how does smart phone works?

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Page 1: how does smart phone works?
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How does

SMART Phones


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What is a smart phone?

A smart phone is one device that can take care of all of your

handheld computing and communication needs in a

single, small package.

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• A smart phone is a combined cell phone and portable computer with preloaded applications and an operating system that can run downloaded programs. A smart phone expands on a cell phone's capabilities by providing Internet connectivity and online messaging capabilities along with conventional voice communication servicesmain difference is that smart phone works on principle of cloud computing.

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Layers of Smart phones

The hardware

•use power-efficient ARM processors•have computer chips that provide functionality•have high-resolution image sensors

The software•smartphones can be visualized as a software stack•The stack consist of these layers: kernel,

middleware, application execution environment, user interface framework, application suite

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The Software• Software for smartphones can be visualized as a software stack. The

stack consists of the following layers:• kernel - management systems for processes and drivers for hardware• middleware - software libraries that enable smartphone applications

(such as security, web browsing, messaging, etc.)• application execution environment (AEE) - application programming

interfaces, which allow developers to create their own programs• user interface framework - the graphics and layouts seen on the screen• application suite - the basic applications users access regularly such as

menu screens, calendars and message inboxes

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Operating systemsThe most important software in any smart phone is its operating system (OS). An operating system manages

the hardware and software resources of smart phones

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Android Android is a Linux-

based operating system

designed primarily for touch screen mobile devices such

as smart phones

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• Symbian OS is the operating system for more than 100 different models of phones. The operating system consists of the kernel and middleware components of the software stack

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IOS• iOS (previously iPhone OS) is a mobile operating

system developed and distributed by Apple Inc• it has been extended to support other Apple

devices such as the iPod touch , iPad and Apple TV (second generation).

• Unlike Microsoft's Windows Phone and Google's Android, Apple does not license iOS for installation on non-Apple hardware.

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Black berry OS • BlackBerry OS is a proprietary mobile operating

system developed by BlackBerry Ltd• The BlackBerry platform is perhaps best known for

its native support for corporate email, through MIDP 1.0 and, more recently, a subset of MIDP 2.0, which allows complete wireless activation and synchronization with Microsoft Exchange, Lotus Domino, or Novell GroupWise email, calendar, tasks, notes, and contacts, when used with BlackBerry Enterprise Server.

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Other OS• Java • Garnet OS• Windows OS• LiMO• Upcoming OS ( Aliyun OS, Firefox

OS, Sailfish OS etc.. )

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Network protocols• Smartphones use cell-phone network technology to send

and receive data (such as phone calls, web browsing, file transfers, etc.). Developers classify this technology into generations. The first generation includes analog cell phone technology. Digital cell phones require more advanced protocols, which constitute the second generation. Between generation two and three, network engineers created protocols that are more advanced than generation two’s digital technology but not so innovative that they are a truly new generation. Developers refer to these protocols as generation 2.5.

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• WHAT IS GPRS? General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) is a wireless,

packet-based communication service • GPRS can send and receive data at a rate of 114

kilobytes per second• Generation three (3G) is the latest in network

communication technology. Protocols in 3G transmit data in terms of megabytes per second rather than kilobytes (some as fast as 10 Mbps)

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NAVIGATION• One of the most important aspects of how a smartphone

works is the method in which navigation takes place. More often than not, a smartphone makes use of a touch screen feature in order for it to be manipulated. It is often equipped with a stylus so that information can directly be inputted. A smartphone is similar to a regular computer screen except that it has a smaller version called a micro-browser, which is specifically designed to operate on portable devices with small screens. Users can also make use of a keyboard that contains all the parts of a traditional computer keyboard.

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TECHNOLOGY• Because a smartphone needs to connect with a service provider, it

also makes use of the digital radio technology used by most mobile phones. The device works because information is transformed into binary data, which is a series of ones and zeros that are compressed for easier transmission. A smartphone is able to handle the amount of information it contains because it makes use of a technology called frequency shift keying, which utilizes two frequencies. Each frequency is dedicated completely to a particular number in the binary series and switches from either one or zero to send the digital signal from the phone to the transmission tower.

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Flexible interfaces

• The core services on smartphones all tie in to the idea of a multi-purpose device that can effectively multitask. A user can watch a video clip, field a phone call, then return to the video clip after the call, all without closing each application. Or he or she can flip through the digital calendar and to-do list applications without interrupting the voice call. All of the data stored on the phone can be synchronized with outside applications or manipulated by third-party phone applications in any number of ways.

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MEMORY• How a smartphone stores information is vital to how it works

because of the large amounts of data it has to deal with. It is usually equipped with an internal memory and is complemented by a flash memory. The latter is an external device used for additional space to contain information stored in the smartphone. A flash memory is similar to a hard drive in a regular computer and makes use of electronic signals to create a binary series, which is used to represent the data stored. The electrons found in the flash memory receive a charge of electricity to show a value of one. If a cell sensor in the memory card detects that the charge is below 50 percent of its capability, then value assigned to the information is a zero.

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POWER• A smartphone works by getting its power from a

rechargeable battery. A battery is discharged when the electrons move from negative to positive locations. In a rechargeable battery, electricity is used to transfer these electrons back into their original places. The speed at which a smartphone restores its power depends on how much electrical current the charger allows to flow.

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