Louvers against the Elements A winnable fight!
The Air Movement and Control Association International (AMCA), has met the standards and requirements of the Registered Continuing Education Providers Program. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to the RCEPP. A certificate of completion will be issued to each participant. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by NCEES or RCEPP.
Learning ObjectivesDefine the purposes of a louverDescribe louver typesList performance parameters for louversKnow how to select the proper louver Understand louver constructionBe familiar with louver accessories, finishes and installation
Form and Function
Beauty and Performance
Louver Presentation OutlineWhat is a Louver? Definition and terms.AMCA International: The leader in Air Movement Test Standards.Louver Test methods: New test methods lead to new AMCA certified products providing better rain defense.
What exactly is a Louver?
An air termination or entry device composed of multiple blades which, when mounted in an openingpermit the flow of air, but inhibit the ingress of other elements, for example rain and noise.
Louver Design ConsiderationsWhen designing louvers, consideration should be given to the following five criteria:AirflowRain DefenseStructural IntegrityNoiseAesthetics
AirflowAirflow/VolumeThe measurement of the rate of airflow that passes through a louver,(measured in cfm/m3s)Pressure DropThe resistance to airflow across an open louver (stated in inches of water/kpa) Free Area VelocityRate of airflow that passes through the free area of a louver (expressed in fpm/ms).
Rain DefenseAMCA 500-LThe louver test standardWater Penetration TestThe velocity at which .01 ounces of water passed through the louverWind Driven Rain TestNew test standard with wind pressure applied to face of louverEffectiveness Class New classification of louver performance
Structural IntegrityWindloads:American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) formulaHidden or Visible supportsEffective Wind Speed (mph)Louver panel sizeBlade Span (Span tables)Intermediate bracing
NoiseSound Transmission LossASTM E90-99Sound Transmission Classification (STC)ASTM E413-87Free Field Noise Reduction
AestheticsLouver ShapePerformance difference Finish TypeTo match building construction elementsFlouropolymer and Anodize most common
Who makes sure these louvers work?
Is an independent, third-party, performanceverification organization.
Administers the Certified Ratings Program.
Has a state of the art testing laboratory.
Serves as an information source for publicationsand test standards.
Conducts seminars and training programs.
Is available on the internet at www.amca.org.
AMCA InternationalCertified Ratings Program
Provides independent, reliable, third party verification of manufacturers product performance ratings.
Supplies performance information for product comparisons.
Requires periodic retesting to verify performance and allows for challenge testing.
Establishes criteria for informed decisions on purchasing and specifying air movement and control products.
AMCA InternationalLicensed Products
How do you know the product you specified is licensed by AMCA International? Visit AMCA Internationals website www.amca.org and click on Licensed Products.
Check the manufacturers catalogs.
Look for AMCA Internationals Certified Ratings Seal on the product.
Contact AMCA Internationals Certified Ratings Program Department firstname.lastname@example.org.
AMCA InternationalTesting Laboratory
State of the art equipment.
Ability to test to many tests standards.AMCA International test standardsOther recognized standards
Traceable calibrations of equipment.
Performs contract tests for any interested party.
Laboratory accreditation body.
AMCA InternationalAs An Information SourceTest StandardsApplications GuidesCertification ProgramsGeneral PublicationsVideo and CD ProgramsOrder at www.amca.org
AMCA InternationalSeminars and Training Programs
Technical SeminarsEngineering ConferencesTraining ProgramsTECHSPECS
AMCA Louver Test Methods
AMCA Standard 500-LTests and Certifies the following:Free Air Velocity through LouverPressure DropBeginning Point of Water PenetrationWater Rejecting EffectivenessDischarge LossLeakage (for operable louvers)
Standard 500-L LouversThe AMCA Seal of ApprovalWater Penetration, Air PerformanceAir LeakageAir Performance, Wind Driven RainWind Driven RainWater Penetration, Air Performance, Wind Driven Rain
Free AreaMeasured ClearanceMinimum Inside Blade to FrameMinimum Inside Blade to BladeStandard 500-L Louvers
By Actual FA or % FAStandard 500-L LouversFree Area Tables
Standard 500-L LouversPressure DropTwo Test Configurations5.4 Wall Intake5.5 Wall Discharge
5.4 Wall IntakePressure Required to Accelerate Air and Overcome Losses due to Blockage and Entrance ConditionsStandard 500-L Louvers
5.5 Wall DischargePressure Required to Accelerate Air and Overcome Losses due to Blockage and Exit ConditionsStandard 500-L Louvers
Standard 500-L LouversWater Penetration or Water RejectionTwo Test Configurations5.6 Water Penetration for Still Air5.11 Water Rejection for Wind Driven Rain
Air ExhaustWaterDropletsWaterdrop ManifoldWetted Wall ManifoldTest UnitAir Entrained into chamber through louverAir Flow MeasurementCollection ZoneExhaustFanStill Air Condition!Standard 500-L Louvers5.6 Water Penetration
Test Conditions4 per hour rain1250 fpm max free area velocity (approx 14 mph)Weight of water penetration per ft2 free area @ free area velocityStandard 500-L Louvers
MASTERSPEC - EVALUATIONS 8/93Water-penetration testing measures the weight of water in ounces per sq. ft. of louver free area passing from the louvers exterior to the interior at various air intake velocities... It is important to realize that the test is based on still air conditions and simulates the effect of falling rain and rain flowing down the wetted surface of a building over a louver
MASTERSPEC - EVALUATIONS 8/93While this may provide accurate data for rain conditions with only fan-induced air-intake velocities,no test currently exists that provides data on louver performance during exposure to wind driven rain
AMCA 5.6 Test Method Water Penetration
Why Traditional LouversDont Always Stop Rain Entry
Severe Storm footage - real life conditions. Extensive, continuous wind-driven rain.
Hurricane/Tropical Storm Floyd
Typical Drainable Louver Shape
Still Air Louver in Wind Driven Rain Test
International Airport:Electrical service area forthe Monorail system shut down/ immobilized for days due to poor louver selectionStandard louvers used where Storm Resistant could have been.High Tech Secondary Rain Defense System
Louver Rain DefensePrevents DamageGenerators, Production PlantsElectrical switchgear areasProtects interior finishes & contents.Exhibition Halls, Warehousing, Museums
Louver Rain DefenseAMCA standard 500-L-99AMCA revised its standard to include recommendations for wind driven rain testing of louversMasterspec 2000Includes substantial changes to the advice given when selecting louvers. Wind driven rain resistant louvers are now recommended for use.Products to meet these needs and recommendations have been developed and are increasingly specified.
Wind/RainMachineTest LouverWind DrivenRain plusAir EntrainedInto ChamberThrough LouverAir ExhaustExhaust FanCollection ZoneRain WaterDischargeNozzlesStandard 500-L Louvers5.11 Water Rejection Wind Driven Rain
Still Air vs. Wind Driven Rain Tests
Still Air vs. Wind Driven Rain TestsAMCA AMCA Wind Driven Rain Still AirTest Duration 30 minutes (minimum)15 minutes (minimum) Air Intake (fpm)Maximum1250+1250MinimumNoNoWind Driven RainYesNoRain Fall Rate75mm/hr (3")4"/hror 200mm/hr (8)Static Pressure DropYesYesFree AreaYesYesTest PointsNumerous4Louver Test Size40" X 40 or 48 x4848" X 48"GoalEstablish louverEstablish point of effectiveness by beginning water varying test conditionspenetration
Water pours right through a Still Air Drainable louver in a stormWater has a hard time getting through a Wind Driven Rain LouverStorm ResistantStandard DrainableAMCA 500-L test. Wind Driven Rain testing at 29 mph wind velocity and 3 of rain per hourStorm ResistantStandard Drainable
Wind Driven Rain Louver NO water penetrationWater is outside where it belongsOutsideInsideAMCA 500-L test. Wind Driven Rain testing at 29 mph wind velocity and 3 of rain per hour
Rejection Effectiveness ClassesA 99% to 100%B 95% to 98.9%C 94.9% to 80%D below 80%3 rain/29 mph wind8 rain/50 mph windStandard 500-L Louvers
Lets Compare!!!Volume of water entering a 4 X 4 louver during a one-hour period.Based on Wind Driven Rain testing at 29 mph wind velocity (For comparison purposes only)28 liters = approx. 6 1/2 gallonsDRAINABLESTANDARD FIXED
LITERS OF WATER PER HOUR
RAIN ENTERING YOUR BUILDING
WIND DRIVENDRAINABLESTANDARD FIXED