1 Language. 2 Study of Language ïƒ Linguistics: study of the internalized knowledge of a language – the rules for producing language ïƒ Psycholinguistics:

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  • 1 Language
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  • 2 Study of Language Linguistics: study of the internalized knowledge of a language the rules for producing language Psycholinguistics: The study of language as it is used and learned by people.
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  • 3 Defining Language Language: Language is a shared symbolic system for communication. Language is a subset of communication usually seen as having 3 defining parts Use of symbols Use of symbols A system of symbols are used by all speakers of the language A system of symbols are used by all speakers of the language It enables communication It enables communication
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  • 4 Universals of Language Semanticity: Language exhibits Semanticity, which means that language conveys meaning. Arbitrariness: There is no inherent connection between the units (sounds, words) used in a language and the meanings referred by those units. Flexibility of symbols: Language systems demonstrate tremendous flexibility; that is, because the connection between symbol and meaning is arbitrary, we can change those connections and invent new ones.
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  • 5 Universals of Language (cont.) Naming: We assign names to all the objects in our environment, to all the feelings and emotions we experience, and to all the ideas and concepts we conceive of. Displacement: The ability to talk about something other than the present moment. Productivity: Language is a productive and inherently novel activity; we generate sentences rather than repeat them.
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  • 6 Animal Communication Systems Beyond the level of arbitrariness, no animal communication system seems to exhibit the characteristics that appear to be universally true ofand vitally important tohuman language. In the wild, at any rate, there appear to be no genuine languages. In human cultures, genuine language is the rule, apparently with no exceptions.
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  • 7 Teaching animals language A great deal of disagreement on whether the great apes can learn language Cannot learn speech as their vocal tract cannot produce needed speech sounds Research has shown that many of the great apes can learn and use symbols for objects and some actions Difficulties seem to involve displacement and novelty
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  • 8 Teaching animals language (cont) Most accepted conclusion is that nonhumans are capable of comprehending language and are capable of complex sign communication They appear to acquire and use aspects of language very differently than humans
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  • 9 Five Levels of Analysis of Language Grammar operates at three levels: Phonology of language deals with the sounds of language;Phonology of language deals with the sounds of language; Syntax deals with word order and grammaticality;Syntax deals with word order and grammaticality; And semantics deals with accessing and combining the separate word meanings into a sensible, meaningful wholeAnd semantics deals with accessing and combining the separate word meanings into a sensible, meaningful whole Grammar: The grammar of a language is the complete set of rules that will generate or produce all the acceptable sentences and will not generate any unacceptable, ill-formed sentences. Comprehension operates at 2 levels next week Conceptual Conceptual Belief Belief
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  • 10 A Critical Distinction Competence: The internalized knowledge of language and the rules that fully fluent speakers of a language have. Performance: The actual language behavior a speaker generates, the string of sounds and words that the speaker utters.
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  • 11 Whorfs Hypothesis Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis: The language you know shapes the way you think about events in the world around you. Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis: The language you know shapes the way you think about events in the world around you. Eskimos think different about snow as indicated by them having many more words for snow than English speakers Eskimos think different about snow as indicated by them having many more words for snow than English speakers
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  • 12 Challenges to Whorfs Hypothesis Issues about how many words do Eskimos have for snow Language of the Dani tribe Study of Navajo speaking children Conclusion: Language can influence thought, but not control it.
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  • 13 Does language depend upon thought? Aristotles hypothesis categories of thought determine categories of language Human thought or cognition appeared before language in evolution and during development Nonhumans show complex cognitive ability without language Most likely language developed as a tool to communicate thought
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  • 14 Phonology Phonology: The sounds of language and the rule system for combining them. Phonemes: The basic sounds that compose a language. English has 45-46 phonemes. Categorization of phonemes: For consonants, three variables are relevant: place of articulation, manner of articulation, and voicing.For consonants, three variables are relevant: place of articulation, manner of articulation, and voicing. Vowels differ on two dimensions: placement in the mouth, and tongue position in the mouth.Vowels differ on two dimensions: placement in the mouth, and tongue position in the mouth.
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  • 15 Categorization of phonemes Categorical Perception: All the sounds falling within a set of boundaries are perceived as the same, despite physical differences among them. The use of voice onset time to set phonetic boundaries
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  • 16 Speech Perception and Context Theory of acoustic invariance our perception of phonemes is provided by the consistent or invariant acoustic cues of the phonetic features Basic problems with this data driven theory: We produce phonemes too fast to process this way We produce phonemes too fast to process this way Spoken sounds are not invariant; they change depending on what sounds precede and follow in the word. Spoken sounds are not invariant; they change depending on what sounds precede and follow in the word.
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  • 17 Speech Perception and Context How do we tolerate variability and still decipher the changeable, almost undependable spoken signal? The answer is context or conceptually driven processing.
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  • 18 Speech Perception and Context (cont.) Evidence points toward a combination of data- driven and conceptually driven processing in speech recognition, a position now called the integrative or interactive approach. This approach claims that a variety of conceptually distinct language processes operate simultaneously, each having the possibility of influencing the ongoing activity of other processes.
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  • 19 Combining Phonemes Into Words Phonemic Competence: The extensive knowledge of the rules of permissible sound combinations for a specific language These rules are not taught but implicitly learned as languages develop
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  • 20 Perceptions of words There is almost no consistent relationship between pauses and the ends of words. If anything, the pauses we produce while speaking are longer within words than between words. Segmenting speech sounds into words is learned
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  • 21 Rules for combining words and phrases together Prescriptive rules: constraints on how we ought to speak based upon how certain authorities think a language should sound They usually involve dialects or variations of a particular language Usually prescribed by the dominant group in a society. Sentences not following the rules are considered inferior regardless of whether the meaning is clear
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  • 22 Descriptive Rules or Syntax Syntax: The arrangement of words as elements in a sentence to show their relationship to one another; or sentence structure. Word Order Beth asked the man about his headaches Beth asked the man about his headaches About the Beth headaches man asked his About the Beth headaches man asked his Phrase Order Bill told the men to deliver the piano on Monday Bill told the men to deliver the piano on Monday Bill told the men on Monday to deliver the piano Bill told the men on Monday to deliver the piano Number Agreement - subject verb agreement
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  • 23 Chomskys Transformational Grammar Language exists at least 2 levels Deep structure - an abstract syntactic representation of the sentence being constructed Deep structure - an abstract syntactic representation of the sentence being constructed Surface structure the external structure; the actual speech sounds and words in a sentence Surface structure the external structure; the actual speech sounds and words in a sentence Phrase structure grammar rules that specify the word groupings and phrases that make up the whole utterance and the relationships among those constituents. We have basic sentence structures into which we insert words We have basic sentence structures into which we insert words
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  • 24 Problems with phrase structure grammar Exact meaning of a sentence may not be accurately expressed by the surface structure ambiguity I saw a man eating fish I saw a man eating fish The shooting of the hunters was terrible The shooting of the hunters was terrible Sentences with completely different surface structure can have the same deep structure Patrick bought a fine French wine Patrick bought a fine French wine A f

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