypothesis Research results Findings Interpretations should be effectively communicated to others. The purpose of research is not well served unless the findings are made known to others. Slide 7 7 Report Writing Order of Report In General, the report must be presented in the descending order of importance of details for the reader. Slide 8 8 Report Writing Thesis / Paper If the findings in any research are to be used by others the results must be described properly as a write up. Such a write up is called a THESIS, furthermore, the results can be published in a concise form called PAPER. Slide 9 9 Thesis Writing The thesis writer should aim at a High level of readability Sentence should not be too involved or complex Sweeping statements and exaggerated claims should be avoided Sound reasoning and intellectual honesty for scholarly style Quotations must be accurately cited and suitably acknowledged Slide 10 10 Thesis Writing A thesis represents the, collection of a substantial piece of original work original contribution to knowledge External (Outside) examiners are engaged to evaluate the thesis. Once accepted, the thesis is placed in the library of the institution conferring the degree. The thesis virtually becomes public property. The reputation of the student, the faculty and the institution are at stake. Therefore, high standard must be set for a thesis. Slide 11 11 Thesis Writing A standard form of Referencing Footnoting Presenting tables Presenting figures should be used consistently throughout the thesis Slide 12 12 General formation of Thesis Main Sections of a Thesis Generally, the mechanical format of a thesis consists of three sections, i. Preliminaries ii. The text iii. Reference materials Slide 13 13 General formation of Thesis Sub-sections of a Thesis This order should be strictly followed. However, all the listed items need not be included. i) The Preliminaries 1.Title page 2.Preface / Acknowledgements 3.Table of contents 4.List of tables 5.List of figures & illustrations ii) The Text 1. Introduction 2. Main text (this may be divided into various chapters) The order of sub-sections in these three main sections are outlined below, iii) The Reference Materials 1.Bibliography 2.Appendices 3.Glossary 4.Index (if necessary) Slide 14 14 Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Title Page Generally, the following information is required in the title page of thesis. Title of the thesis Degree for which the thesis is presented (M.Phil/ Ph.D / D.Sc) Name of the candidate Name of the institution to which the thesis is being submitted Month and Year of submission of the thesis Slide 15 15 Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Title Page The initial impact is important. The title tries to grab the readers attention. The title must win the attention of the reader. Titles should be short but instructive, distinguishing between documents. To prevent that potentially interested people will skip your Thesis / paper: CHOOSE A TITLE THAT COVERS THE CONTENTS ! Slide 16 16 Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Preface Preface (usually used in books) may give a brief account of, Background Scope Purpose of the research The preface should not be too long with too many details about the research work or its organization, which can appear in introduction The word PREFACE should be typed in capital letters Preface should be written in an impressive way. Slide 17 17 Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Acknowledgements At Masters / Doctoral level, Acknowledgements can be included instead of Preface. Acknowledgments recognize the persons to whom the writer is indebted, For guidance For assistance Institutions (for providing funds) For Facilities For Resources for the study An example for Acknowledgements is shown below. Slide 18 18 Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Acknowledgements The Acknowledgements should not be too long with too many details about the research work or its organization, which can appear in introduction The word Acknowledgements should be typed in capital letters Acknowledgements should be written in an impressive way. Slide 19 19 Table of contents include major divisions of the thesis such as, The Introduction The Chapters Chapter Subdivisions Bibliography Appendices Page numbers for each of these divisions Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Table of Contents Slide 20 20 Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Table of Contents Table of content provides an analytical OVERVIEW of the material included in the study together with the sequence of presentation. The relationship between major divisions and minor divisions should be shown by an appropriate way of capitalization and indentation or by use of numeric system. Slide 21 21 Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Table of Contents A sample table of contents (Layout) is shown below. Centered at top of page: TABLE OF CONTENTS (heading) Two spaces below this heading, At the left margin: Chapter At the right margin: Page Slide 22 22 All the Tables, Figures and illustrations should be listed separately (next to the table of contents) with the Table / Figures / Illustration No., Title, and Page No. Page and Chapter formation of Thesis List of Tables, Figures and illustrations A sample list of Tables and Figures are shown below. Slide 23 23 Page and Chapter formation of Thesis The Text In Text part the researcher presents his facts of findings, Carefully Coherently Logically The writer should convince the reader, of the importance or power of an argument, of a series of findings. The organization of the text needs to be carefully planned so that each section or subdivision represents an important logical division of the topic being investigated and reported Slide 24 24 Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Introduction INTRODUCTION Introduction ---------------- -------------- The Paragraphs that Hooks Your Reader Slide 25 25 Introductory Paragraphs Introductions hook the readers interest, provide a bridge to the thesis, and present the thesis to the reader, which should frame your argument. Hooks you may want to consider are: Citing a quotation Raising a question Providing relevant statistics Challenging a common perception. Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Introduction Slide 26 26 Citing a Quotation If quotation is used, be sure to include the source. Connection between the quote and the subject of the paper should be shown. Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Introduction Citing a Quotation Slide 27 27 The LAST thing you know in writing a thesis is what to put FIRST Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Introduction Citing a Quotation Example for Citing a Quotation A Quotation relevant to this presentation Slide 28 28 Raising a Question Question should be clearly tied to the topic. Provides a bridge to the thesis. Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Introduction Raising a Question Slide 29 29 If the computational 3D structures of proteins are not 100% accurate, then what is the use of modeling the proteins? Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Introduction Raising a Question Example for Raising Question Slide 30 30 Providing Relevant Statistics When a statistic is used, its source also should be provided. Misleading statistics should not be used. Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Introduction Relevant Statistics Slide 31 31 Ref: SwissProt Nov 2009 Ref: GenomeNet Nov 2009 Sequence growth in Protein sequence databases: Example for Providing Relevant Statistics Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Introduction Relevant Statistics Slide 32 32 Challenging a Common Perception Something new that challenges the readers preconceived ideas. Think about what beliefs your readers might hold and what ideas you might use to counter these beliefs. Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Introduction Relevant Statistics Slide 33 33 Plastics will not pollute the environment. Chemicals like dyes, fertilizers may get decomposed and pollute the soil and water. But, Plastic materials will remain inert. So, By recycling and reusing the plastics, the problems due to the plastics in the environment can be avoided. Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Introduction Relevant Statistics Example for Challenging a Common Perception Slide 34 34 Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Introduction An introduction should be written with two major aims in view: Introducing the problem in a suitable context Arousing and stimulating the readers interest An introductory chapter usually contains the following: A lucid, complete and concise statement showing the general purpose of the study. A justification of the study to establish the importance of the problem. A preview of the organization of the thesis to assist the reader in grasping the relationship between the various parts of the thesis. Slide 35 35 Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Introduction Define what the problem is The questions you are addressing Outline personal/specific considerations that lead to this investigation How it differs from previous work Also, some (hint) of the conclusions What the report will contain Slide 36 36 Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Introduction If the Introduction is Dull, Aimless and Confused then the reader begins to expect an overall dullness and aimlessness in the whole thesis and the reader may not continue reading or will show only little interest in reading further. An Introduction should not be too broad ! An Introduction should not be too broad ! Introduction shows that you have read the existing literature on the subject and Introduction shows that you have read the existing literature on the subject and And, Your research is new. And, Your research is new. All statements must refer to primary sources. All statements must refer to primary sources. For example, Atmospheric CO 2 is rising Atmospheric CO 2 is rising This might have an effect on the climate i.e., Not: it is generally known that CO 2 levels are rising But: CO 2 levels are rising (Author, Year) But: CO 2 levels are rising (Author, Year) Slide 37 37 Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Introduction Often different ideas exist about the observed situation, mention both! INCLUDE LITERATURE SURVEY ! i.e., In other words, Slide 38 38 Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Introduction - Review of Literature In this section, The details of research done by various researchers are listed with references The details of research done by various researchers are listed with references Review provides the development of the problem background. Review provides the development of the problem background. Review is a balancing chapter of the research report. Review is a balancing chapter of the research report. Slide 39 39 Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Introduction - Review of Literature Example: In References Section: Slide 40 40 Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Experimental In this section, the researcher should describe The experimental procedures adopted for the study The Quality of the chemicals used in the study The Calibration of the various glassware (if necessary) The name and details of all the instruments used for measurements The details of spectrometers used of recording the spectra The details of computational software, tools etc., used for the study A reader should be able to reproduce the experimental results by following the procedure reported by the writer. Slide 41 41 Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Results and Discussion In this section the researcher presents all the results of his work and explains the method of drawing all conclusions using the results. For example, To establish the structures of the compounds all spectral data should be presented with suitable explanations for how he arrived at the structures using the spectral data. If he has found the mechanism of a reaction he should discuss the results based on the mechanism. This section is the most important part of the text since this section throws on the intellectual ability of the writer. So, the documentation must be accurate. Research QuestionsConclusions Results & Discussion Report Foundations Slide 42 42 Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Results and Discussion Slide 43 43 Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Conclusions (and Suggestions) In this section the researcher presents all the findings of the study and suggestions for the further studies are also given. The implications and delimitations of the findings are also mentioned in this section. The main thrust in this section is the answer of the question OR solution of the problem The validity of the findings should be mentioned. Slide 44 44 Page and Chapter formation of Thesis Summary In this section, The important findings drawn from...

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