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Basic First Aid

Lecture 7: first aid, choke, CPR, diabetes, bleed, burn

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Page 1: Lecture 7: first aid, choke, CPR, diabetes, bleed, burn

Basic First Aid

Page 2: Lecture 7: first aid, choke, CPR, diabetes, bleed, burn

Outline• First Aid Basics• Medical Emergencies• Injury Emergencies• Environmental Emergencies

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First Aid Basics

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What Is First Aid?• First = immediate• Aid = care• Deals with injuries or sudden illness• DOES NOT replace the need for medical care• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vu1UOFBFchY

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• At some point in your life, you will have to make the decision to help in an emergency.• It is better to know first aid and not need it, than to need first aid and not know it.

Why Is First Aid Important• Before you provide First Aid, it’s important toask the ill or injured person if you may help.Remember

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• To preserve life: Role is to administer effective first aid in order to save life.• Prevent condition from worsening: Recognizing and treating the cause will assist with preventing the condition from worsening.• To promote recovery Minutes

could make a

difference

Aims of First Aid

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Recognize the Emergency

The bystander is a vital link between (Emergency Medical Services) EMS and the victim

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• Size up (Assessing) the Scene– Are there any hazards?– Look out for danger to you and the injured person– What is the mechanism of injury or nature of victim’s illness?– How many victims are there?

Deciding to Provide First Aid

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When to Phone for Help• Ask for help whenever:

• Someone is seriously ill or injured• You are not sure what to do

• Could you give Examples of someone who is seriously ill or injured???CALL 999

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• Give clear, precise information about– The location of the incident– The number of casualties / people involved– The nature of their injuries– In some cases, their age if known. – Any hazards at the incident (e.g. spilt fuel, fire, electricity)• If the area is remote/difficult to access, consider sending someone to meet the emergency services in a known location

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Protection • First Aiders should wear personal protective equipment (PPE) to keep from touching the injured person’s blood or body fluids.

• The instructor will demonstrate how to remove the gloves.

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Finding the Problem• Check the scene to be sure it is safe if yes, • Check the person response (Tap the person and shout “Are you OK?”) if not, • Call for help • Check if the person is breathing (Watching for chest rise and fall) if yes, if no next slide. • Look for signs of injury such as bleeding, broken bones, burns or bites• Look for medical information jewelry• Stay with the person until EMS arrives

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If the person is not breathing or only gasping, (unconscious) begin CPR and use an AED.

CPRCardio Pulmonary Resuscitation(we will not be doing CPR training – just know what it means)AED: Automated External Defibrillator: an electronic device sends electric shock to stop extremely rapid, irregular heart beat and restore the normal heart rhythm.

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Basic First Aid Steps for Unconscious Person

• Survey the scene, ensure that it is safe.• Check for Responsiveness (no response) • Call for help• Check breathing (no breath) • Follow up call for help• Perform CPR• Place in Recovery position (as necessary)• Wait for EMS/Ambulance.

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The Recovery Position• If the person is breathing and there is no injuries roll them on their side.• Recover position helps to:• Maintain a clear airway• Assist with natural breathing• Clear the airway of excretions such as vomit if the casualty is breathing but unresponsive.

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How to place the casualty in recovery position§ Kneel to the side of the casualty; remove glasses, watches, and any large objects from side pockets.

2. Place the arm nearest to you at a right angle to the casualty’s body (allow it to rest in a natural position).3. Bring the arm across the casualty’s chest and secure the back of the hand onto their nearest cheek with your hand.1. tilt their head back ward and lift their chin upward (head tilt chin lift)

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How to place the casualty in recovery position4. With your free hand grasp the casualty’s clothing around the knee and draw the leg up ensuring the foot remains on the ground.5. Keeping the casualty’s hand on their cheek to control the head movement, pull their legs towards you so the casualty turns on their side.

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How to place the casualty in recovery position• Adjust the casualty’s upper leg so that the knee and lower leg are at right angles to the hip making a stable base.• Check that the airway is open and adjust the hand under the cheek to maintain airway

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Medical Emergencies

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Allergic Reactions (Anaphylactic Shock)

• People can be allergic to many things, including:• Foods such as eggs, nuts, and chocolate• Insect stings or bites, especially bee.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-3tJtp_nnzs

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What to do? • Check the scene is safe• Call for help and get first Aid Kit• Put on gloves • Tells someone to phone the emergency response number (or 999) and get an AED• Holds the epinephrine pen in the fist while not touching either sides• Takes off the safety cap• Presses the epinephrine pen firmly against the outer side of the person’s thigh, halfway between the hip and knee, and holds in place for about 10 seconds• Removes the epinephrine pen by pulling the pen straight out from the leg

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Helping a Choking Adult• If someone is choking, they might use the choking sign

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Helping a Choking Adult• Abdominal Thrusts https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SYIwQNekj8I

Check the scene is safe

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• What about the obese person, pregnant lady, or on wheel chair? • Could you use the abdominal thrust? Chest Thrusts

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Helping a Choking Child • Cal for help • 5 back slaps• 5 abdominal thrusts

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=59I7oxfS6vU

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Helping a Choking Child 1 Verbalizes that the scene is safe2 Determine child is choking “are you chocking”

3 Tell patient (mother) you are here to help4 Verbalizes putting on gloves and call for help

5 Position self-down to the child’s level

6 Give 5 firm back slaps (blows)7 Give 5 abdominal thrusts8 Repeat cycle of back slaps and abdominal

thrusts until object is coughed up, child starts tocough, breathe, or becomes unconscious

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Helping a Choking InfantCall for help 5 back slaps 5 Chest thrusts

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_bBaMWdKqQs

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Helping a Choking Infant1 Verbalizes that the scene is safe2 Determine baby is choking and tell (mother) you are here

to help3 Verbalizes putting on gloves call for help

4 Position self-low to the ground and supportbaby’s headand neck

5 Turn baby face down (head lower than body)

6 Give 5 firm back slaps7 Turn baby face up8 Give 5 chest thrusts9 Repeat cycle of back slaps and chest thrusts until object is

coughed up, baby starts to cry, breathe, or cough or becomes unconscious

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Fainting • Is a short period when a person briefly stops responding usually less than a minute and then seems fine. • What you can see? • Dizziness• Stop responding less than a minute • What to do? • Check the scene is safe• Get first aid kit • Ask permission to help• Help the person lie on his back • Look for injuries • if no improvement or stops responding call for help.

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Diabetes • Is a disease that affects levels of sugar in the blood, too much or too little sugar causes problems.• Take medication to control blood sugar.• Causes of Low blood sugar: • has not eaten or is vomiting • Has not eaten enough • Too much insulin

Signs of low blood sugar: Irritable or confused Hungry or thirsty Sleepy or sweatyPossible seizure.

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• First aid low blood sugar:• Check the scene is safe• Get the First Aid Kit • Tell patient you are here to help• Ask the person if he can eat or swallow • Give sugar to eat (fruit juice, milk, regular soda, or honey).• Sit down quietly or lie down• call for help • If he is unable to sit up and swallow, don’t give him anything and wait for the help.

Diabetes

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WHAT You See• Chest discomfort (pressure, squeezing, fullness, or pain)• Shortness of breath• Sweating, nausea, headache • Palpitations (feeling like your heart is beating too fast or irregularly)• Fainting• Light dizziness

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What to Do • Call EMS (first Aid box and AED)• Rest and calm• Give Aspirin (1 or 2 low dose)if not allergic to aspirin • Stay with • Be prepared to do CPR

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StrokeOccurs when blood flow stops to part of the brain. WHAT You See (warning signs) • Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm, or leg, (one side) • Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding• Sudden trouble seeing• Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination• Sudden sever headache with no known cause

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What to DO? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PCNTMIcOMpE

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What to Do • Be sure the scene is safe• Ask the permission to help.• Call EMS immediately and ask someone to get (first Aid box and AED)• Keep person calm and rests• Note the time of stroke when the stroke first appeared• Avoid Aspirin• Note the time

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Seizures • Abnormal electrical activity in the brain.• It stops within a few minutes. • What You Can See? • Loss of muscle control• Fall to the ground• Jerking movements of arms, legs and other parts of the body• No response

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What to Do? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7MPJauo4DdY

Call for help

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Shock • What You Can See?• Weakness or dizziness • Nausea, thirsty • Pale or grayish skin• Confusion or restlessness • Cold and clammy skin

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What to Do? • Make sure scene is safe.• Call for EMS and ask someone to get (first Aid box and AED)• Help the person lie on his back • Cover the person with a blanket to keep him warm• Be prepared for CPR

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Injury Emergencies

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Bleeding You can SeePRESSUREELEVATIONREST

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What to do for bleeding you can see? 1 Verbalizes that the scene is safe2 Get first aid kit 3 Tell patient you are here to help4 Tells person to place pressure over cut with clean

dressing5 Verbalizes putting on gloves6 Apply direct pressure to wound 7 Adds more dressings and presses harder if bleeding

continues8 Bandage wound securely

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Bandaging• A bandage is material used to protect or cover an injured body part• A bandage may also help keep pressure on the wound

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Nosebleeds • What to do?• Make sure scene is safe.• Get first aid kit and use personal protective equipment (gloves).• Press both sides of nostrils while person sits and leans forward.• Place constant pressure on both sides until bleeding stops. • If bleeding continue press harder• Call for help if:• Bleeding doesn’t stop in 15 minutes • Heavy bleeding• Victim has trouble breathing.

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Examine area using DOTS.• DOTS

– Deformity– Open wounds– Tenderness– Swelling

FracturesRecognizing Bone Injuries

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Care for Bone Injuries• Make sure scene is safe.• Examine area using DOTS.• Stabilize injured part to prevent movement.• Cover wound and exposed bones without applying pressure.• Apply ice pack to prevent swelling with a towel between ice and skin • Seek medical care.

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Burns

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First-Degree Burns (Superficial)• Redness• Mild swelling• Tenderness• Pain• Blisters• Swelling• Weeping fluids• Intense painSecond-Degree Burns (Partial Thickness)

• Dead nerve endings • Leathery, waxy skin• Pearly gray or charred skin

Third-Degree Burns(Full Thickness)

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What to Do? • Make sure the scene is safe• Verbalizes putting on gloves• Move a way from the source of injury.• Remove the source of burning• Cooling the burned area for 10 to 15 minutes under running water to relieve pain and swelling• Get the first aid kit • apply burn ointment if available.• Cover the burned area if necessary • If there is a large burn or fire call for help or transport to hospital

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Environmental Emergencies

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Bites and Stings• Usually insect and spider bites and stings cause only mild pain, itching, and swelling at the bite• Some insect bites can be serious and even fatal if:

• The person bitten has a severe allergic reaction to the bite or sting• Poison is injected into the person

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Bites and Stings / what to Do? 1 Verbalizes that the scene is safe2 Get the First Aid Kit & Tell patient you are here to help3 Verbalizes putting on gloves4 Tells someone to phone the emergency response number (or 999) and get an AED if the

person has allergic reactions (GIVE EPINEPHRIN PIN)5 Scrap away the stinger by using something with dull edge6 Verbalize wash the bite or sting area with a lot of running water 7 Verbalize putting a bag of ice and water wrapped in a towel or clothes for up to 20 minutes 8 Verbalize watching the person for at least 30 minutes for signs of allergic reactions

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• What is the first thing you should do before you provide First Aid for a responding person?

• If you think someone is having a stroke, you must act FAST. But what do the letters in FAST stand for?

• If you find a person who is unresponsive and they are not breathing, what should you do?

• If you got to class and find your student laying on the floor. How you would handle this situation or what should you do?

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• What should you do to help someone who‘s having sever allergic reaction? • If someone is bleeding from a wound, what can you do to help?• What should you do if you think someone has broken a leg?• What should you do to help an adult who is choking?• What should you do to help an infant who is choking?• What should you do to help a child who is choking?• How can you help someone who is having a seizure?• How can you help someone who is having a nosebleeds?

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Questions?