Text of Describe the distribution of earthquakes, volcanoes and fold mountains in relation to plate margins....
Describe the distribution of earthquakes, volcanoes and fold mountains in relation to plate margins.
Describe the causes and effects of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions
Constructive, e.g. Mid Atlantic Ridge; Destructive, e.g. South America; Conservative e.g. San Andreas.
Composite cone volcano; Shield volcano
Advantages Fertile soils Geothermal power Tourism diamonds
Disadvantages Death!! Lava flows,
pyroclastic flows, lahars, ash fall
Climate change Loss of income and
farm land Loss of houseing
The fertile volcanic soils support extensive agriculture with vineyards and orchards spread across the lower slopes of the mountain and the broad Plain of Catania to the south.
They can generate electricity from the volcano using geothermal power;
The volcano attracts tourists and residents of nearby Messina and Catania earn money from renting accommodation to tourists;
The Italian government have invested money in prediction and they are willing to take the risk
The height of the volcano gives snow, - skiing
Measured on the Richter scale; Primary effects include collapsed buildings; Secondary effects include gas fires, disease
More deaths occur in LEDCs; Greatest financial loss occurs in MEDCs; More deaths occur in urban areas; The time of day is important.
Poor quality buildings/infrastructure/roads/bridges; which easily collapse; As building regulations are not enforced; High population densities; Poor medical services/hospitals/get destroyed; Therefore people cannot be properly treated for
their injuries; Lack of planning/emergency procedures/emergency
shelters/level of preparation; Poor education eg earthquake precautions; Lack of money for re-building/assistance/rescue;
Los Angeles, USA, interplate 17 Jan 1994
4.31 am 6.6 47 dead 20,000+, in tents 2,300 InjuredPoints to noteFires, water, housing
Infrastructure , FEMA, economy
Maharashtra, India, intraplate 30 Sept, 1993
4.00 am 6.4 22,000 dead10,000+, in anything 4,800 Points to noteHousing, disease , water,
rescue 36 hours after by scouts, by hand
The main activities in the Alps are connected with:
Tourism; dairy farming; Forestry; HEP; and industry.
These include Climate; Transport; Farming; Industry; and low population density