APA STYLE GUIDE
1Citing Referencesin Your Research(APA Style)2Various style manualsAPA American Psychological AssociationMLA Modern Language Association Chicago Style Chicago Manual of StyleTurabian Style based on Chicago StyleHarvard Referencing SystemASA American Sociological AssociationCBE - Council of Biology Editors3APA styleAmerican Psychological AssociationIn 1929, published instructions for authors on how to prepare manuscripts for APA journalsLater used for theses, term papers, etc.Latest edition 6th in 2009Widely used in social sciences
4Citing references OutlineIdentifying and formatting citing elementsCiting in textPreparing reference list / bibliography5Citing Elements6Citing elementsAuthor or authoring bodyDate of publicationTitle of the workEditionPublisherPlace of publicationTitle of the sourceLocation information within the sourceURL or DOINonroutine information7AuthorSurname and initials Kernis, M. H.Hyphenated first name Sun, C.-R.Editors name Robinson, D. N. (Ed.)No author Entry under titleDelete Prof., Dr., Maj., Retd., etc.8Authoring body or groupFull name National Institute of HealthSubordinate body University of the Punjab, Institute of Business AdministrationGovernment agencies Pakistan, Ministry of Finance
9Date of publicationJournal, book, AV media 1993Meeting, Monthly magazine, Newsletter 1993, June 1993, SpringDaily, Weekly 1994, September 28Accepted work but not yet published in pressNo date available n.d.Publication over long period 1959-1963Republished work, a note at the end (Original work published 1923)10Title of the workTitle of bookTitle of book chapterTitle of journal articleTitle of encyclopedia articleSubtitle with colon11EditionEdition you usedEdition in Arabic numeral 2nd ed. Rev. ed. 4th rev. ed.
12PublisherPublisher name for non periodicalsIn a brief formOmit superfluous terms, such as Publishers, Publications, Co., Inc. Sage Wiley McGraw-Hill Prentice Hall FerozsonsUse only word Author when author and publisher is the same13Place of publicationName of cityIf city is not well known then add state/province and/or country Jaipur, India Medford, NJUS postal service abbreviations for states (2-digit codes) CA for CaliforniaIf more cities are given, use the first or the publishers head office if clearly mentioned14Title of the sourceTitle of the book in case of a book chapterTitle of the journal in case of journal articleJournal title in full Harvard Business Review No Har. Bus. Rev. No HBR15LocationJournal volume and issue number in Arabic numerals 33(4)Volume of a book Vols. 1-20 (Vol.26, pp. 501-508)Start and end (inclusive) page numbers for journal article or book chapter 215-224 (pp. 215-224)Discontinuous pages 5-7, 11-1216URL or DOIUniform Resource Locator (URL) http://www.topicsinclinicalnutrition.com
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
10.1037/0002-94184.108.40.206217Nonroutine informationGive nonroutine but important information in square brackets
[Letter to the editor][Special issue][Brochure][Abstract]18Citing in text19Authors name in sentenceSchwepps (1998) states that the solution sat dormant for several months before any of the employees tested it (p. 743).20Authors name in parenthesesWhen the solution had been sitting for a number of months, the employees tested for bacteria (Schwepps, 1998).21Short quotationWhen fewer than 40 wordsPut prose quotation in running textPut quote marks around quoted materialAuthors last name, publication year, and page number(s) of quote must appear in the text22Example Short quotationCaruth (1996) states that a traumatic response frequently entails a delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena (p. 11).
A traumatic response frequently entails a delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena (Caruth, 1996, p. 11).23Long quotationsWhen 40 words or moreIn block formIndent 5-7 spaces and omit the quotation marks. If the quotation has internal paragraphs, indent the internal paragraphs a further 5-7 spacesDo not use quotation marksDouble space the block quoteCite the source after the end punctuation of the quote24Example Long quotationMeile (1993) found the following: The placebo effect, which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner. Furthermore, the behaviors were never exhibited again, even when real drugs were administered. Earlier studies were clearly premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect. (p. 276)25Secondary referenceIn 1947 the World Health Organization proposed the following definition of health. Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity (World Health Organization, as cited in Potter & Perry, 2001, p. 3).26Multiple authors2 authors cite both names separated by & Example: (Kosik & Martin, 1999, p. 127)3-5 authors cite all authors first time; after first time, use et al. Example: (Wilson et al., 2000)6 or more authors cite first authors name and et al.Example: (Perez et al., 1992)27Multiple citations Multiple sources from same author chronological order, separated by comma (Burke, 1998, 1999, in press)Within same year: (Burke, 1998a, 1998b, 1999, in press)Multiple sources separated by semicolon, alphabetical order (Burke, 1998; Perez, 1992; Wilhite, 2001)28Personal communicationPersonal communication (email, phone, conversation, letter, etc.) (T.K. Lutes, personal communication, September 19, 2001)
Not included in reference list29Handling parenthetical citationsMore than one author with the same last name(H. James, 1878); (W. James, 1880)Specific part of a source (Jones, 1995, chap. 2)30Handling parenthetical citationsIf the source has no known author, then use an abbreviated version of the title:Full Title: California Cigarette Tax Deters SmokersCitation: (California, 1999)31Sample parenthetical citationsRecently, the history of warfare has been significantly revised by Higonnet et al (1987), Marcus (1989), and Raitt and Tate (1997) to include womens personal and cultural responses to battle and its resultant traumatic effects. Feminist researchers now concur that It is no longer true to claim that women's responses to the war have been ignored (Raitt & Tate, p. 2). Though these studies focus solely on women's experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the masculine-centered impressions originating in Fussell (1975) and Bergonzi (1996).However, Tylee (1990) further criticizes Fussell, arguing that his study treated memory and culture as if they belonged to a sphere beyond the existence of individuals or the control of institutions (p. 6). 32Reference List / Bibliography33Reference listPlace the list of references cited at the end of the paperStart references on a new pageBegin each entry flush with the left marginIndent subsequent lines five to seven spaces (hanging indent)Double space both within and between entriesItalicize the title of books, magazines, etc.34Reference list orderArrange sources alphabetically beginning with authors last nameIf author has more than one source, arrange entries by year, earliest firstWhen an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation as the first author of a group, list the one author entries firstIf no author given, begin entry with the title and alphabetize without counting a, an, or theDo not underline, italicize or use quote marks for titles used instead of an author name35Example Reference list orderBaheti, J. R. (2001a). Control Baheti, J. R. (2001b). Roles of Kumpfer, K. L. (1999). Factors Kumpfer, K. L. (2002). Prevention Kumpfer, K. L., Alvarado, R., Smith, P., Yoshikawa, H. (1994). Preventions 36Group authorAmerican Psychological Association.(2001). Publication manual of theAmericanPsychological Association (5th ed.). Washington,DC: Author.37Book with one authorCarter, R. (1998). Mapping the mind.Berkeley, CA: University ofCalifornia Press.38Book with two authorsStruck, W., & White, E. B. (1979).The elements of style (3rd ed.).New York: Macmillan.39Book with six or more authorsWolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N.,Tein, J., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L.,et al. (2000). An experimentalevaluation of40Book with no authorMerriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary(10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA:Merriam-Webster.41Book with editorsAllison, M. T., & Schneider, I. E. (Eds.).(2000). Diversity and the recreationprofession: Organizationalperspectives. State College, PA:Venture.42Chapter in bookStern, J. A., & Dunham, D. N. (1990).The ocular system. In J. T. Cacioppo & L. G. Tassinary (Eds.),Principles of psychophysiology:Physical, social, and inferentialelements (pp. 513-553). Berkeley,CA: University of California Press.43Multivolume bookKoch, S. (Ed.). (1959-1963). Psychology: A study of science (Vols. 1-6). New York: McGraw-Hill.
44Journal articleSellard, S., & Mills, M. E. (1995).Administrative issues for use ofnurse practitioners. Journal ofNursing Administration, 25(5),64-70.45Article in pressJones, R. (in press). The new healthcare lexicon. Journal of Health.46AbstractMisumi, J., & Fumita, M. (1982). Effectsof PM organizational development insupermarket organization. JapaneseJournal of Experimental SocialPsychology, 21, 93-111. [Abstract]Psychological Abstracts, 1982, 68,Abstract No. 11474 47MagazinePosner, M. I. (1993, October 29).Seeing the mind. Science, 262,673-674.48NewspaperSchwartz, J. (1993, September 30).Obesity affects economic, socialstatus. The Washington Post, pp.A1, A4.
49Encyclopedia articleBlaser, L. (1996). Relativity . In Galeencyclopedia of science (Vol. 15,pp. 82-86). New York, GaleEncyclopedia Co.50ThesisHo, M. (2000). Coping strategies ofcounseling professionals(Unpublished masters thesis,Nanyang Technological University,Singapore).51Web pageGreen, C. (2000, April 16). History & philosophy of psychology web resources. Retrieved from http://www.yorku.ca/dept.htm
52Article with DOIStultz, J. (2006). Integrating exposure therapy and analytic therapy in trauma treatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76(4), 482488. doi:10.1037/0002-94220.127.116.112
53Preprint version of articlePhilippsen, C., Hahn, M., Schwabe, L., Richter, S., Drewe, J., & Schachinger, H. (2007). Cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress is not affected by alpha2-adrenoreceptor activation or inhibition. Psychopharmacology, 190(2), 181188. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s00213-006-0597-754Online dictionaryHeuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Websters online dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.m-w.com/dictionary
55Presentation slidesColumbia University, Teachers College, Institute for Learning Technologies. (2000). Smart cities: New York: Electronic education for the new millennium [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/ publications/index.html56Sample Reference List ReferencesCalvillo, D. (1999). The theoretical development of aggression. Retrieved August21, 2002 from: http://www.csubak.edu/~1vega/dustin2.htmlFlory, R. K., (1969a). Attack behavior as a function of minimum inter-foodinterval. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 12, 825-828.Flory, R. K., (1969b). Attack behavior in a multiple fixed-ratio schedule ofreinforcement. Psychonomic Science, 16, 383-386.Flory, R. K., & Everist, H.D. (1977). The effect of a response requirement onschedule-induced aggression. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 9,383-386.Gentry, W. D. (1968). Fixed-ratio schedule-induced aggression. Journal of theExperimental Analysis of Behavior 11, 813-817.57For More InformationAPA Manual Website:www.apastyle.org