UCA is a multistage process which allows designers to analyze and foresee how user is going to use the product. UCA employs proven and objective data-gathering and analysis techniques to develop a clear understanding of who the users are and how they will approach a website or application.
1. User Centered Analysis
2. What is UCAUCA is a multistage process which allows designers to analyze and foreseehow user is going to use the product. UCA employs proven and objective data-gathering and analysis techniques to develop a clear understanding of whothe users are and how they will approach a website or application.Process of discovering.Who the users areHow they think and workThe stakeholder goals and objectivesCollecting data onUser profilesWork environmentScenarios of how users will use the interfaceTask analysis
3. Uncovering the users mental modelPeople come with mental modelsIt usually come from past experienceMental models dont always match realityMental models set expectations, which drive shape and behavior80% of usability derives from matching the conceptual modelPeople cant describe their own mental model
4. UCA vs. UTUCAData gathering and analysis to design a productHow do users think and work in the entire domainWhat are the factors affecting users tasks?What do users want or expect from the design?What are the users aspirations, problems and motivations?UTEvaluation of existing design with set criteriaIs the design usable?Does design match the way users think and work?Is the design effective, efficient and satisfactory for the user?Can users complete their tasks?
5. UCA vs. UTUCA techniquesInterviewSurveysContextual observationFocus groupsJAD SessionsUT techniquesWalk throughPerformance testSubjective RatingHeuristicsA-B testingClick Stream
6. Creating Design strategyThe design strategy fosters cross-department communication by pullingtogether all the goals for everyone to see. It documentsconsistencies, allowing priorities, scope, and objective to be discussed.It specifies the description of the problem and the definition of good solutionby identifying critical aspects of the solution.A design strategy communicates a positive message to the team by includingtheir point of view and concerns, valuing and trusting previous work, andworking as efficiently as possible.It incorporates existing documentation if possible to increase efficiency andprevent reinventing of the wheel.
8. Usability improvementsHow user-performance can be improved?Highly specific to the projectMeasurableGet managements inputCommunicate to whole project teamUse as usability testing objectives
9. Profiles and personasUser groupsUser profilesTask profilesEnvironmental profilesPersonas
10. User GroupsSites or applications typically have some target users; a user group. Focusingon many user groups creates design challenges. Selecting the important usergroups to focus on is business decision.
11. User ProfilesProfiles clarify assumptions about users and their tasks, including the taskenvironment, and communicate those assumptions. Profiles highlight theaspects of the user groups that influence design, and provide a means todocument the rationale for early design decisions. They emphasize thevariation among user groups, and form a basis for prioritizing the user group.
12. User ProfilesCharacteristic Customer service Customer System representative AdministratorAge/Gender 75% Female, 75% Male, Age 25- 80% Male, Age 25- Median Age 32 40 Median 30 35 Median 27Education Some higher Most have degrees Technical education educationLanguage English, Spanish, English English FrenchComputer/web Low to med Med HighexperienceDomain Expertise Low to high Med HighTask knowledge Initial : Low to Med Low to med high after 1 week highExpectation Ease of use, speed Ease of use Comprehensive of task functionality
13. Task profilesOne way to select which tasks to analyze and redesign is to examine whichtasks are performed by which types of users.Tasks Roles Customer Outside Sales Customer Administrator service RepresentativeRequest New XUser name &PasswordFind customer X X XView customer X XEnter/ edit X Xcustomer dataView reports X X
14. Environmental ProfilesCapture characteristics of the users location, workspace, lightingconditions, hardware and software.Characteristic Variable Design ImplicationsLocation Indoor/outdoor weather Equipment options exposure position entryWorkspace Cramped / spacious Display size position entryLighting Bright to dim Color contrast fontsHardware Monitor size/resolution Legibility presentation color system sound card options color palette video card compatibilitySoftware Browser technology HTML/script support constraints response time detail design compatibility
16. Field studiesDirect and indirect data gathering methodsOne-on-one interview techniquesUser observations
17. Three dimensions of data-gathering methodsDirect obtaining data from actual userIndirect obtaining data from users without direct contactIndividual vs. groupIndividual one person at a timeGroup- more then one person at a timePerformance vs. discussionPerformance-the tasks are performed in the sessionDiscussion-the tasks are discussed, recalled, projected, opinions given etc.
18. One on one interviewsOne on one interviews are a good choice if it is difficult to have peopleperform a task while being observed. It also helps to complete a picture oftheir perspective and ideas instead of just observing them.
19. Complementary data-gathering methodsMethods that are less expensive or use less time are referred to ascomplementary methods because their advantages and disadvantages aredifferent then field studies.Direct data gathering methods for groupsIndirect data gathering methods
20. Direct methodsGroup of usersFocus groupsJAD (joint application development sessions)User group meetings and usability roundtables
21. Direct methodsFocus groups are made up of small groups of participants (8-10participants) that are led through a set of subjects by facilitator. The session ismade up of moderated discussion and brainstorming. Focus groups are bestused early in the development process.Benefits include:Rapid feedback from usersDesign team gets a window on users stated prioritiesGenerates product possibilities that stakeholders may have missedDrawbacks include:Participants may influence each otherSome participants may dominate conversationTalking about something is different from actually doing it
22. Direct methodsJAD (joint application development sessions)A facilitated workshop or JAD session is similar to a focus group, but it includea cross section of stakeholders, engineers and users.They help getting rapid feedback on big decisions, as they bring theusers, developers and designers together. They can also help identify missedor unnecessary design elements.The concerns are the same as those for focus groups. They also need a goodmoderator. Also it may be tempting to design on the spot, and to educateusers about the backend rather then offer solutions.
23. Direct methodsUser group meetings and usability roundtables- user group meetings andusability roundtables are similar to user interviews, but are conducted in agroup. They typically include more sophisticated or longtime users, and areconducted away from the user environment. The participants bring worksamples to present and discuss.Benefits include user feedback on problems from the actual users, and also asample of real world examples of the users work.However, participants are not always good at selecting important samples,and samples are out of context. Also participants may influence one anotheron important topics.
24. Indirect methodsReviewing customer feedbackConducting surveysAnalyzing help desk or support line callsAnalyzing bulletin boards or discussion groupsUser representativesAnalyzing web trends
25. Indirect methodsConducting surveysSurveys offer a fast and cheap data collection method with the ability to casta wide net quickly. Data collection and analysis can be automated to reducetime and cost.Surveys tend to focus on preferences and rely on memory. It is harder tolearn about performance and there is no opportunity to probe or follow up.Also the reliability of the data is difficult to establish. The motivation andattention span of the participants are critical and it can be difficult to achievea representative sample.Three common types of surveys are-Marketing surveyNeeds assessment surveyEvaluation survey
26. Indirect methodsHelp desks and support linesSummaries of logged communications from phone support, email and inperson requests for help.These summaries highlight the difficult functions or interactions and relativefrequency of problems. They can identify additional needs and provide directaccess to the user vocabulary.This sampling is neither systematic nor complete and only highlights theproblems people could not solve on their own. Only irritated users who cantget help elsewhere call.
27. Indirect methodsMonitoring bulletin or discussion boardsBulletin and discussion boards typically summarize bug reports/fixes userproblems and work- around.The problems are chronologically reported and often include user generatedtroubleshooting. They usually include user wish lists (if read carefully) and canbe used to create FAQs.Many users may not take advantage of these resources as they may bedifficult to use and users may not know they exist. They offer a systematicmethod for discovery of problems but not for determining the frequency orcriticality of the problems.
28. Indirect methodsUser or organizational representativesUser or organizational representatives are intermediaries who documentusers goals and needs.They may impart a basic understanding of the task.They may not an actual user even if they used to be. Hence their perspectiveson the tasks are quite different. They may also have a design agenda. Theymay supervise users and therefore may not hear accurate information fromthem. Also they may not impartially diagnose users needs, but project theirown opinions. An intermediarys presence may make direct contact seemunnecessary.
29. Indirect methodsWeb analysis logsWeb analysis logs of frequently hit pages, path analysis and exit points. Theyalso offer an insight into time on task.They provide guidance on the kinds of questions to ask.Web log data are often inaccurate.
30. Selecting the right methodThere is no perfect or even best method of gathering data about users. Eachmethod has advantages and disadvantages. The detailed circumstances ofy...