1 Human-Computer Interaction. 2 Definition of HCI Human-computer interaction is a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation

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  • 1 Human-Computer Interaction
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  • 2 Definition of HCI Human-computer interaction is a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use and with the study of major phenomena surrounding them.
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  • 3 Easy to say, Hard to Realize
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  • 4 Intro What is a user interface? Why do we care about design? We see this all the time. Whats good about the design of this error box? The user knows there is an error Whats poor about the design of this error box? Discouraging Not enough information No way to resolve the problem (instructions or contact info)
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  • 7 Disciplines involved in HCI Computer Science (User interface Management Systems - Techniques) Cognitive psychology (Perception, attention, memory, learning, thinking) Social and organizational psychology (attitude, behavior, group work) Ergonomics (safety, performance, adaptation) Linguistics (terminology, multilingual systems) Artificial intelligence (automated behavior) Philosophy (knowledge) Sociology (group behavior) Anthropology (ethnomethodology) Engineering (tools, techniques, equipment) Design (graphic design, layout, colors)
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  • 9 Second annual CTO Forum one theme popped up again and again For the average person, most technology is still too difficult to use the situation is not necessarily improving "Most of us pay far too much attention to the technology used to implement computer solutions, which distracts us from the user." Alan Cooper "I have to be a systems administrator in my own home! Don Norman of Unext A CTO's frustration, Infoworld, July 2001
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  • 10 Problem or not? Is usability a real problem? Or, maybe technology users are dumb What do you think?
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  • 11 US elections - Palm Beach County
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  • 12 Ballot problems Al Gore and Joe Lieberman are the second names on the ballot, but the third hole to punch Alignment of the text in each column The layout of double pages with punch holes in between was novel & unfamiliar. Ballots in previous elections had used only a single column with punch holes on the right. Confusing arrows and numbers Stress induced by the voting process It was so hard to tell who and what you were voting for. I couldn't figure it out, and I have a doctorate, voter Eileen Klasfeld said. http://danbricklin.com/log/ballotusability.htm http://www.humanfactors.com/library/election.asp
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  • 13 Harmless problems
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  • 14 SQ006 Accident Taipei Design problem = Disaster
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  • 15 Taipei Airport Runway Layout
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  • 16 SQ006 Human Factors in Design Runways which are closed are normally not lit up to make it clear they are not in use. But this was reported to not be the case at Chiang Kai- shek airport, where a single switch controls green lights on the common taxiway to both runways and down the middle of 05R the airport does not have ground radar and the plane was out of sight at the time of its takeoff
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  • 17 Why HCI is Important The study of our interface with information. It is not just how big should I make buttons or how to layout menu choices It can affect Effectiveness Productivity Morale Safety Example: a car with poor HCI a plane with poor HCI
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  • 18 Examples Q-keyboard Dvorak keyboard (35% more efficient in English) F-keyboard for Turkish
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  • 20 Interaction process
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  • 21 Usability problems -gulf of evaluation: if user doesnt understand the message Gulf of execution: if user understands the message but doesnt know what to do Usability engineer tries to shorten these gaps
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  • 22 4 basic strategies for Interface Design Visibility: system state and alternatives should be visible Good conceptual model: tasks and results should be displayed in a consisted way. Users can predict the results of their actions Good mappings: tasks and results should be matched (red is for warning, green is for accept) Feedback: users should get complete and continuous feedback
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  • 26 Reference: As we may think, The Atlantic Monthly, July 1945 http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/194507/bush
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  • 27 TUBITAK Vizyon 2023 Report 1. Kullanm eitim gerektirmeyen bilgisayarlarn gelitirilmesi. Bilgi anda yaamann gerei olan bilgisayar okur-yazarl, gnmzde en ok sz edilen yeteneklerden birisi. Gen kuaklar bilgisayarla bark bir biimde yetitirilecek, bylece birok alanda bilgisayar kullanmnn n alacak. Ne var ki nfusu giderek yalanan ABde, renme yetenei zayflam, yal insanlarn okluu ve bunlarn BT olanaklaryla rlen yaam tarzlar nedeniyle, bilgisayar kullanmaya giderek daha baml duruma gelmeleri, zm ters yz etme dncesini getirmitir: nsanlar bilgisayara ayak uyduracana, bilgisayarlar insanlara ayak uydurmal; bir baka deyile, insan okur- yazarl olan bilgisayarlar yaplmal. Hem yaam dzeyine, hem ulusal katma deere katks olacandan, bilgisayar akll klacak olan yazlm ve donanmlarn lkemizde tasarlanmas, retilmesi ve ayrca dsatm hedeflenmektedir. (Sayfa 73) http://vizyon2023.tubitak.gov.tr/Strateji_Belgesi-V211.pdf
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  • 30 What is Human Factors? The short definition: Designing for human use or Bridging the gap between design and use When an information system is well designed, it almost disappears. (Shneiderman, 1987)
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  • 31 What is Human Factors? Discovers and applies information about Human behavior, abilities, limitations and other characteristics to the Design of machines, systems, tasks, jobs, and environments for Productive, safe, comfortable, and effective human use Approach Focus Context Aims
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  • 32 Four Components of HF The actions or inactions of these individuals are influenced by four components: 1.The organizations that they work for 2.The procedures (formal, informal, software) they use to perform their activities 3.The structure and equipment involved in these activities 4.The environments in which the individual conducts activities.
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  • 33 What Human Factors is NOT Not just applying checklists and guidelines (over 30 established graduate programs) Not just using oneself as the model for designing things (it recognizes individual differences) Not just common sense (a thought process) Not applied after the fact (needs to be part of the entire design process)
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  • 34 Why is Human Factors difficult? Human beings are difficult to study Human Factors is goal centered, rather than content centered Rapid development/spread of technology
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  • 35 User concerns Will system deliver information I need? How quickly and easily can I access data? How will system operation fit into my daily business schedule?
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  • 36 Designer concerns How much disk space will master file consume? How many lines of program code will this function take? How can we reduce cpu time? What is the most efficient way of storing this data? What database management system should we use?
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  • 37 Benefits of Human Factors (in relation to IT products in the marketplace) Increased product sales Increased user satisfaction Decreased customer support costs Decreased development costs
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  • 38 Benefits of Human Factors (in relation to IT systems in the workplace) Increased user productivity Decreased training costs Decreased maintenance costs
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  • 39 Interfaces in the World VCR Mouse Phone Copier Car Airline reservation Air traffic control
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  • 40 So, What is usability?
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  • 41 Usability - A definition Usability is: the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction with which specified users can achieve specified goals in particular environments (ISO DIS 9241 -part 11)
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  • 42 Usability measures Effectiveness The extent to which a users goal, or task is achieved Assessed by examining users successes/failures with product, e.g. % of tasks completed Ratio of successes to failures
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  • 43 Usability measures Efficiency The amount of effort required (resources expended) to accomplish a goal Assessed by examining: Deviations from critical path Error rates Time on task Workload (physical and mental)
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  • 44 Usability measures Satisfaction The comfort and acceptability of use Assessed by measuring: subjective ratings of ease of use (absolute and/or relative) ratings of utility of functionality likes and dislikes, etc.
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  • 45 Nielsen's 10 heuristics can be applied by expert and non expert evaluators to a given interface in order to help improve usability Simple and natural dialogue Speak the user's language Minimize the user's memory load. Consistency Feedback Clearly marked exits Shortcuts Good error messages Prevent errors Help and documentation
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  • 46 Shneiderman's Heuristics (8 Golden Rules) can be applied during design or afterwards as a means of checking for usability Strive for consistency Enable frequent users to use shortcuts Offer informative feedback Design dialogs to yield closure Offer simple error handling Permit easy reversal of actions Support internal locus of control Reduce short term memory load
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  • 47 Example: Telephone Is it easy to use? you pick up the handset punch in the number you are connected Some Problems (from Nielsen) : numbers are actually hard to learn and remember hard to type, and there is no forgiveness if you mistype a digit Talk to a person or a number How about call-waiting or call-forwarding? http://www.useit.com/papers/telephone_usability.html
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  • 48 Activity Take the cellular phone of your friend and try to add an appointment to the calendar to June 1 st. Is your friend as fast as you are? Ask what is the difficulty in the task?
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  • 49 Design Diaries Purpose: analyzing interaction through real-world examples of technological products Document an example of technological products, its usability problems and recommend design improvements Look around for bad designed products from your daily life (VCR, Palmtop, Microwave, OS, car, etc) Section 1-The description Explain its functionality Add pictures or figures Section 2 - Design problems Explain the problem(s) Refer to the heuristics (Nielsen, Shneiderman, Norman) Section 3- Recommended design improvements Check (but dont use these examples in your assignment!) http://www.baddesigns.com/
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  • 50 Next week Decide on your project topic Decide on yor term paper topic Volunteers for design diaries
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  • 51 What is interaction design?
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  • 52 Bad Designs Problem: to figure out ad remember which chain is for controlling the light and fan Suggestion: chain that controls the light could have a miniature light bulb on the end. Chain for the fan could have a miniature fan. www.baddesigns.com
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  • 53 Bad Designs Problem: to confuse the dollar cost of the gas purchased with the amount of gas purchased Suggestion: displays may have different size, positions, color
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  • 54 Bad Designs Problem: to figure out how to open the gas cap door Suggestion: visible control for opening the gas cap door
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  • 55 Good and Bad Designs Black remote fits hand better Has logical layout and color-coded, distinctive buttons Easy to locate buttons
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  • 56 What is interaction design? Designing interactive products to support the way people communicate and interact in their everyday and working lives Sharp, Rogers and Preece (2011) The design of spaces for human communication and interaction Winograd (1997)
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  • 57 www.id-book.com Goals of interaction design Develop usable products Usability means easy to learn, effective to use and provide an enjoyable experience Involve users in the design process
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  • 58 www.id-book.com What to design Need to take into account: Who the users are What activities are being carried out Where the interaction is taking place Need to optimize the interactions users have with a product So that they match the users activities and needs
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  • 59 Understanding users needs Need to take into account what people are good and bad at Consider what might help people in the way they currently do things Think through what might provide quality user experiences Listen to what people want and get them involved Use tried and tested user-centered methods
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  • 62 Activity How does making a call differ when using a: Cell phone Public phone box? Consider the kinds of user, type of activity and context of use
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  • 63 Evolution of HCI interfaces 50s-Interface at the hardware level for engineers -switch panels 60-70s-interface at the programming level -COBOL, FORTRAN 70-90s-Interface at the terminal level -command languages 80s-Interface at the interaction dialogue level -GUIs, multimedia 90s-Interface at the work setting -networked systems, groupware 00s-Interface becomes pervasive RF tags, Bluetooth technology, mobile devices, consumer electronics, interactive screens, embedded technology
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  • 64 Which kind of design? Number of other terms used emphasizing what is being designed, e.g. user interface design, software design, user-centered design, product design, web design, experience design (UX) Interaction design is the umbrella term covering all of these aspects fundamental to all disciplines, fields, and approaches concerned with researching and designing computer-based systems for people
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  • 65 HCI and interaction design
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  • 66 Relationship between ID, HCI and other fields Academic disciplines contributing to ID: Psychology Social Sciences Computing Sciences Engineering Ergonomics Informatics
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  • 67 Relationship between ID, HCI and other fields Design practices contributing to ID: Graphic design Product design Artist-design...