1 Emission and Air Quality Trends Review 1999-2011 Michigan July 2013

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3 Emission Trends  Study Team collected and processed U.S. EPA emission inventories for years within the study period of interest ( )  By pollutant and source category electric utility coal fuel combustion mobile sources industrial fuel combustion & industrial processes all other

Text of 1 Emission and Air Quality Trends Review 1999-2011 Michigan July 2013

1 Emission and Air Quality Trends Review Michigan July 2013 2 Project Objective To develop and present publicly available information on trends in emissions and ambient air quality in the U.S. since 1999 in easy to understand visual and tabular formats 3 Emission Trends Study Team collected and processed U.S. EPA emission inventories for years within the study period of interest ( ) By pollutant and source category electric utility coal fuel combustion mobile sources industrial fuel combustion & industrial processes all other 4 Emissions Data Summary Data Obtained from EPA National Emission Inventory (NEI) and Trends Websites EPAs Trends reports and emission comparisons include interpolations of all categories between key years (1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011) at county-pollutant level Represented Pollutants: VOC, NOx, SO 2, and PM 2.5 Project Improvement The Study Team augmented above data with year specific CEM emissions (2002 through 2011) 5 Emission Changes The following slides also include the tonnage-based emissions change from 1999 to 2011 for each pollutant Negative values indicate decrease in emissions, positive values indicate an increase 6 Michigan Emission Trends (VOC) Annual Emissions (Tons) Source Category Electric Utility Coal Fuel Combustion , Mobile Sources354,627334,721367,045319,015303,977288,939260,786250,036239,287228,711 Industrial Fuel Combustion & Processes387,322353,799281,868269,722266,527263,335260,153256,960253,768217,015 All Others4611, Total742,799689,968650,382589,724571,463553,249521,988507,962494,045447,465 Annual Emissions Change (Percent since 1999) Source Category Electric Utility Coal Fuel Combustion0%4%167%67%64%69%72%60%63%150% Mobile Sources0%-6%4%-10%-14%-19%-26%-29%-33%-36% Industrial Fuel Combustion & Processes0%-9%-27%-30%-31%-32%-33%-34% -44% All Others0%126%-7%-27%-31% -17%-25%-23%66% Total0%-7%-12%-21%-23%-26%-30%-32%-33%-40% 7 Michigan Emission Trends (VOC) 8 Michigan Emission Trends (NOx) Annual Emissions (Tons) Source Category Electric Utility Coal Fuel Combustion187,215143,023126,567114,590105,690108,112104,82381,48178,39470,328 Mobile Sources393,786401,089405,758462,316438,521414,726359,691330,263300,836267,265 Industrial Fuel Combustion & Processes153,794161,609129,905134,365131,616129,046128,329125,631123,47295,016 All Others10,8058,6496,9076,1655,1175,0236,7355,5536,1996,626 Total745,600714,370669,137717,436680,944656,907599,577542,928508,901439,234 Annual Emissions Change (Percent since 1999) Source Category Electric Utility Coal Fuel Combustion0%-24%-32%-39%-44%-42%-44%-56%-58%-62% Mobile Sources0%2%3%17%11%5%-9%-16%-24%-32% Industrial Fuel Combustion & Processes0%5%-16%-13%-14%-16%-17%-18%-20%-38% All Others0%-20%-36%-43%-53%-54%-38%-49%-43%-39% Total0%-4%-10%-4%-9%-12%-20%-27%-32%-41% 9 Michigan Emission Trends (NOx) 10 Michigan Emission Trends (SO 2 ) Annual Emissions (Tons) Source Category Electric Utility Coal Fuel Combustion400,868347,278367,541349,581337,761344,066330,042278,994248,791229,015 Mobile Sources24,36924,00730,20623,76620,96118,15711,1109,3607,6106,471 Industrial Fuel Combustion & Processes101,798110,086111,527112,119109,905107,689106,310104,037101,96348,256 All Others11,7259,2888,4425,5531,7322,7761,6021,3601,3481,162 Total538,761490,659517,716491,019470,359472,688449,065393,751359,712284,904 Annual Emissions Change (Percent since 1999) Source Category Electric Utility Coal Fuel Combustion0%-13%-8%-13%-16%-14%-18%-30%-38%-43% Mobile Sources0%-1%24%-2%-14%-25%-54%-62%-69%-73% Industrial Fuel Combustion & Processes0%8%10% 8%6%4%2%0%-53% All Others0%-21%-28%-53%-85%-76%-86%-88%-89%-90% Total0%-9%-4%-9%-13%-12%-17%-27%-33%-47% 11 Michigan Emission Trends (SO 2 ) 12 Michigan Emission Trends (PM 2.5 ) Annual Emissions (Tons) Source Category Electric Utility Coal Fuel Combustion13,85413,12110,8328,0537,6877,9027,7477,0457,2571,384 Mobile Sources16,64415,42915,32619,97119,00818,04519,00317,25215,50013,726 Industrial Fuel Combustion & Processes55,30554,42038,66939,66339,29638,93038,62338,25637,89157,593 All Others81,59367,64437,97537,84237,77237,78237,75337,73337,75649,939 Total167,396150,614102,802105,529103,764102,660103,127100,28698,404122,642 Annual Emissions Change (Percent since 1999) Source Category Electric Utility Coal Fuel Combustion0%-5%-22%-42%-45%-43%-44%-49%-48%-90% Mobile Sources0%-7%-8%20%14%8%14%4%-7%-18% Industrial Fuel Combustion & Processes0%-2%-30%-28%-29%-30% -31% 4% All Others0%-17%-53%-54% -39% Total0%-10%-39%-37%-38%-39%-38%-40%-41%-27% 13 Michigan Emission Trends (PM 2.5 ) 14 Emission Trends Summary All pollutants have decreased since 1999 in aggregate across Michigan NOx and SO2 from Electric Utility Fuel Combustion sources show significant decrease over time as a result of Acid Rain Program, NOx Budget Trading Program and CAIR control implementation Onroad emission step increase seen between 2004 and 2005 is the result of EPAs method change and MOVES model integration for estimating onroad mobile source emissions 15 Air Quality Design Values Ozone Annual 4 th highest daily maximum 8-hour average averaged over three consecutive years Current standard = ppm PM 2.5 Annual Annual arithmetic mean of quarterly means averaged over three consecutive years Current standard = 12 ug/m 3 PM Hour Annual 98 th percentile of daily averages averaged over three consecutive years Current standard = 35 ug/m 3 16 State-Wide Design Value (DV) Trends Trends in state-wide maximum DV and average DV Max DV: Maximum DVs over all valid trend monitoring sites in the state in each overlapping three year period Average DV: Average of DVs over all valid trend monitoring sites in the state in each overlapping three year period Compute linear trend via least-squares regression 17 Data Handling Procedures O 3 design value (DV) for each overlapping three- year period starting with and ending with DV calculated using annual 4 th highest daily max 8-hr averages and percent of valid observations, based on EPA data handling conventions Data associated with exceptional events that have received EPA concurrence are omitted Selection of trend sites require valid DV in 9 out of 11 three-year periods between 1999 and 2011 Identification of nonattainment areas is with respect to the hour standard only 18 Data Handling Procedures Annual PM 2.5 DV and 24-hr PM 2.5 DV for each overlapping three-year period starting with and ending with DV calculations based on EPA data handling conventions Data extracted from monitors that have a non- regulatory monitoring type are omitted Selection of trend sites require valid DV in 9 out of 11 three-year periods between 1999 and 2011 19 Trend Calculation Trends based on linear least squares fit to rolling three year design values (DVs) Negative trend indicates improving air quality DVs based on each 3-year period: , , Notes On plots, DVs are for three year period ending in year shown (i.e., DV plotted as 2011 value) Ozone trend values expressed as ppb/year (1,000 ppb = 1 ppm); DVs are plotted as ppm Scale in units of ppm Trend in units of ppb/year 20 Max/Ave O 3 DVs and Trend 21 Ozone Trends by Site in Michigan Note: Only monitoring sites meeting data completeness criteria listed Monitoring SitesCounty DV [ppm] Trend [ppm/yr] Allegan, MI Benzie, MI Berrien, MI Clinton, MI Genesee, MI Genesee, MI Huron, MI Ingham, MI Kalamazoo, MI Kent, MI Kent, MI Lenawee, MIN/A-1.55 22 Ozone Trends by Site in Michigan Note: Only monitoring sites meeting data completeness criteria listed Monitoring SitesCounty DV [ppm] Trend [ppm/yr] Macomb, MI Macomb, MI Mason, MI Missaukee, MI Muskegon, MI Oakland, MI Ottawa, MI St. Clair, MI Washtenaw, MI Wayne, MI Wayne, MI 23 Max/Ave PM 2.5 Annual DVs and Trend 24 Max/Ave PM Hour DVs and Trend 25 PM 2.5 Trends by Site in Michigan Note: Only monitoring sites meeting data completeness criteria listed DV [ug/m 3 ] Trend [ug/m 3 per year] Monitoring SiteCountyAnnual24-HrAnnual DV24-Hr DV Allegan Bay Berrien Genesee Ingham Kalamazoo Kent Macomb Monroe Muskegon OaklandN/A27N/A-1.25 26 PM 2.5 Trends by Site in Michigan Note: Only monitoring sites meeting data completeness criteria listed DV [ug/m 3 ] Trend [ug/m 3 per year] Monitoring SiteCountyAnnual24-HrAnnual DV24-Hr DV Ottawa St. ClairN/A26N/A Washtenaw Wayne Wayne Wayne Wayne WayneN/A26N/A Wayne Wayne 27 Air Quality Trends Summary Average O 3 and PM 2.5 design values have decreased since 1999 in Michigan There are no currently designated O 3 non- attainment areas in Michigan. PM 2.5 design values have decreased since 1999 in Detroit-Ann Arbor, MI, the only PM 2.5 non- attainment area in Michigan