GNH- The Gross National Happiness of Bangladesh

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1. Gnh The Gross National Happiness of Bangladesh K202: Bangladesh studies Bba 21st Team 10 Section A 2. Tasmeem Farizma Mihika RH 33 The team Taosif Amin Khan ZR 07 Shuvo Charles Gomes ZR 21 Ayman Rahman ZR 29 Sian Saad ZR 39 3. Happiness is the meaning and the purpose of life, the whole aim and end of human existence If one speaks or acts with a pure thought, happiness follows one, like a shadow that never leaves The happiness of the drop is to die in the river PHILOSOPHIES OF HAPPINESS Aristotle Abraham Maslow The story of the human race is the story of men and women selling themselves short Buddha Al-Ghazzali 4. 1975 2010 2012 2013 2013 GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS UN Resolution for GNH as the Chief Development Indicator World Happiness Report consisting of 83 countries published Denmark topped the list and Portugal was lowest Idea coined by Bhutans 4th Dragon King, Jige Sigme Wangchuk Current version developed by Center for Bhutan Studies 5. Methodology Secondary source of Data focus group discussions Informal interviews The happiness survey 6. Economy Environment Education Society Physical Health Mental Health Politics The 7 sectors 7. economy 8. Household expenditure per capita of $416 according to World Bank in 2013 104th in the world0 100 200 300 400 500 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Household Expenditure 3.8 4 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5 5.2 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Unemployment Rate 0 200 400 600 800 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Real GDP per Capita 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 2010 2011 2012 2013 Inflation Our country has been reducing poverty since the year 2000 at a rate of almost 2% annually Source: (i) World Bank Website (ii) BBS (iii) IMF 9. Employment satisfaction is low especially among underemployed Positive trends make people confident but not happy with current state All economic trends move in the positive direction Poverty and inequality seen as a major barrier to improvement Consumption quality is seen as very low by most Economic situation is one of the major reasons for unhappiness KEY FINDINGS 10. 5.8 4.6 6.4 4.85.4 Peoples scores Consumption Quality Employment Satisfaction Economic Well Being Poverty 11. environment 12. 0.28 0.3 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Percent of Carbon di oxide emission 0 5 10 15 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Electricity loss (% of generation) Source: (i) World Bank Website (ii) WWF (iii) Greenpeace 18 17 33 0 10 20 30 40 Fish species, threatened Plant species (higher), threatened Mammal species, threatened Endangered Species CO2 Emission per metric ton increased due to industrial expansion Mammals are the most endangered species among others 11.02 11.04 11.06 11.08 11.1 11.12 11.14 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Forest Area (% of total Land) 13. Over 15,000 people died in the past year due to air pollution Air and water are the most polluted sectors. The staggering rate of endangered species alarm the people. 200 tanneries situated at river banks herm the water bodies the most People are more responsable towards conservation of energy. The Disaster Management programs are satisfactory KEY FINDINGS 14. Natural Calamities Environmental Pollution Biodiversity Conservation 7.9 6.1 5.4 5.86.3 Energy Conservation Peoples scores 15. education 16. 14.4 11.4 11.2 10.3 10.9 0 5 10 15 20 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 Percentage of total budget 54.9 60.2 70.3 73.8 78.6 0 20 40 60 80 100 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Primary education completion rate Source: (i) BANBEIS - Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (ii) World Bank Website (iii) UNESCO 43 35 40 24 0 10 20 30 40 50 pupil teacher ratio Bangladesh India Pakistan Sri lanka 47.5 56.8 61.4 73.7 0 20 40 60 80 2000 2010 2015(Pro.) 2015(Exp.) Adult literacy rate (15 years and older) Coefficient of efficiency increased to 79.7% (2013) from 62.2% (2010) GER rose to 108.6% (boys 106.8% girls 110.5%) in 13 from 104.4% in 12 17. Dropout rate is still high especially in poor households More focus should be given on stipend programs and infrastructure The literacy rate and GER have increased very positively over the years The general population is skeptical of student politics and thinks it is harmful The recent question paper leaks are an alarming sign The Creative(Srijonshil) structure is perceived as a positive step KEY FINDINGS 18. Future Prospects Results in Public Exams Quality of Education 7.7 4.8 6.6 7.36.6 Government Initiatives Peoples scores 19. society 20. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 1991 1995 2000 2005 2010 Income Held By Top 10% 3.80% 3.90% 4.00% 4.10% 4.20% 1991 1995 2000 2005 2010 Income Held by Bottom 10% Source: (i) BBS (ii) Dhaka Metropolitan Police (iii) UNESCO 4.4 4.6 4.8 5 5.2 5.4 1995 2000 2005 National Rural Urban Income inequality is on a downward trend resulting in social improvements Average family size has considerably decreased over the past 15 years 140000 150000 160000 170000 180000 190000 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Crimes throughout the years 21. High income inequality is among the top social problems Strong family values and strong family unity among the people Bangladeshi Culture- Festive, Joyous and Colorful Minorities rights are still not ensured by the majority of society Crime rate is on constant increase over the past few years Community bonding is a major highlight of the society KEY FINDINGS 22. Family Values Community Relationships Culture 8.6 6.1 8.4 7.97.8 Social Security Peoples scores 23. Physical health 24. 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Healthcare expenditure (% of GDP) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Contrast between private and public healthcare expenditure Pubic healthcare expenditure (% of GDP) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Personal Expenditure on healthcare (In USD) 0 5 10 15 20 25 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Food Imports (as a % of Merchandise) Source: (i) BBS (ii) Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (iii) CIA Factbook 25. Food imports are increasing everyday Availability of nutrition is improving constantly Overall quality of public healthcare is poor Private healthcare > Public healthcare Healthcare expenditure by govt. has increased. KEY FINDINGS Healthcare expenditure has increased by 140% 26. Mental Health Perception of Healthiness Access to Healthcare 7.4 6.2 4.3 5.35.8 Availability of Nutrition Peoples scores 27. Mental health 28. 421 496 544 619 685 763 842 862 958 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 GDP Per capita Muslim 89.50% Hindu 9.60% Christian 0.30% Buddhist 0.50% Other 0.10% 6.34 8.63 7.85 6.97 Life Satisfaction Spirituality Positive Emotion Neagtive Emotion Mental Health Variables 6.34 8.63 7.85 6.97 Life Satisfaction Spirituality Positive Emotion Neagtive Emotion Mental Health Vector Source: (i) National Mental Health Institute (ii) Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (iii) CIA Factbook 29. KEY FINDINGS People have relatively stable mental health Positive emotions > Negative emotions People are quite religious and spiritual Living standards are improving due to growing GDP People are not satisfied with living standards Happiness is an institute of the mind 30. Negative emotion Spirituality Life satisfaction 6.9 7.8 6.3 8.67.4 Positive emotion Peoples scores 31. politics 32. 0 20 40 60 80 100 2014 2008 2001 Voter Turnout 0 1 2 3 4 2014 2008 2001 Invalid votes (%) Source: (i) BBS- Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (ii) Transparency International 2014 2013 2012 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 1 2 3 Corruption perception ranking Voter Turnout increased in 2008 but decreased in 2014 The performance of government in IT reflected by the increasing number of internet users. 0 2 4 6 8 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 Number of internet user per 100 33. The fairness of election and selection process is questioned The rural population is more active in elections than the urban mass People are less enthusiastic about political participation Dissatisfaction prevails due to the frequency of Strikes and Blockades The peopulation are Happy about the economic development of the country The crime control by the government is perceived to be low KEY FINDINGS 34. 3.6 4.7 5.9 5.85.o Peoples scores Judicial System and Law and order Accountability and Performance Participation by People Political stability 35. 6.32 OVERALL RATING 36. Takeaways People are more dissatisfied with the political scenario 5 Societal factors are the key drivers of happiness 4 Bangladeshi people are easily content with less 3 Happiness is more spiritual than material 2 Happiness is highly subjective. And cannot always be properly calculated 1 37. THANK YOU!

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