Lucy Kimbell (2011) Design Thinking as a cognitive style Design Thinking as a business resource Traditional design practice (studio life) Business and organizational practice Problem solving Innovation Traditional design disciplines (e.g. architecture, product design) Any context from healthcare, education to sustainability Design schools MBAs / Design schools Purpose Focus Context Training Different discourses Design Theory Innovation management
Business Design Mindset Mindset Maintaining the status quo Challenging the status quo
Design is more than an agent of change, it is change... While change is exciting for some, it is positively terrifying for others. Scott Doorley & Scott Witthoft (2012)
BUSINESS DESIGN Rationality, objectivity, reality is xed and quantiable Subjective experience, reality is socially constructed Analysis aimed at providing one "best" answer Experimentation aimed at iterating toward a "better" answer Planning Doing Logic, numeric models Emotional insight, experiential models Pursuit of control and stability, discomfort with uncertainty Pursuit of novelty, dislike of status quo Abstract or particular Iterative movement between abstract and particular Liedtka & Ogilvie (2011) Underlying assumptions Method Process Decision drivers Values Levels of focus
Tim Brown (2008, 2009) Empathy Integrative thinking Optimism Experimentalism Collaboration
Tim Brown (2008, 2009) harvard business review june 2008 page 3 identify new directions that further proto- types might take. The design that emerged for shift changes had nurses passing on information in front of sign methodology, they were able to create a relatively small process innovation that pro- duced an outsize impact. The new shift changes are being rolled out across the Kaiser A Design Thinkers Personality Profile Contrary to popular opinion, you dont need weird shoes or a black turtleneck to be a de- sign thinker. Nor are design thinkers neces- sarily created only by design schools, even though most professionals have had some kind of design training. My experience is that many people outside professional design have a natural aptitude for design thinking, which the right development and experi- ences can unlock. Here, as a starting point, are some of the characteristics to look for in design thinkers: Empathy. They can imagine the world from multiple perspectivesthose of col- leagues, clients, end users, and customers (current and prospective). By taking a peo- ple rst approach, design thinkers can imag- ine solutions that are inherently desirable and meet explicit or latent needs. Great de- sign thinkers observe the world in minute de- tail. They notice things that others do not and use their insights to inspire innovation. Integrative thinking. They not only rely on analytical processes (those that produce either/ or choices) but also exhibit the ability to see all of the salientand sometimes contradictory aspects of a confounding problem and create novel solutions that go beyond and dramatically improve on existing alternatives. (See Roger Martins The Opposable Mind: How Successful Leaders Win Through Integrative Thinking.) Optimism. They assume that no matter how challenging the constraints of a given problem, at least one potential solution is better than the existing alternatives. Experimentalism. Signicant innovations dont come from incremental tweaks. Design thinkers pose questions and explore con- straints in creative ways that proceed in en- tirely new directions. Collaboration. The increasing complexity of products, services, and experiences has re- placed the myth of the lone creative genius with the reality of the enthusiastic interdisci- plinary collaborator. The best design thinkers dont simply work alongside other disciplines; many of them have signicant experience in more than one. At IDEO we employ people who are engineers and marketers, anthropolo- gists and industrial designers, architects and psychologists.
Exploration Exploitation The invention of business The administration of business Roger Martin (2009) Preferences Mysteries Discovery Long-term High risk Preferences Algorithms Efciency Short-term Minimal risk Inventor Manager (Accountant) Designer Intuitive Thinking Analytical Thinking Design Thinking
Helen Walters (2011) http://helenwalters.com/2011/03/21/design-thinking-wont-save-you/
modes of thinking
Nigel Cross (1990) Abductive Thinking Abduction is the logic of conjecture. vermoeden gissen
Kees Dorst (2010) ??? + HOW leads to VALUE tion-2 ??? + ??? leads to VALUE (thing) (scenario) (aspired) WHAT + ??? leads to RESULT productive professions? The basic reasoning pattern then is Abduction: WHAT + HOW leads to VALUE (thing) (scenario) (aspired) Abduction comes in two formswhat they have in common is that we actually Abduction-1, that is often associ lem solving, we also know the how, a working principle and how that will h ??? + HOW leads to VALUE Abductive Thinking And why design is such a complicated act
Deductive reasoning Deduction means determining the conclusion Deductive reasoning moves from the general rule to the specic application Inductive reasoning Induction means determining the rule Inductive reasoning moves from the specic to the general. Taking your best shot! Doing a best guess! Abduction means determining the precondition. Abduction has been described as the logic of what might be, (Martin, 2009) Abduction can be thought of as the argument to the best explanation. (Kolko, 2009) Conclusion merely likely! Abductive reasoning Conclusion guaranteed! design natural sciencemathematics Black Swan? All of the swans that all living beings have ever seen are white Therefore, all swans are white. Syllogism All men are mortal Socrates is a man Therefore, Socrates is mortal Types of reasoning See the paper of John Kolko (2009) Aha Erlebnis The abductive suggestion comes to us like a flash. It is an act of insight, although extremely fallible insight. (Pierce, 1998) Think of: Dr House, Sherlock Holmes and other TV personas who solve unsolvable puzzles.
A B C B Therefore, we are absolutely certain that all the marbles in the bag are red (because all the marbles are from bucket B) There are three buckets A, B and C. We can see and we know that all the marbles in bucket B are red. It is the case that someone has put some marbles from bucket B in the bag (but we cannot see whats in the bag). All the marbles from bucket B are red. Rule The marbles in the bag are from bucket B. Case The marbles in the bag are red. Result conclusion! Deductive reasoning: conclusion guaranteed! Deduction means determining the conclusion Deductive reasoning moves from the general rule to the specic application
A B C B When we open bag, we see that the marbles are red. So, all the marbles in bucket B are red (although this might not be true if there is blue marble in bucket B, but we cannot see if that is the case) It is the case that someone has put some marbles from bucket B in the bag. All the marbles from bucket B are red. Rule The marbles in the bag are from bucket B. Case The marbles in the bag are red. Result Inductive reasoning: conclusion merely likely! Induction means determining the rule Inductive reasoning moves from the specic to the general.
A B C B We have a bag, when we open it, we see that the marbles are red. There are three buckets A, B and C. We see and we know that all the marbles in bucket B are red. So, it is the case that someone has put some marbles from bucket B into the bag. All the marbles from bucket B are red. Rule The marbles in the bag are from bucket B. Case The marbles in the bag are red. Result Abductive reasoning: taking your best shot! / best guess! Abduction means determining the precondition. Abduction has been described as the logic of what might be, (Martin) Abduction can be thought of as the argument to the best explanation. (Kolko)
Henry Mintzberg & Frances Westley (2001) Thinking rst Seeing rst Doing rst Decision making approaches Science planning / programming Verbal Facts Art Visioning / imagining Visual Ideas Craft Venturing / learning Visceral Experiences Works best when: The issue is clear The data is reliable The