Seeds 2008

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  • 1.The Joy of Seed Collecting and Starting Presented by Sheryl Williams Delta Montrose Technical College

2. Miracle of growing a whole plant from a tiny seed

  • Learn to collect, germinate and start seedlings
  • Expand your palette of plant material
  • Just plain fun

3. Agenda

  • Plant Sex
    • Flower and Seed Anatomy
  • Harvesting, cleaning, storage
  • Germination information
    • Dormancy
  • Paper Towel technique
  • Outdoors for Winter technique
  • Timing

4. Vocabulary

  • Scarification
    • Scratch, nick, chip or notch a seed coat to allow water to penetrate more quickly and speed up germination
  • Stratify
    • Artificial cold period to break dormancy
  • Dormant
    • Alive but in a state of suspended animation until all conditions are right for growth

5. Vocabulary

  • Germination
    • The moment when a plants embryo breaks its dormancy and begins to grow
  • Hardening Off
    • Gradually toughen up plant for transition to the garden
  • Damping off
    • Fungal disease that rots seeds as they germinate or seedlings once they emerge from the soil

6. Flower Anatomy 7. Viva la difference!

  • Male StamenFemale - Pistil

8. Stamen - Anther and Filament

  • Stamen -make pollen available
  • Two parts anther and filament
  • On top of the filament is the anther
  • Sack containing pollen

9. Filaments can force contact 10. Pollen Grains

  • Each plants pollen has a distinct shape and chemical make up
  • Wrong pollen is not accepted
  • Pollen contains protein, necessary for bee larvae
  • Bee larvae is fed pollen and saliva bee bread

11. Pollen Grains

  • SunflowerBasilChicory

Dandelion, Eucalyptus Sunflower petal & pollen 12. Pistil - Stigma, Style, Ovary

  • Physical and chemical characteristics of pollen MUST match the female plant
  • Pollen grain grows a pollen tube
  • Down to the ovary
  • Fertilization of the ovule
  • One pollen grain to one ovule
  • Unfertilized ovules will not make seeds

13. Stigmas 14.

  • Changes shape during the reproductive cycle
  • Stigmacatches pollen grains
  • Often hairy or sticky

15. Pollen Tube

  • Pollen match Pollen tube grows down the style to the ovary
  • Fertilization takes place

16. Sunflower Multiple flowers 17. Snapdragon Flower 18. Lab 1 Explore Flowers

  • Cut open flowers and find the ovaries, pistil and stamen

19. Whats in a Seed

  • Starch storage
  • Seed Leaves (Cotyledon)
  • Embryonic plant - embryo
  • Embryonic Root

20. Corn Seed

  • Starch storage -energy source for the germinating seed and seedling
  • Seed Leaf
  • Embryonic root first to emerge
  • Embryonic plant

21. Bean Seed Epicotyl becomes stem leaves and flowers Radicle becomes the root Hypocotyl becomes the portion between the root and stem 22. Lab 2 Seed Germination Stages

  • Soaked corn and bean seeds
  • Cut or pry each in half and find root, shoot, seed leaf (leaves) and starch storage.
  • Carefully dab with Iodine
  • Iodine will blacken the starch areas.

23. Harvesting, Cleaning, Storage

  • Harvest when dry
  • Place on a newspaper for a week
  • Put upside down in a paper bag until the seeds release
  • Use a sieve to separate the seeds from the chaff
  • Store in sealed and labeled paper packets
  • Keep 35 - 50 degrees

24. Lab 3 Cleaning seeds

  • Take bag of flower stalks
  • Clean seed from chaff
  • Place in seed envelopes

25. Lab 4 - Finding Germination Information

  • Look up Latin name
  • Take Seed catalogue or database and look up your seed
  • Read codes to see how to germinate
  • Add germination information to your seed packages

26. Where to find Germination Information

  • Catalogues
    • Park, Stokes
    • Thompson & Morgan
    • J.L. Hudson
  • Books
    • Seed Germination Theory and Practice by Norman Deno
  • Internet Databases

27. Breaking Seed Dormancy

  • Dormancy is natures way of preventing germination until conditions are favorable for survival
    • Temperature
    • Water
    • Oxygen
    • Light
  • Internal or External
    • Internal chemical or external hard coat

28. Breaking Seed Dormancy

  • Scarification
    • Hard seed coat wont let in water or gases
    • Any breaking, scratching, nicking will open the hard seed coat
    • In nature seed out in fall and winter freeze and thaw will break down the seed coat

29. Scarification Techniques

  • Sand paper
  • Boiling water soak until water is room temperature
  • Metal file
  • Nick with nail clippers
    • Dont damage the embryo
    • Sow immediately, wont store

30. Lab 5 -Scarification

  • Use a nail file to file some of the seed coat away.
  • Be sure to file until you can see the white starch in the seed.
  • Use a nail clipper to chip a bit of the seed coat away.
  • Clip the starch not the embryo.
  • Look for the embryo

31. Stratification

  • Need a period of moist-pre chilling or moist-warm periods
  • Cold stratification (moist pre chilling) mix seeds with a volume of a moist medium
    • Sand or perlite
    • Closed container
    • Store in refrigerator 40 degrees
    • Check for moist but not wet
    • Amount of time varies

32. Stratification Moist warm

  • Similar to moist pre chill except temperatures are kept at 68 to 86 degrees
  • Depends on the species
  • A few species even need to be scarified and pre chilled

33. Paper Towel Germination Technique Lab 6

  • Cheap paper towels
  • Small plastic bags
  • Water
  • Labels
  • Basil seeds

34. Germination Lab Paper Towel Technique

  • Paper towel folded in half three times

1 3 2 35. Soak Paper Towel

  • Soak paper towel and squeeze out the excess water

1 2 36. Place Seeds

  • If Light is required place the seeds on top of the still folded towel
  • If Light is not required, open the towel once and place the seeds inside
  • If you are not sure, put a few inside and a few outside

37. Bag

  • Place label with seed name and date on the plastic bag
  • Place towel with seeds into the bag
  • Lightly close plastic bag do not seal

38. Germination Lab At Home

  • Basil should germinate 3-7 days at 70 degrees with light or dark
  • Nicked seeds should germinate 7-14 days at 70 degrees
  • Add a small amount of water if towel is dry
  • Open bag to ventilate if moisture inside
  • If you need to pre chill or stratify, put in the refrigerator

39. Tools and Equipment Seedlings

  • Heating cable
  • Sand
  • Containers
  • Sterile potting soil
  • Plant labels
  • Watering can with a fine rose
  • Overhead lighting

40. When Seeds Germinate

  • Plant in soil when seeds leaves are visible
  • Be careful not to break off the root when taking the seedling out of the paper towel

41. Plant into Soil

  • Be sure the crown is at the soil surface

42. Overhead light

  • Give the seedlings 12 16 hours of artificial light
  • 4-6 inches above the seedlings

43. Seed Starting Rack 44. Winter Sow Outdoors Technique Trudi Davidoff

  • Good candidates look for these terms
    • Pre chilling