Introduction to Building Wireframes
Hong Qu @hqu
My Professional Experience
Web Developer UC Berkeley YouTube Google Upworthy
Resources are on in the last slides
Outline of class
1. Introductions What project(s) are you working on? What tools do you currently use to build wireframes?
2. What do you want to get out of the class?3. Case studies4. Introduction to User Centered Design5. Workshop
design concepts and methods hands on demo of software tools
6. Hands on exercise7. Design exercise8. When to build wireframes (in design process)?9. Summary
Big Picture Design Process
Human Computer Interaction (HCI) User Centered Design
Adaptive Path Ideo
@landay professor University of Washington
What is Design Thinking?
As a style of thinking, it is generally considered the ability to combine empathy for the context of a problem, creativity in the generation of insights and solutions, and rationality to analyze and fit solutions to the context.
Source: Wikipedia definition of Design Thinking
Source: Bill Buxton's book Sketching User Experiences
User Centered Design
Discussion: Goals, Personas, Tasks Remember that goals:
Are what the user wants to do, but not how the user achieves them
Do not to make any assumptions about the system interface Can be used to compare different interface design alternatives in
a fair way Can be personal, practical, or false (don't focus on false goals!)
Remember that personas: Are very specific, although not necessarily accurate Are based in large part on the goals.
Remember that tasks: Describe the steps necessary to achieve the goals Can vary with the available technology Are broken down into steps for task analysis, and are
recombined into sequence of steps for scenario development How to do task analysis: Hierarchical Task Analysis
source: UC Berkeley UI Design Course by Professor Marti Hearst
source: User Interface Design and Developmenthttp://courses.ischool.berkeley.edu/i213/s07/lectures.html
What is a wirefame?
1. Wireframe2. Paper prototype3. Mockup4. Design spec5. Interactive prototype
Presentation on Wireframing using Balsamiqhttp://prezi.com/kbu_fak6srfl/wireframing/
What are the goals for making wireframes?1. concept exploration
Parallel Design2. layout content on pages3. brainstorm interactions4. communicate5. storytelling6. build consensus7. documentation8. artifact for user feedback9. minimize risk of the product design turns out to be unusable
Lean startupUser centered design processPaper prototyping
A blueprint from which designers, developers, architects and project managers will work and
make sure everyone is in sync."
20 Steps to Better Wireframing
"In the early design phase you're more interested in the navigation, workflow, terminology and functionality than in
details of the visual design."
7 myths about paper prototyping
Case study: YouTube Playlists
Where do ideas come from?
Inspiration Competitive analysis Design patterns Metaphors Existing behavior offline Mental models Conceptual diagram System modeling
Analysis User goals
Tasks Primary task Secondary task Subtasks
Content inventory Sitemap Features Value to product User lifecyle
Creating engaged and passionate users
Hierarchical task analysis requires a detailed understanding of users tasks. You can achieve this understanding by
identifying users primary goals detailing the steps users must perform to accomplish their goals optimizing these procedures
"Progressive disclosure defers advanced or rarely used features to a secondary screen, making applications
easier to learn and less error-prone."
Jakob Nielsens Alertbox: December 4, 2006
Discussion: Design patterns Media/content
eCommerce Gilt Groupe Fab.com
Platform Twitter bagcheck.com Instagr.am Pinterest
Games Mobile Hybrids
Inventory of content and data
Meet with your content team and your engineering team to gather a laundry list of all the raw data.
Divide the data into modules.
Layout the modules in a wireframe.
For each module, create variations depending on context, such as if user is logged in or logged out.
Go back to your site map to walk through a task using these data modules.
Tools for building wireframes
Software PC users - Balsamiq
Free web based demo mockupstogo.net
Mac users - Omnigraffle graffletopia.com
Skitch (capture screenshots)
Omnigraffle is the industry standard and has advanced features.
Hands on wireframe design exercise
Build a wireframe for:
Finding the stencil shapes may be difficult
Advanced features in omnigraffle Clickable prototypes
Install Omnigraffle or Balsamiq Adding stencils Create sitemap Take screenshots of images and "props" Create concept flow diagram (optional) Build page wireframes Walkthrough all the tasks using the wireframes
Are my wireframe designs good (usable)?
Testing Methods Paper prototype testing 5 Second Test
Sketch from memory Participatory design
Refrigerator magnetics Testing Whether Web Page Templates are Helpful
Heuristic Evaluation 10 Hueristics Cognitive Walkthrough
Successful DesignThe user looks through all the wireframe screens and is able to coherently explain:
The user's mental model matchs how the system works.
A mental model is what the user believes about the system at hand.source: http://www.useit.com/alertbox/mental-models.html
"How would you explain how [this product] works to a friend?"
3 Reasons Designs Fail
1. Users are not motivated to achieve this goal - Incentive goal and tasks analysis
2. Users don't understand how it works - Learnability mental model
3. Users don't see it - Discoverability visibility and affordance
Summary Define your goals (business metrics, KPI) Personas and Scenarios Sitemap Tasks Analysis Wireframes are artifacts for
exploring concepts guiding the developers gathering user feedback building concensus among the team documenting specs minimizing risk of unusable UI
Get inspiration and do analysis from metaphors competitors design patterns task analysis content inventory aligning company goals and with users' goals, tasks, and incentives
Build wireframes Test wireframes
Source: Book Design of Everyday Things
Gulf of Execution and Evaluation
The Gulf of execution
The difference between the intentions and the allowable actions
The Gulf of evaluation
Reflects the amount of effort that the person must exert to interpret the physical state of the system and to determine how well the the expectations and intentions have been met.
Human Perception PrinciplesProvide a good conceptual model A conceptual model allows the user to understand the operation of the
device. A good conceptual model allows the user to predict the effects of their
actions.Make things visible/audiable By looking,listening,etc, the user can tell the state of the device and the
alternatives for action.The Principle of Mapping The relationship between two things
Natural mapping Physical analogies Cultural standards
The Principle of Feedback Sending back information to the user on what has been accomplished. The user should receive full and continuous feedback about results of
7 myths about paper prototyping Using Wireframes to Streamline Your
Development Process 15 Desktop and Online Wireframing
Tools 20 Steps to Better Wireframing
UX General Video Interviews with usability gurus Jacob Nielsen's Alertbox articles User Experience Deliverables
Design guidelines 10 Usability Heuristics Yahoo! Design Pattern Library Welie IDEO method cards Cognitive science informs design
Tools PC - Balsamiq
mockupstogo.net Mac - Omnigraffle
graffletopia.com Pop mobile app Web - Mockingbird Flash - Balsamiq Usability test -Silverback Apps
Books Paper Prototyping: The Fast and Easy
Way to Design and Refine User Interfaces
Don't Make Me Think About Face 3 Sketching User Experiences
University Degree Programs
Carnegie Mellon University human computer
Stanford design school
UC Berkeley I School
George Tech MS in HCI
School of Visual Arts MFA in interaction design
Bentley UniversityHuman Factors Program
Parsons interaction design program
Professional and Academic organizationsIxDA
Don't Make Me Think
About Face 3
Elements of User ExperienceDesign of Everyday Things
Tools on Mac vs PC vs Web
Omnigraffle - Mac onlyhttps://www.dropbox.com/s/dscujqtdieu2v9o/OmniGraffle_tutorial.graffle.ziphttp://zurb.com/playground/foundation-stencil-sets
keynotopia.com - PC and Mac
Balsamiq - PC and Mac and Webgomockingbird.com - Web
Turn Balsamiq wireframes into clickable prototypeshttp://support.balsamiq.com/customer/portal/articles/111742
When to build wireframes (in design process)?
1. Who are the users?2. Identify user goals
Look at competitors in the same category3. Break down goals into tasks
Prioritize tasks into primary and secondary tasks4. Take an inventory of content and functionality
Static content Dynamic content
5. Create sitemap and flow diagrams6. Create navigation paths for each task7. Sketch at least 5 different design concepts8. Build wireframe in Omnigraffle (or other software tool)9. Test wireframe with real users
10. Update wireframe based on user feedback
UX Best Practices
Jackson Fox's Tutorial on slideshare The Right Way to Wireframe music video Build attractive site maps in minutes using OmniGraffle Use Omnigraffle to sketch apple web site Creating your first diagram in OmniGraffle Shared Layers in OmniGraffle Pro