1 Animal Behavior: Why (and how) do animals do what they do? Picture: Animal cognition.net.

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<ul><li><p>Animal Behavior: Why (and how) do animals do what they do?Picture: Animal cognition.net</p></li><li><p>Aristotle (384-322 B.C.): Observational work in zoologyEmbryologyAnatomyCharacteristics: ViviparyBehavior: Social organization</p></li><li><p>5/13/08: Natural Selection and History of Animal BehaviorLecture objectives: Understand Darwins theory of evolution by natural selection Identify the major people and questions that guided the development of the modern study of animal behavior</p></li><li><p>The views on relationships between species have progressed over time </p></li><li><p>Darwin set the stage for the study of animal behavior through his theory of natural selection </p></li><li><p>Evolution by natural selection is inevitable if 3 conditions are met:Variation:</p><p>Heredity:</p><p>3. Differences in reproductive success:xxSurvival of the fittest</p></li><li><p>Evolution by natural selection acts at the genetic level Peppered moth: Gene for color has two alleles (forms): R, rRR, Rrrr</p></li><li><p>Example of natural selection in action: moths in England during the Industrial RevolutionI tawt I taw a peppered moth!Brown trunks increase Proportion of light moths01</p></li><li><p>What would a population look like over timeif one of Darwins 3 conditions is not met?No Variation?</p><p>No Heredity?</p><p>No Differences in reproductive success?</p></li><li><p>Biologists often seek to understand behavior through the lens of natural selection How does this trait promote reproductive success?Logic:</p><p>Conditions of n.s. apply to</p><p> So species have been</p><p> So the traits we observe today are a </p><p> So these traits probably exist because </p></li><li><p>Example of Darwinian approach: How does infanticide by male langurs increase the males reproductive success? xxTendency for infanticideNo tendency for infanticide</p></li><li><p>Example of Darwinian approach: Why might a (former) mother langur be willing to mate with this new male?xTendency to mateNo tendency to matex</p></li><li><p>How might building an elaborate bower enhance the reproductive success of male bowerbirds?</p></li><li><p>The history of the study of animal behaviorAristotleDarwinPavlov Thorndike SkinnerLorenz von Frisch TinbergenBehaviorism EthologyModern Animal Behavior19001973Nobel Prize350 B.C.1859Comparative Psychology</p></li><li><p>Pavlov: Classical Conditioning</p></li><li><p>Thorndike and Skinner: Operant Conditioning(Trial-and-error learning)</p></li><li><p>The history of the study of animal behaviorAristotleDarwinPavlov Thorndike SkinnerLorenz von Frisch TinbergenBehaviorism EthologyModern Animal Behavior19001973Nobel Prize350 B.C.1859Comparative Psychology</p></li><li><p>Karl von Frisch: Communication &amp; Sensory abilities in Honeybees</p></li><li><p>Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989): Instinct, Imprinting &amp; MotivationForm of imprinting: Westermarck effect</p></li><li><p>Niko Tinbergen (1907-1988): What features of the environment do animals respond to?Sign stimuli Aggression in 3-spined sticklebacksFixed action patterns Egg-rolling behavior in graylag geeseExperiments!</p></li><li><p>Behaviorist or Ethologist? You decide!Give me a dozen healthy infantsand my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.?</p></li><li><p>Behaviorist or Ethologist? You decide!His view: Each animal has its own subjective universe, or way of sensing the world around it. And as a consequence, different animals, even ones that share the same physical environment, might have unique sensory experiences. ?</p></li><li><p>The history of the study of animal behaviorAristotleDarwinPavlov Thorndike SkinnerLorenz von Frisch TinbergenBehaviorism EthologyModern Animal Behavior19001973Nobel Prize350 B.C.1859Comparative Psychology</p></li><li><p>The modern study of animal behavior is a synthesis of behaviorism and ethology</p><p>Behaviorists came to recognize that</p><p> Ethologists came to recognize that</p></li><li><p>The history of the study of animal behaviorAristotleDarwinPavlov Thorndike SkinnerLorenz von Frisch TinbergenBehaviorism EthologyModern Animal Behavior19001973Nobel Prize350 B.C.1859Comparative PsychologyContext: Biology - Evolution Nature Fieldwork: Insects, bird, fishContext: Psychology - Learning Nurture Labwork: Mammals, Pigeons</p></li><li><p>Darwin discussionVariation: What might maintain this?</p><p>Heredity: Are all traits hereditary?</p><p>Differences in reproductive success: What might make some animals be less successful at producing offspring?xx</p><p>5/13/08</p></li></ul>

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