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SINGLE AISLE TECHNICAL TRAINING MANUAL MAINTENANCE COURSE - M35 LINE MECHANICS (CFM56-5B/ME) INDICATING/RECORDING SYSTEMS

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  • SINGLE AISLETECHNICAL TRAINING MANUAL

    MAINTENANCE COURSE - M35 LINE MECHANICS(CFM56-5B/ME)

    INDICATING/RECORDING SYSTEMS

  • This document must be used for training purposes only

    Under no circumstances should this document be used as a reference

    It will not be updated.

    All rights reservedNo part of this manual may be reproduced in any form,

    by photostat, microfilm, retrieval system, or any other means,without the prior written permission of AIRBUS S.A.S.

  • INDICATING/RECORDING SYSTEMSELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEM (EIS) (Classic)EIS Architecture (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Engine/Warning Display Presentation (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4ECAM Advisory & Failure Related Modes (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12ECAM Warnings Presentation (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20EIS Abnormal Operation (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28EIS Warnings (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEM (EIS) (Enhanced)EIS Architecture (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52Engine/Warning Display Presentation (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54ECAM Advisory & Failure Related Modes (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62ECAM Warnings Presentation (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70EIS Abnormal Operation (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78EIS Warnings (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110CLOCKElectrical Clock D/O (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112CENTRALIZED FAULT DISPLAY SYSTEM (CFDS)CFDS Fault Processing (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118CFDS Aircraft System Types (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124CFDS Failure Classification (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126CFDS Reports (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134CFDS Phases (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160Trouble Shooting Procedure with CFDS (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162PRINTERPrinter Presentation (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172Printer Paper Loading (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174

    UP & DOWN DATA LOADING SYSTEMUp & Down Data Loading System Presentation (1) . . . . . . . . . . . .180Up & Down Data Loading System Utilization (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184DIGITAL FLIGHT DATA RECORDING SYSTEM (DFDRS)DFDRS Description/Operation (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188DFDRS Warnings (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192AIRCRAFT INTEGRATED DATA SYSTEM (AIDS-SFIM)Print Report STD Header Description (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194Individual Print Report Description (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200A/C INTEGRATED DATA SYS (AIDS-TELEDYNE)(option)Print Report STD Header Description (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228Individual Print Report Description (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234MAINTENANCE PRACTICEComputer Removal and Installation (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264Pushbutton Removal and Installation (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266

    MAINTENANCE COURSE - M35 LINE MECHANICS(CFM56-5B/ME)31 - INDICATING/RECORDING SYSTEMS

    TABLE OF CONTENTS May 11, 2006Page 1

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  • EIS ARCHITECTURE (1)EFIS-ECAM

    The Electronic Instrument System (EIS) is shown on 6 identical CathodeRay Tubes (CRTs). The Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) aredisplayed on identical Display Units (DUs) and controlled through theEFIS control panels and the lighting/loudspeaker control panels. TheElectronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring (ECAM) pages are displayedon identical DUs and controlled through the ECAM Control Panel (ECP).DMC

    The Display Management Computers (DMCs) process data in order togenerate codes and graphic instructions related to the image to display.Note the particular role of DMC 3 is to be switched instead of DMC 1or DMC 2. Each DMC can process three displays: Primary Flight Display(PFD), Navigation Display (ND) and upper or lower ECAM display.FWC

    The Flight Warning Computers (FWCs) monitor the aircraft systems.These computers are the heart of the ECAM system. Each FWC generatesall warning messages to display and supplies the attention getters. It alsocomputes the flight phases and supplies aural warnings.

    SDAC

    The System Data Acquisition Concentrators (SDACs) receive varioussignals from the aircraft systems and send them to the FWCs and DMCs.The SDACs acquire most of the signals used to display system pages andused by the FWCs to generate amber warnings.

    INPUTS

    The inputs received by the FWC are used to elaborate red warnings.Various items of information for systems like engines, fuel, navigation

    and which are not related to warning, are directly sent to the DMCs. Theinputs received by the SDACs are used to elaborate amber warnings.These signals will then be sent to the FWC to generate warnings.

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  • ENGINE/WARNING DISPLAY PRESENTATION (1)GENERAL OVERVIEW

    The Engine/Warning Display (EWD) is normally on the upper ElectronicCentralized Aircraft Monitoring (ECAM) Display Unit (DU). It is dividedinto two areas: the upper area and the lower area.The upper area displays:- engine primary parameters,- Fuel On Board (FOB),- slats and flaps position.The lower area is used for:- warning and caution messages,- memo messages.

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  • GENERAL OVERVIEW

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  • ENGINE/WARNING DISPLAY PRESENTATION (1)ENGINE/WARNING DISPLAY AREAS

    UPPER AREAThe symbols of the upper area are permanently displayed. Theparameters are provided in the form of analog and/or digital indications(refer to related chapter for detailed description).LEFT MEMO AREATakeoff (TO) or landing memo, normal memo, independent failuremessages, or primary failure messages and actions to do are displayedin the left memo area. As soon as a failure is detected, the memomessages are replaced by warning/caution messages.

    RIGHT MEMO AREANormal memo and secondary failure messages are displayed in theright memo area. For example when an ENGine ANTI ICE P/B is setto ON, ENG A.ICE appears on the right memo area. During TO andlanding, most of the warnings are inhibited to avoid distraction of thecrew. For example, at TO, when the second engine is set to TO powerand until the aircraft has reached 1.500 ft, TO INHIB is displayed.

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  • ENGINE/WARNING DISPLAY AREAS - UPPER AREA ... RIGHT MEMO AREA

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  • ENGINE/WARNING DISPLAY PRESENTATION (1)ADVISORY AND STATUS INDICATION

    Advisory and status indications are "attention getters" on the display.

    ADVISORY INDICATIONADV: Advisory white message appears only in single displayconfiguration. It flashes on the lower memo area to signal to the pilotthat a parameter drifts from its normal value. As the correspondingsystem page cannot be displayed on the lower ECAM DU, the pilothas to fetch the information on the ECAM Control Panel (ECP): theassociated key flashes to indicate which system is concerned.

    NOTE: In normal display configuration (dual display), the relevantsystem page is automatically displayed on System Display(SD), so the ADV indication doesn't appears on the EWD.

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  • ADVISORY AND STATUS INDICATION - ADVISORY INDICATION

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  • ENGINE/WARNING DISPLAY PRESENTATION (1)ADVISORY AND STATUS INDICATION (continued)

    STATUS AND ARROW INDICATIONSTS: Status indicates that a status message is present on the ECAMSD page. Overflow arrow: only concerns the warning messages andindicates that the messages exceed the capacity of the display on theleft memo area. In this case, the heading titles of the warning messagesare displayed on the right memo area.

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  • ADVISORY AND STATUS INDICATION - STATUS AND ARROW INDICATION

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  • ECAM ADVISORY & FAILURE RELATED MODES (3)ALERT CLASSIFICATION

    GENERALThe alerts are classified in three levels. They depend on the importanceand urgency of the corrective actions required.- level 3: warnings (highest priority),- level 2: cautions,- level 1: cautions,- status messages.At each level, the alert messages are also classified by priority order.

    LEVEL 3Level 3 agrees with an emergency configuration. Corrective orpalliative action must be taken by the crew immediately.These warnings are associated with:- Continuous Repetitive Chime (CRC) or specific sound,- warning messages on Cathode Ray Tube (CRT),- MASTER WARNing light flashing red.Typical level 3 warnings are:- aircraft in dangerous configuration or limit flight conditions (Stall,overspeed),- system failure altering flight safety (Engine fire, excess cabinaltitude),- serious system failure (Dual hydraulic failure).LEVEL 2Level 2 agrees with an abnormal configuration. Immediate crewawareness is required, but not immediate corrective action. The crewmust decide when to take the corrective action.These warnings are associated with:- Single Chime (SC),- MASTER CAUTion light amber,- warning messages on CRT.

    The level 2 system failure has no direct consequence on flight safety.

    LEVEL 1Level 1 agrees with a configuration requiring crew monitoring, mainlyfailures leading to a loss of redundancy or degradation of a system.The attention getters (lights and sounds) are not activated by a level1 alert.

    STATUSSome defects which do not trigger warnings or cautions, but whichrequire further maintenance actions, will be indicated to the crew bymeans of a status indication, pulsing after engine shutdown. It isnecessary to call the status page manually to see the title of the affectedsystem.

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  • ALERT CLASSIFICATION - GENERAL ... STATUS

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  • ECAM ADVISORY & FAILURE RELATED MODES (3)TYPE OF FAILURE

    GENERALThe failures may be of three different types, independently of theirclassification.There are 3 separate types of warnings or cautions:- those associated with an independent failure,- those associated with a primary failure,- those associated with a secondary failure.

    INDEPENDANT FAILUREAn independent failure is a failure, which affects an isolated item ofequipment or system without affecting another one.Example: Flight Warning Computer (FWC) 1 failure.

    NOTE: An independent failure is displayed with the title underlined.

    PRIMARY FAILUREA primary failure is a failure of an item of equipment or systemcausing the loss of other equipment.Example: Green hydraulic system failure may lead to the loss of apair of spoilers.

    NOTE: A primary failure is displayed with a box around the failure.

    SECONDARY FAILUREA secondary failure is a loss of an item of equipment or systemresulting from a primary failure.Example: Loss of a pair of spoilers after a hydraulic system failure.The titles of the system pages corresponding to the secondary failuresare indicated on the lower right part of the Engine/Warning Display(EWD) by an asterisk.

    NOTE: This part can be used if necessary to display heading titlesof warnings if the left part of the EWD is full.

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  • TYPE OF FAILURE - GENERAL ... SECONDARY FAILURE

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  • ECAM ADVISORY & FAILURE RELATED MODES (3)ADVISORY

    ADVISORY MODE IN NORMAL DUAL DISPLAYThe value of some critical system parameters is monitored by anadvisory mode. In Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring (ECAM)normal display, when a value drifts from its normal range, thecorresponding system page is displayed automatically in order toattract crew attention well before reaching the warning or cautionlevel. The affected parameter and the system page title pulse. Thecorresponding key light on the ECAM Control Panel (ECP) is on.Example: The CAB PRESS page will be displayed if the cabin altitudeincreases above its normal value, but is still well below the thresholdof the warning. In this case the crew may revert to manual pressurecontrol and prevent warning activation.

    NOTE: An advisory may or may not lead to a failure. They aretotally independent one from the other.

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  • ADVISORY - ADVISORY MODE IN NORMAL DUAL DISPLAY

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  • ECAM ADVISORY & FAILURE RELATED MODES (3)ADVISORY (continued)

    ADVISORY MODE IN ECAM MONO DISPLAYIn ECAM MONO display mode (one ECAM CRT remaining), whena value drifts from its normal range, a white ADV message flashes inthe center of the EWD to attract crew attention. As the related systempage cannot be displayed automatically on the System Display (SD),the pilot has to fetch the information on the ECP: the associated keylight flashes to indicate which system is concerned.

    NOTE: The CAB PRESS system page is given as an example.

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  • ADVISORY - ADVISORY MODE IN ECAM MONO DISPLAY

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  • ECAM WARNINGS PRESENTATION (1)ECAM DISPLAY WITH AIRCRAFT SYSTEM FAILURE

    In case of aircraft system failure, an aural warning, the Single Chime(SC), a visual warning and the MASTER CAUTion, attract your attention.The Engine/Warning Display (EWD) indicates the title of the failure andthe actions to take. On the status and System Display (SD), the hydraulicpage is called automatically. The CLeaR P/Bs come on and as long asthe failure is not cleared, they stay on. On the hydraulic panel the FAULTlights come on, indicating the P/Bs to release out.

    NOTE: In this module, parameters are given for a CFM engine. For anIAE engine, the parameters will be shown as follows: EnginePressure Ratio (EPR), EGT, N1 and N2). The graphics showan example of sequence of Electronic Centralized AircraftMonitoring (ECAM) displays in case of green hydraulic systemfault. This may be different to your aircraft configuration.

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  • ECAM DISPLAY WITH AIRCRAFT SYSTEM FAILURE

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  • ECAM WARNINGS PRESENTATION (1)CREW CORRECTIVE ACTIONS

    CORRECTIVE ACTIONSWhen you press the MASTER CAUT, it goes off. Then, actionsindicated on the EWD have to be done. First, switch OFF the PowerTransfer Unit (PTU) P/B on the hydraulic panel, and then switch OFFthe GREEN ENGine 1 PUMP P/B.

    RESULTSThe corrective actions have been taken. All the FAULT lights are off.On the EWD, the messages associated to the corrective action havedisappeared. On the left hand side of the EWD, the result of the failureappears indicating that it is a primary failure. On the right hand side,the secondary failures are displayed.

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  • CREW CORRECTIVE ACTIONS - CORRECTIVE ACTIONS & RESULTS

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  • ECAM WARNINGS PRESENTATION (1)CLEARING OF THE WARNINGS

    When you press CLR, on the left hand part of the EWD the title of thefailure disappears and MEMO messages come back. The system pagecorresponding to the first secondary failure is displayed. When you pressCLR again, the title of the first secondary failure disappears. The systempage associated with the next secondary failure is displayed. When youpress CLR a third time, the title of the secondary failure disappears. TheMEMO message comes back on the right hand part of the EWD. TheSTATUS page is displayed.

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  • CLEARING OF THE WARNINGS

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  • ECAM WARNINGS PRESENTATION (1)STATUS REMINDER AND RECALL FUNCTION

    When you press CLR a last time, the STATUS reminder STS on theEWD indicates that the STATUS page is not empty and the CLR P/Bsgo off. On the status page, the cruise page (related to the present flightphase) comes back. The warning has been cleared. The ReCalL P/B letsthe crew reactivate the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) presentation of an alertinhibited either through the flight phase or by the CLR function.

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  • STATUS REMINDER AND RECALL FUNCTION

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)FAILURE OF ONE EFIS DISPLAY UNIT

    In case of Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) Display Unit (DU)failure the Primary Flight Display (PFD) image has priority over theNavigation Display (ND) image. The PFD is displayed on the remainingDU.

    NOTE: In this module, parameters are given for a CFM engine. For anIAE engine, the parameters will be shown as follows: EnginePressure Ratio (EPR), EGT, N1 and N2.

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  • FAILURE OF ONE EFIS DISPLAY UNIT

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)FAILURE OF THE ENGINE/WARNING DISPLAY UNIT

    The Engine/Warning Display (EWD) has priority over the System Display(SD). The EWD is automatically transferred to the lower ElectronicCentralized Aircraft Monitoring (ECAM) DU, replacing the system/statusdisplay. All ECAM information and system/status pages are availableon this single display. This configuration is called "ECAM mono display".

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)FAILURE OF BOTH ECAM DISPLAY UNITS

    ECAM/ND transfer (XFR) is done to get the engine/warning image back.All the ECAM images are lost momentarily. However the crew canrecover the engine/warning image by using the ECAM/ND XFR rotaryselector. The engine/warning image will then be displayed instead of theND. This configuration is called "ECAM mono display" because allECAM information is available on a single display.

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)FAILURE OF ONE DMC

    The crew will select Display Management Computer (DMC) 3 to replacethe failed DMC. The following message with the action to do is indicatedon the EWD:EIS DMC 1 FAULT- EIS DMC SWITCH.... CAPTOrEIS DMC 2 FAULT- EIS DMC SWITCH.... F/ODepending on the faulty (DMC).

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)FAILURE OF DMC 1+3

    The ECAM system page can temporarily be displayed instead of theengine/warning image by manual page call.- loss of PFD and ND images on CAPT instrument panel.- loss of ECAM system page. ECAM in mono display.MASTER CAUTion light comes on. The following message is displayed:EIS DMC 1+ 3 FAULT

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)ECAM CONTROL PANEL FAILURE

    The EMERgency CANCel, CLeaR, ReCalL, ALL and StaTuS functionsremain available. They let the use of the Electronic Instrument System(EIS).

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)FAILURE OF ONE SDAC

    There is no operational consequence due to the redundancy of the EISsystem.The following message is displayed:FWS SDAC 1 FAULTOrFWS SDAC 2 FAULTDepending on the faulty System Data Acquisition Concentrator (SDAC).

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)FAILURE OF SDAC 1+2

    Loss of most of amber warnings. The following message is displayed:FWS SDAC 1+ 2 FAULT- MONITOR OVERHEAD PANEL- ECAM ENG FUEL F/CTL WHEEL SYS PAGES AVAIL

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)FAILURE OF ONE FWC

    There is no operational consequence due to the redundancy of the EISsystem.The following message is displayed:FWS FWC 1 FAULTOrFWS FWC 2 FAULTDepending on the faulty Flight Warning Computer (FWC).

    NOTE: Only the half part of each MASTER WARN and MASTERCAUT light remains operative.

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)FAILURE OF FWC 1+2

    Loss of aural warnings. Loss of text messages on EWD display. Loss ofattention getters. The DMC receives no data from the FWCs and displaysthe following message:FWS FWC 1+ 2 FAULT- MONITOR SYS- MONITOR OVERHEAD PANEL.

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)EXTERNAL SOURCE INFORMATION FAILURES

    In the case of external source information failures, the lost informationappears in red on the PFD or ND. It is possible to recover certaininformation by following the EWD instructions: in this example "ATTHDG SWTG F/O" on the switching panel. This enables manual sourcereconfiguration for attitude and heading data. On the EWD, the failedcomponent is also displayed.

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  • EIS WARNINGS (3)FWC 1+2 FAULT

    In this case, only an Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring (ECAM)message is given. There is no MASTER light and aural warning as theyare generated by the Flight Warning Computers (FWCs). The crew hasto closely monitor the aircraft systems through the overhead panel orECAM system pages.

    FWC 1(2) FAULTAs two identical FWCs are given, ECAM operation is not affected.

    SDAC 1+2 FAULT

    In case of System Data Acquisition Concentrators (SDACs) fault, theaural warning sounds and the MASTER CAUTion comes on. Most ofthe amber warnings are lost. The crew has to carefully monitor theoverhead panel. ENG, FUEL, F/CTL and WHEEL ECAM system pagesremain available.

    SDAC 1(2) FAULTAs two identical SDACs are given, ECAM operation is not affected.

    DMC 1+2 FAULT

    In case of Display Management Computer (DMC) 1 and DMC2 fault,the aural warning sounds and the MASTER CAUT comes on. AllElectronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) and ECAM images are lost.One pilot must place the Electronic Instrument System (EIS) DMCselector switch to the position CAPT 3, or F/O 3 to have his PrimaryFlight Display (PFD), Navigation Display (ND) and either upper or lowerECAM images driven by the DMC 3. In the position CAPT 3, a diagonalline is displayed on lower ECAM Display Unit (DU) and F/O EFIS. Inthe position F/O 3, a diagonal line is displayed on upper ECAM DU and

    CAPT EFIS. The lower ECAM DU displays the Engine/Warning Display(EWD) images (possibility to display a system or status imagetemporarily). The ECAM is in mono display.DMC 1(2)+3 FAULTIn case of DMC1 and DMC3 fault, the aural warning sounds and theMASTER CAUT comes on. The captain PFD and ND data, and theECAM System Display (SD) data lost. The ECAM is in mono display.

    NOTE: If DMC 2+3 fail, the F/O EFIS and ECAM SD data is lost.

    DMC 1(2) FAULTIf the DMC1 (or DMC2) fails, the aural warning sounds and the MASTERCAUT comes on. The captain (or first officer) PFD and ND data, andthe ECAM SD data are lost. The captain has to transfer to DMC 3 torecover the three DUs.

    DMC 3 FAULT

    When the DMC3 fails, the aural warning sounds and the MASTER CAUTcomes on. There is no change on the six DUs but a single warningmessage is displayed on the EWD to indicate this DMC 3 fault.

    OPERATING LIMITATIONS

    One among SDAC, FWC, DMC and DU may be inoperative for dispatch.

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  • EIS ARCHITECTURE (1)EFIS-ECAM

    The Electronic Instrument System (EIS) is shown on 6 identical LiquidCrystal Display (LCD) units and controlled through the EIS controlpanels. The Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring (ECAM) displaysare identical and controlled through the ECAM Control Panel (ECP).The Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) displays are controlledby the EFIS control panels and the lighting/loudspeaker control panels.

    DMC

    The Display Management Computers (DMCs) are data concentrator andreceive data from aircraft sensors and systems. They send them to theDisplay Units (DUs). The DUs compute and display the images on eachunit. In normal operation DMC1 drives the CAPT Primary Flight Display(PFD), the CAPT Navigation Display (ND), Engine/Warning Display(EWD) and System Display (SD). In normal operation DMC 2 drivesthe F/O PFD and ND DUs. If DMC 1 fails, it is automatically replacedby DMC 2 for ECAM only. DMC 2 cannot drive the CAPT PFD andND; a manual switching to DMC 3 is required. DMC 3 can drive any ofthe six DUs. DMC 3 is a hot spare awaiting the failure of DMC 1 or 2and can be switched to drive the DUs linked to the failed DMC.

    FWC

    The Flight Warning Computers (FWCs) monitor the aircraft systems.Each FWC generates all warning and caution messages, supplies theattention getters, computes the flight phase and provides aural warnings.

    SDAC

    The System Data Acquisition Concentrators (SDACs) receive varioussignals from the aircraft systems and send them to the FWCs and to theDMCs.

    INPUTS

    The inputs received by the FWC are used to elaborate red warnings.Various items of information for systems like engines, fuel, navigationand which do not agree with a warning, are directly sent to the DMCs.The inputs received by the SDACs are used by the DMCs to displaysystem pages and by the FWCs to generate amber warnings.

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  • EFIS-ECAM ... INPUTS

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  • ENGINE/WARNING DISPLAY PRESENTATION (1)GENERAL

    The Engine/Warning Display (EWD) is normally on the upper DisplayUnit (DU), it is divided into upper and lower areas. The EWD is dedicatedto the presentation of information.

    EWD INFORMATIONOn the upper area are permanently displayed:- Primary engine parameters,- Slat/flap position indication,- Fuel On Board (FOB).On the lower area are displayed:- Memos, failure messages and actions to be performed. DuringTakeOff (TO) and landing, most of the warnings are inhibited.

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  • GENERAL - EWD INFORMATION

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  • ENGINE/WARNING DISPLAY PRESENTATION (1)ADVISORY AND STATUS INDICATION

    There are conditions when additional symbols are displayed, on the EWDlower area. The symbols are ADV (Advisory), STS (Status) and an arrow(overflow).

    ADVISORY INDICATIONAdvisory (ADV) appears in single display configuration, it flasheson the lower memo area if a parameter drifts from its normal value.Also the relevant ECAM Control Panel (ECP) key flashes.

    NOTE: Note: in normal display configuration (dual display) therelated SD page is automatically shown, so the ADV symbolis not needed.

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  • ENGINE/WARNING DISPLAY PRESENTATION (1)ADVISORY AND STATUS INDICATION (continued)

    STATUS INDICATIONStatus (STS) indicates that a status message is present on the SD STSpage.

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  • ENGINE/WARNING DISPLAY PRESENTATION (1)ADVISORY AND STATUS INDICATION (continued)

    ARROW INDICATIONThe overflow arrow in green color indicates that warning messagesexceed the capacity of the display on the left memo area.

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  • ECAM ADVISORY & FAILURE RELATED MODES (3)ALERT CLASSIFICATION

    GENERALThe alerts are classified in three levels. They depend on the importanceand urgency of the corrective actions required.- level 3: warnings (highest priority)- level 2: cautions- level 1: cautions- status messagesAt each level, the alert messages are also classified by priority order.

    LEVEL 3Level 3 corresponds to an emergency configuration. Corrective orpalliative action must be taken by the crew immediately.These warnings are associated with:- Continuous Repetitive Chime (CRC) or specific sound,- warning messages on Liquid Crystal Display (LCD),- MASTER WARNing light flashing red.Typical level 3 warnings are:- aircraft in dangerous configuration or limit flight conditions (Stall,overspeed),- system failure altering flight safety (Engine fire, excess cabinaltitude),- serious system failure (Dual hydraulic failure).LEVEL 2Level 2 agrees with an abnormal configuration. Immediate crewawareness is required, but not immediate corrective action. The crewmust decide when to take the corrective action.These warnings are associated with:- Single Chime (SC),- MASTER CAUTion light amber,- warning messages on LCD.

    The level 2 system failure has no direct consequence on flight safety.

    LEVEL 1Level 1 agrees with a configuration requiring crew monitoring, mainlyfailures leading to a loss of redundancy or degradation of a system.The attention getters (lights and sounds) are not activated by a level1 alert.

    STATUSSome defects which do not trigger warnings or cautions, but whichrequire further maintenance actions, will be indicated to the crew bymeans of a status indication, pulsing after engine shutdown. It isnecessary to call the status page manually to see the title of the affectedsystem.

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  • ECAM ADVISORY & FAILURE RELATED MODES (3)TYPE OF FAILURE

    GENERALThe failures may be of three different types, independently of theirclassification.There are 3 separate types of warnings or cautions:- those associated with an independent failure,- those associated with a primary failure,- those associated with a secondary failure.

    INDEPENDANT FAILUREAn independent failure is a failure, which affects an isolated item ofequipment or system without affecting another one.Example: Flight Warning Computer (FWC) 1 failure.

    NOTE: An independent failure is displayed with the title underlined.

    PRIMARY FAILUREA primary failure is a failure of an item of equipment or systemcausing the loss of other equipment.Example: Green hydraulic system failure may lead to the loss of apair of spoilers.

    NOTE: A primary failure is displayed with a box around the failure.

    SECONDARY FAILUREA secondary failure is a loss of an item of equipment or systemresulting from a primary failure.Example: Loss of a pair of spoilers after a hydraulic system failure.The titles of the system pages corresponding to the secondary failuresare indicated on the lower right part of the Engine/Warning Display(EWD) by an asterisk.

    NOTE: This part can be used if necessary to display heading titlesof warnings if the left part of the EWD is full.

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  • ECAM ADVISORY & FAILURE RELATED MODES (3)ADVISORY

    ADVISORY MODE IN NORMAL DUAL DISPLAYThe value of some critical system parameters is monitored by anadvisory mode. In Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring (ECAM)normal display, when a value drifts from its normal range, thecorresponding system page is displayed automatically in order toattract crew attention well before reaching the warning or cautionlevel. The affected parameter and the system page title pulse. Thecorresponding key light on the ECAM Control Panel (ECP) is on.Example: The CAB PRESS page will be displayed if the cabin altitudeincreases above its normal value, but is still well below the thresholdof the warning. In this case the crew may revert to manual pressurecontrol and prevent warning activation.

    NOTE: An advisory may or may not lead to a failure. They aretotally independent one from the other.

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  • ECAM ADVISORY & FAILURE RELATED MODES (3)ADVISORY (continued)

    ADVISORY MODE IN ECAM MONO DISPLAYIn ECAM MONO display mode (one ECAM LCD remaining), whena value drifts from its normal range, a white ADV message flashes inthe center of the EWD to attract crew attention. As the correspondingsystem page cannot be displayed automatically on the System Display(SD), the pilot has to fetch the information on the ECP: the associatedkey light flashes to indicate which system is concerned.

    NOTE: The CAB PRESS system page is given as an example.

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  • ECAM WARNINGS PRESENTATION (1)ECAM DISPLAY WITH AIRCRAFT SYSTEM FAILURE

    In case of aircraft system failure, an aural warning, the Single Chime(SC), a visual warning and the MASTER CAUTion, attract your attention.The Engine/Warning Display (EWD) indicates the title of the failure andthe actions to take. On the status and System Display (SD), the hydraulicpage is called automatically. The CLeaR P/Bs come on and as long asthe failure is not cleared, they stay on. On the hydraulic panel the FAULTlights come on, indicating the P/Bs to release out.

    NOTE: In this module, parameters are given for a CFM engine. For anIAE engine, the parameters will be shown as follows: EnginePressure Ratio (EPR), EGT, N1 and N2). The graphics showan example of sequence of Electronic Centralized AircraftMonitoring (ECAM) displays in case of green hydraulic systemfault. This may be different to your aircraft configuration.

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  • ECAM WARNINGS PRESENTATION (1)CREW CORRECTIVE ACTIONS

    CORRECTIVE ACTIONSWhen you press the MASTER CAUT, it goes off. Then, actionsindicated on the EWD have to be done. First, switch OFF the PowerTransfer Unit (PTU) P/B on the hydraulic panel, and then switch OFFthe GREEN ENGine 1 PUMP P/B.

    RESULTSThe corrective actions have been taken. All the FAULT lights are off.On the EWD, the messages associated to the corrective action havedisappeared. On the left hand side of the EWD, the result of the failureappears indicating that it is a primary failure. On the right hand side,the secondary failures are displayed.

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  • CREW CORRECTIVE ACTIONS - CORRECTIVE ACTIONS & RESULTS

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  • ECAM WARNINGS PRESENTATION (1)CLEARING OF THE WARNINGS

    When you press CLR, on the left hand part of the EWD the title of thefailure disappears and MEMO messages come back. The system pagecorresponding to the first secondary failure is displayed. When you pressCLR again, the title of the first secondary failure disappears. The systempage associated with the next secondary failure is displayed. When youpress CLR a third time, the title of the secondary failure disappears. TheMEMO message comes back on the right hand part of the EWD. TheSTATUS page is displayed.

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  • ECAM WARNINGS PRESENTATION (1)STATUS REMINDER AND RECALL FUNCTION

    When you press CLR a last time, the STATUS reminder STS on theEWD indicates that the STATUS page is not empty and the CLR P/Bsgo off. On the status page, the cruise page (related to the present flightphase) comes back. The warning has been cleared. The ReCalL P/B letsthe crew reactivate the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) presentation of analert inhibited either through the flight phase or by the CLR function.

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  • STATUS REMINDER AND RECALL FUNCTION

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION

    In order to ensure reliability of the displayed data, the ElectronicInstrument System (EIS) has three main types of reconfiguration:- In the case of single or multiple Display Unit (DU) failures,- In the case of single or multiple Display Management Computer (DMC)failures,- In the case of external (sensor/computer) source failure.

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)SINGLE OR MULTIPLE FAILURE

    Many failures could occur on the EIS like:- Primary Flight Display (PFD),- Navigation Display (ND),- Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring (ECAM) Upper or lowerDU,- Multiple DU,- ECAM Control Panel (ECP),- System Data Acquisition Concentrator (SDAC),- Flight Warning Computer (FWC),- DMC.

    PFD DU FAILUREIn the case of PFD failure (detected) or if the PFD unit is switchedoff by means of its potentiometer, the PFD is automatically displayedon the ND unit.

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  • SINGLE OR MULTIPLE FAILURE - PFD DU FAILURE

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)SINGLE OR MULTIPLE FAILURE (continued)

    PFD DU FAILURE (PFD/ND XFR)The PFD/ND transfer (XFR) P/BSW provides the crew with thepossibility to recover the ND image on the ND unit, if necessary.Display change is performed by software switching of the PFD/NDoutputs inside the DMC.

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)SINGLE OR MULTIPLE FAILURE (continued)

    ND DU FAILUREIn the case of ND unit failure the crew has the possibility to presentthe ND image by pressing the PFD/ND XFR P/BSW.

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  • SINGLE OR MULTIPLE FAILURE - ND DU FAILURE

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)SINGLE OR MULTIPLE FAILURE (continued)

    ND DU FAILURE (PFD/ND XFR)The ND screen stays instead of the PFD screen until the PFD/NDXFR P/BSW is pressed again.

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)SINGLE OR MULTIPLE FAILURE (continued)

    UPPER ECAM DU FAILUREIn the case of an upper display (EWD) failure or if the upper displaycontrol potentiometer is turned to off, the upper display isautomatically transferred on the lower display, this mode is calledECAM single display mode.

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  • SINGLE OR MULTIPLE FAILURE - UPPER ECAM DU FAILURE

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)SINGLE OR MULTIPLE FAILURE (continued)

    UPPER ECAM DU FAILURE (SYSTEM PAGERECOVERING)In this case a system page can be recovered by pushing and holdinga system key on the ECP or by rotating the ECAM/ND XFR selectoron the switching panel in order to display the system page on the NDside.

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)SINGLE OR MULTIPLE FAILURE (continued)

    LOWER ECAM DU FAILUREIn case of lower DU failure or if the lower display is turned to off, noautomatic reconfiguration is possible, the ECAM works in singledisplay mode. Each crew member also has the possibility to presentthe SD image on the ND side only, and never on the PFD side, byrotating the ECAM/ND transfer selector switch on the switching panel.

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  • SINGLE OR MULTIPLE FAILURE - LOWER ECAM DU FAILURE

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)SINGLE OR MULTIPLE FAILURE (continued)

    BOTH ECAM DU FAILURE (ECAM ND XFR)In case of EWD unit and SD unit failure, each crew member has thepossibility to permanently present the EWD on the ND unit by rotatingthe ECAM/ND transfer selector switch on the switching panel.

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)SINGLE OR MULTIPLE FAILURE (continued)

    BOTH ECAM DU FAILURE (SYSTEM PAGERECOVERING)It is still possible to recover a system page by pushing and holding asystem key on the ECP.

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)SINGLE OR MULTIPLE FAILURE (continued)

    MULTIPLE DU FAILURE (SAME SIDE)In the case of PFD unit and ND unit failure (on the same side) noreconfiguration is possible.

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)SINGLE OR MULTIPLE FAILURE (continued)

    ECAM CONTROL PANEL FAILUREIf the ECP fails, the main functions, emergency cancel (EMERCANC), clear (CLR), recall (RCL), all (ALL) and status (STS) remainavailable.

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)SINGLE OR MULTIPLE FAILURE (continued)

    SDAC FAILUREIn the case of a SDAC failure, there is no operational consequencedue to the redundancy of the EIS, the following message is displayedon the EWD: FWS SDAC 1 (or SDAC 2) FAULT.In case both SDACs fail the amber cautions and most of the systemdisplays are lost. The following message is displayed on the EWD:FWS SDAC 1+2 FAULT. ENG, FUEL, F/CTL and WHEEL ECAMpage data is available because it is already in ARINC 429 format andnot affected by SDAC failure.

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)SINGLE OR MULTIPLE FAILURE (continued)

    FWC FAILUREIn the case of a FWC failure, there is no operational consequence dueto the redundancy of the EIS, the following message is displayed onthe EWD: FWS FWC1 FAULT or FWS FWC2 FAULT. All attentiongetters and loudspeakers remain operative.If the DMCs receive no valid data from both FWCs, the message FWSFWC1 + 2 FAULT is displayed on the EWD. All other EWDmessages, aural warnings and attention getters are lost.

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)SINGLE OR MULTIPLE FAILURE (continued)

    DMC FAILUREIf DMC1 fails, DMC2 will automatically drive the ECAM DUs. TheCAPT has to switch to DMC3 by rotating the EIS DMC switch onthe switching panel to CAPT3 in order to recover also EFIS DUsthrough DMC3. If DMC 2 fails, the F/O has to switch to DMC3 byrotating the EIS DMC switch on the switching panel to F/O 3. Eitherthe CAPT or the F/O may select the DMC3.

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  • EIS ABNORMAL OPERATION (3)EXTERNAL SOURCE INFORMATION FAILURES

    In the case of external source information failures, the lost informationappears in red on the PFD or ND. It is possible to recover certaininformation by following the EWD instructions: in this example "ATTHDG SWTG F/O" on the switching panel. This enables manual sourcereconfiguration for attitude and heading data. On the EWD, the failedcomponent is also displayed.

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    In this case, only an Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring (ECAM)message is given. There is no MASTER light and aural warning as theyare generated by the Flight Warning Computers (FWCs). The crew hasto carefully monitor the aircraft systems through the overhead panel orECAM system pages.

    FWC 1(2) FAULTAs two identical FWCs are given, ECAM operation is not affected.

    SDAC 1+2 FAULT

    In case of System Data Acquisition Concentrators (SDACs) fault, theaural warning sounds and the MASTER CAUTion comes on. Most ofthe amber warnings are lost. The crew has to carefully monitor theoverhead panel. ENG, FUEL, F/CTL and WHEEL ECAM system pagesremain available.

    SDAC 1(2) FAULTAs two identical System Data Acquisition Concentrators (SDACs) aregiven, ECAM operation is not affected.

    DMC 1+2 FAULT

    In case of Display Management Computer (DMC) 1 and DMC2 fault,the aural warning sounds and the MASTER CAUT comes. All ElectronicFlight Instrument System (EFIS) and ECAM images are lost. One pilotmust place the Electronic Instrument System (EIS) DMC selector switchto the position CAPT 3 or F/O 3 to have his Primary Flight Display (PFD),Navigation Display (ND) and ECAM images driven by the DMC3. Inthe position CAPT 3, INVALID DATA is displayed on F/O EFIS. In theposition F/O 3, INVALID DATA is displayed on CAPT EFIS.

    DMC 1(2)+3 FAULTIn case of DMC1 and DMC3 fault, the aural warning sounds and theMASTER CAUT comes on. The CAPT (or F/O) EFIS data are definitivelylost. The message INVALID DATA is displayed on the CAPT (or F/O)EFIS, and a single warning message is activated on the Engine/WarningDisplay (EWD). DMC2 (or DMC 1 if DMC 2 fails) takes overautomatically for ECAM images.

    DMC 1(2) FAULTIf the DMC1 (or DMC2) fails, the aural warning sounds and the MASTERCAUT comes on. The CAPT EFIS data are lost. The message "INVALIDDATA" is displayed on the CAPT EFIS and a single warning messageis activated on the EWD. DMC2 takes over automatically for ECAMimages. The CAPT (or F/O) has to transfer to DMC3 to recover the twoEFIS Display Units (DUs).DMC 3 FAULT

    When DMC3 fails, the aural warning sounds and the MASTER CAUTcomes on. There is no change on the six DUs but a single warningmessage is displayed on the EWD to indicate this DMC 3 fault.

    OPERATING LIMITATIONS

    One among SDAC, FWC, DMC and DU may be inoperative for dispatch.

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  • ELECTRICAL CLOCK D/O (2)AIR PRECISION CLOCK

    TESTTo test the clock, the annunciator light switch must be set to TEST.Then all the displays should show eight.

    UTC AND DATEWhen the clock is in normal configuration it displays the time. Thedate is displayed by pressing the SET turn and P/B when the time ofthe day is displayed. By pressing the SET turn and P/B once more thetime of the day will be displayed again.

    UTC SETTINGThe setting of the Universal Time coordinated (UTC) is done withthe UTC selector. When the selector is in SET position, the seconddigits are blanked, the minute digits flash and the hour digits arefrozen. By rotating the SET button clockwise the minutes increase,anticlockwise the minutes decrease. By pushing the SET button thehours flash, the minutes are frozen and the seconds are blanked. Byturning the SET button, hours can be adjusted. When the UTC selectoris moved from SET to INT the clock starts running from the adjustedtime with the second digits at 00. When the UTC selector is in GlobalPositioning System (GPS) position, the clock is synchronized on theGPS time, if a GPS signal is present.

    DATE SETTINGThe setting of the date is done with the UTC selector. By pressing theSET button, the date is displayed. By setting the UTC selector in SETposition, the year digits flash and the month and day digits are frozen.By turning the SET button clockwise or anticlockwise, years can bemodified to obtain the chosen value. By pushing the SET button, themonths and days can be adjusted in the same way.

    CHRONOMETERA first press on the CHRonometer P/B starts the chronometer, a secondpress stops it and freezes the display, and a press on the ReSeT P/Bresets it.

    ELAPSED TIMETo activate the Elapsed Time (ET) function, the ET selector must beset to RUN. When set to STP, the ET counter stops, and the displayis frozen. To reset the display, the selector must be set to RST (springloaded position) and it returns to STP.FAILUREWith a clock failure or a loss of power supply, the digital displays areno longer available. With a loss of main electrical power supply, thetime is still counted in memory through the A/C battery supply, exceptfor the CHR and ET functions.

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    TESTTo test the clock, the annunciator light switch must be set to TEST.Then all the displays should show eight.

    UTC AND DATEWhen the clock is in normal configuration, it displays the time. Thedate is displayed by pressing the DATE P/BSW, when the time of theday is displayed. The clock displays successively the day and monthand the year. By pressing the DATE P/BSW once more the time ofthe day will be displayed again.

    UTC SETTINGThe setting of the UTC is done with the UTC selector. Setting thehours and minutes: the UTC switch is set to HSD. When the figurefor hours is correct, the UTC switch is set to MSM. In this position,when the figure for the minutes is correct, the UTC switch is set toHLDY. Once in the HLDY position, if the time is correct, the UTCswitch is set to the RUN position and the clock starts normal operation.

    DATE SETTINGThe setting of the date is done with the UTC selector. Setting the day,month and year: the date P/BSW must be pressed, then the UTC switchis set to HSD. When the figure for the day is correct, the UTC switchis set to MSM. In this position, when the figure for the month iscorrect, the UTC switch is set to HLDY. In this position, when thefigure for the year is correct, the UTC switch is set to RUN.

    CHRONOMETERA first press on the CHR P/B starts the chronometer, a second pressstops it, and a third press resets it.

    ELAPSED TIMETo activate the ET function, the ET selector must be set to RUN.When set to HLD, the ET counter stops. To reset the display, theselector must be set to RESET (spring loaded position) and it returnsto HLD.

    FAILUREWith a clock failure or a loss of power supply, the digital displays areno longer available. With a loss of main electrical power supply, thetime is still counted in memory through the A/C battery supply, exceptfor the CHR function.

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    TESTTo test the clock, the annunciator light switch must be set to TEST.Then all the displays should show eight.

    UTC AND DATEThe center window (UTC) indicates the current time: hours andminutes. Periods of 15 seconds are indicated by three horizontalsegments.The current date (month, day and year) is displayed when the SETknob is pressed. To keep the date displayed, the SET P/B must beheld pressed in. To recover the time, the SET P/B must be released.

    UTC AND DATE SETTINGAn UTC selector allows date and time updating:- MO: to set months and years- DY: to set day- HR: to set hours- MIN: to set minutes- RUN: to start the UTC counterThe UTC selector must be pressed and turned to set it from RUN toMINute position. When a function is selected with the UTC selector(except RUN), you can set it with the SET P/B. When pushed, theSET P/B decreases the displays. By turning it to either side, it increasesthe displays. After setting, the selector must be set back to RUN(pushed and turned).CHRONOMETERAn upper window, called CHR indicates the minutes provided theCHR P/B has been pressed. The seconds are indicated by a sweephand. Pressing the CHR P/B activates the chronometer, pressing it

    again will stop it. The chronometer is reset by pressing the CHR P/Ba third time.

    ELAPSED TIMETo activate the ET function, the ET selector must be set to RUN.When set to STOP, the ET counter stops. To reset the display, theselector must be set to RST (spring loaded position) and it returns toSTOP.

    FAILUREWith a clock failure or a loss of power supply, the digital displays areno longer available. With a loss of main electrical power supply, thetime (UTC and ET) is still counted in memory through the clockbuilt-in-battery, except for the chronometer function.When power is restored:- the chronometer pointer returns to zero if previously displaced,- the UTC and ET indications reappear, indicating current value.

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  • CFDS FAULT PROCESSING (3)BITE

    Most aircraft system computers are equipped with a Built-In TestEquipment (BITE). The BITE, which is an electronic device (hard + soft),monitors permanently the system operation. When a failure is detected,it is stored in the BITE memory and is transmitted to the CentralizedFault Display Interface Unit (CFDIU). Memorization of the 64 previouslegs report is done by most of the BITEs.

    MEMORIZATION

    Memorization of failures is different when the aircraft is on ground or inflight. The full BITE functions and memorization operate in flight.On ground, the memorization is done only in the BITEs. The BITEs areprovided with flight and ground memory zones.

    CFDIU

    The CFDIU centralizes all information concerning aircraft system failures.Reading or printing of all the failure information is done in the cockpit.The Centralized Fault Display System (CFDS = CFDIU + BITEs)functions are accessed through the MCDUs.

    CFDS MODES

    Two CFDS modes are available: NORMAL and MENU modes. TheMENU MODE is available only on ground.

    NORMAL MODEIn this mode, the CFDIU scans all the connected system outputs andmemorizes the failure messages in order to generate the CURRENT(LAST) LEG REPORT and the CURRENT (LAST) LEG ECAMREPORT. In flight the CFDS always operates in the normal mode.

    MENU MODEIn this mode, the CFDIU dialogues with one computer at a time inorder to read the contents of its BITE memory and to initiate varioustests. This mode can only be selected on ground and interrupts thenormal mode of operation.

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  • CFDS FAULT PROCESSING (3)REPORTS

    LAST/CURRENT LEG REPORTA CURRENT LEG REPORT is elaborated during the flight. Afterthe flight, its title becomes LAST LEG REPORT. The purpose of thisitem is to present the failure messages, concerning all systems,occurred during the last/current flight. Each message contains the testof the failure, the ATA reference and the flight phase and time atwhich the failure occurred. A function correlates the "SOURCE"failure message with the "resulting" failure messages.SOURCE: Name of system affected by a failure.IDENTIFIER: Name of system affected by an external failure, whichis correlated with the "SOURCE" failure.The CFDIU capacity for failure messages memorization is up to 40lines.

    LAST/CURRENT LEG ECAM REPORTA CURRENT LEG ECAM REPORT is elaborated during the flight.After the flight, its title becomes LAST LEG ECAM REPORT. Thepurpose of this item is to present the warning messages displayed onthe upper ECAM display unit during the last/current flight. These areprimary or independent warnings. Each message contains the ECAMwarning, the ATA reference and the flight phase and time at whichthe warning was triggered. When several identical and consecutivewarnings are transmitted, the CFDIU memorizes the first occurrenceonly and carries on counting with a maximum of 8. The occurrencecounter is displayed between brackets at the end of the message. TheCFDIU capacity for warning messages memorization is up to 40 lines.

    POST FLIGHT REPORTThe Post Flight Report (PFR) is the sum of the LAST LEG REPORTand of the LAST LEG ECAM REPORT. The PFR can only be printedon ground. The list of ECAM WARNING MESSAGES and FAULT

    MESSAGES with the associated time, flight phase and ATA referenceallow the maintenance crew to make a correlation for easiertrouble-shooting.Beginning of PFR recording:- if flight number inserted prior to first engine start, first engine start+ 3 minutes.- if not, aircraft speed > 80 knots.End of PFR recording:Aircraft speed < 80 knots + 30 seconds.

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  • CFDS FAULT PROCESSING (3)INTERNAL/EXTERNAL FAILURES

    Each BITE can make the difference between an internal and an externalfailure. Let us suppose that an Angle-Of-Attack (AOA) sensor failurehas been detected and that systems A, B and C are affected by this failure.The Air Data System (ADS) will transmit an internal failure while systemsA, B and C will transmit an external failure.

    FAILURE GRAVITY

    The failures are classified according to their importance:- class 1 failures are the most serious ones and require an immediatemaintenance action subject to the Minimum Equipment List (MEL).- class 2 failures may have consequences if a second failure occurs. Aclass 2 failure must be repaired within 10 days.- class 3 failures can be left uncorrected until the next