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  1. 1. Dont PanicMOBILE DEVELOPERS GUIDE TO THE GALAXY1d4ttonh e ii
  2. 2. published by:Services and Tools for All Mobile PlatformsEnough Software GmbH + Co. KG Stavendamm 22 28195 Bremen Germany Please send your feedback, questions or sponsorship requests to: Follow us on Twitter: @enoughsoftware14th Edition February 2014 This Developer Guide is licensed under the Creative Commons Some Rights Reserved License. Art Direction and Design by Andrej Balaz (Enough Software) Editors: Richard Bloor Marco Tabor (Enough Software)
  3. 3. Mobile Developers Guide Contents IPrologue 1The Galaxy of Mobile: An Introduction Conceptional Design for Mobile 22Android 37 BlackBerry Java Apps 44 BlackBerry 10 56 Firefox OS 62iOS 74 Java ME (J2ME) 84Tizen 88 Windows Phone & Windows RT 100 Going Cross-Platform 116 Mobile Sites & Web Technologies 130Accessibility 140 Enterprise Apps: Strategy And Development 150 Mobile Analytics 158 Implementing Rich Media 164 Implementing Location-Based Services 172 Near Field Communication (NFC) 180 Implementing Haptic Vibration 188 Implementing Augmented Reality 200 Application Security 211Testing 227Monetization 241Epilogue 242 About the Authors 123
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  5. 5. Prologue When we started Enough Software in 2005, almost no one amongst our friends and families understood what we were actually doing. Although mobile phones were everywhere and SMS widely used, apps were still a niche phenomena heck, even the name apps was lacking we called them MIDlets or mobile applications at the time. We kept on architecting, designing and developing apps for our customers and it has been quite a few interesting years since then: old platforms faded, new platforms were born and a selected few took over the world by storm. Overall: the mobile ecosystem really kicked ass. With the Mobile Developers Guide to the Galaxy, we began to follow this ecosystem closely. Thanks to our contributing authors, this guide now covers a whopping eight mobile platforms, even after dropping some platforms such as Symbian or webOS along the way. This is the first edition in which we cover Tizen, by the way. This edition is the biggest thus far, with over 10,000 copies printed on first press and without our sponsors, this guide would not come to be. Thanks to Paypal do visit to join one of their many great offerings! And thanks to SAP, please find out more regarding their (great!) mobile platform offerings on Of course we are especially happy to welcome Twilio as a first-time sponsor for this edition. Check out to find out how their tools can help you with everything from app distribution, improving security through 2 factor authentication, to implementing VoIP and messaging features into your apps.PrologueI
  6. 6. The future is exciting, we look forward to your sharing your excitement with us via twitter @enoughsoftware or via email: We are looking forward to hearing from you! Robert + Marco / Enough Software Bremen, February 2014
  7. 7. Robert Virkus & Marco Tabor BYThe Galaxy of Mobile: An Introduction Welcome to the world of mobile development, a world where former giants stumble and new stars are seemingly born on a regular basis. The focus of this book is on developing mobile apps, which encompasses a number of phases including: planning and specification, prototyping and design, implementation, internal testing and deployment, deployment to an app store, discovery by users, installation, use and feedback. Ultimately, we want our users to enjoy using our apps and to give us positive ratings to encourage other users to do likewise. Keep reading to learn how to develop apps for the major platforms. Should this be the first time that you have considered getting involved, we advise against delay. The world is moving rapidly towards mobile becoming the predominant form of computing and others will surely overtake you if you wait too long. While developing mobile apps shares many common feature with developing other software, it has specific characteristics. We will cover some of these next.Topology: Form Factors and Use Patterns You have to differentiate between smartphones, tablets and feature phones. Each form factor poses its own usability challenges; for instance, a tablet demands different navigation to a phone. TV systems are gaining traction as another form factor for mobile developers.The Galaxy of Mobile: An Introduction1
  8. 8. Use patterns in an Android app, of course, differ from those on iOS, which also differ from those for Windows Phone apps, et cetera. You should, therefore, refrain from providing an identical experience on all form factors or even all your target smartphone systems. Otherwise, you risk delivering a mediocre service to some sections of your target user base.Star Formation: Creating a Mobile Service There are several ways to realize a mobile service: App Website SMS, USSD1 and STK2 App Apps run directly on the device. You can realize them as native, web-based or hybrid apps. Native Apps A native app is programmed in a platform specific language with platform specific APIs. It is typically purchased, downloaded and upgraded through the platform specific central app store. Native apps usually offer the best performance, the deepest integration and the best overall user experience compared to other options. However, native development is often also the most complex development option.1 2 Galaxy of Mobile: An Introduction2
  9. 9. Web Apps A web app is based on HTML5, JavaScript and CSS and does not rely on any app store. It is a locally stored mobile site that tries to emulate the look-and-feel of an app. A famous example of a web app is the Financial Times app, which left the app store in order to keep all subscriber revenue to themselves for the web world; conversely, the web-based Facebook iOS app was revamped into native app in order to dramatically improve its performance and usability. There are several web app frameworks available to build a native wrapper around such apps so that you can publish them in app stores, such as Phonegap3. Hybrid Apps A hyped controversy circles around whether native or web apps are the future. For many mobile app developers, this controversy is no longer relevant as a hybrid approach to app development has become quite common: an app can use native code for enhanced performance and integration of the app with the platform, while using a webview together with HTML5-based content for other parts of the app. Parts of the resulting app behave like a native app, while other parts are powered by web technologies. The web-based part can use Internet connectivity to offer up-to-date content. While this could be viewed as a drawback, the use of web technologies enables developers to revise content and features without the need to submit updates to app stores. The key challenge is to combine the unique capabilities of native and web technologies to create a truly user-friendly and attractive app.3 www.phonegap.comThe Galaxy of Mobile: An Introduction3
  10. 10. Website A website runs for the most part on your server but you can access various phone features on the device with JavaScript, for example to store data locally or to request the current location of the device. In contrast to apps, mobile websites are inherently cross-platform. However you should not assume that a mobile browser is always based on WebKit, see Microsoft's plea to mobile web developers not to make their websites run on WebKit only4 . SMS, USSD and STK Simple services can be realized with SMS, USSD or STK. Everyone knows how SMS (Short Message Service) text messaging works and every phone supports SMS, but you need to convince your users to remember textual commands for more complex services. Some operators offer APIs for messaging services that work for WiFi-only devices, such as the network APIs of Deutsche Telekom5. USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data) is a GSM protocol used for pushing simple text based menus, the capabilities depend on the carrier and the device. STK (SIM Application Toolkit) enables the implementation of low-level but interactive apps directly on the SIM card of a phone. STK may appear irrelevant when so much focus is on smartphone apps, however, for example, m-pesa is an STK app which is transforming life and financial transactions in Kenya and other countries.64 5 6 Introduction To Mobile Development4
  11. 11. The Universe of Mobile Operating Systems The mobile space is much more diverse than other areas in IT. When you are developing software for personal computers, you basically have 3 operating systems to chose from. When it comes to mobile, there are many more. This book provides an introduction to the mobile operating systems that are currently the most relevant, but be aware that the mobile space changes continuously and at a speed that you will seldom observe in other businesses. We have seen many promising technologies appear and quickly disappear, regardless of how big the companies behind them are or the historic market relevance of those companies. So read on, learn how the market is today and then be prepared to keep it under observation (or make sure you have the latest edition of our guide at hand). Quasars: Android and iOS When people talk about mobile apps, they are mainly referring to Android and iOS. Why? When it comes to market share, these two platforms combined dominate the smartphone market with easily 90% in key markets7 (see the table below for global numbers). T

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