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PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama Chapter 4 Job Analysis Part Two | Recruitment and Placement Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 4 Job Analysis Dessler HRM 12e ppt_04

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Page 1: Chapter 4 Job Analysis Dessler HRM 12e ppt_04

PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie CookThe University of West Alabama

Chapter 4

Job Analysis

Part Two | Recruitment and Placement

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Page 2: Chapter 4 Job Analysis Dessler HRM 12e ppt_04

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4–2

1.1. Discuss the nature of job analysis, including what it is Discuss the nature of job analysis, including what it is and how it’s used.and how it’s used.

2.2. Use at least three methods of collecting job analysis Use at least three methods of collecting job analysis information, including interviews, questionnaires, and information, including interviews, questionnaires, and observation.observation.

3.3. Write job descriptions, including summaries and job Write job descriptions, including summaries and job functions, using the Internet and traditional methods.functions, using the Internet and traditional methods.

4.4. Write a job specification.Write a job specification.

5.5. Explain job analysis in a “worker-empowered” world, Explain job analysis in a “worker-empowered” world, including what it means and how it’s done in practice.including what it means and how it’s done in practice.

LEARNING OUTCOMESLEARNING OUTCOMES

Page 3: Chapter 4 Job Analysis Dessler HRM 12e ppt_04

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4–3

The Basics of Job Analysis: TermsThe Basics of Job Analysis: Terms• Job AnalysisJob Analysis

The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.

• Job DescriptionJob Description A list of a job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, A list of a job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships,

working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities—one working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities—one product of a job analysis.product of a job analysis.

• Job SpecificationsJob Specifications A list of a job’s “human requirements,” that is, the requisite A list of a job’s “human requirements,” that is, the requisite

education, skills, personality, and so on—another product of a education, skills, personality, and so on—another product of a job analysis.job analysis.

Page 4: Chapter 4 Job Analysis Dessler HRM 12e ppt_04

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4–4

Types of Information CollectedTypes of Information Collected

Work activities

Human behaviors

Human requirements

Job context

Machines, tools, equipment, and

work aids

Performance standards

Information Collected Via Job Analysis

Page 5: Chapter 4 Job Analysis Dessler HRM 12e ppt_04

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4–5

Uses of Job Analysis InformationUses of Job Analysis Information

Recruitmentand selection

CompensationEEO compliance

Discovering unassigned

dutiesPerformance

appraisal

Training

Information Collected via Job Analysis

Page 6: Chapter 4 Job Analysis Dessler HRM 12e ppt_04

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4–6

FIGURE 4–1 Uses of Job Analysis Information

Job analysis

Job descriptionand specification

Recruiting and selection

decisions

Performance appraisal

Job evaluation—wage and salary

decisions (compensation)

Training requirements

Page 7: Chapter 4 Job Analysis Dessler HRM 12e ppt_04

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4–7

Steps in Job AnalysisSteps in Job Analysis

1

2

3

4

5

Steps in doing a job analysis:

Review relevant background information.

Decide how you’ll use the information.

Select representative positions.

Actually analyze the job.

Verify the job analysis information.

6 Develop a job description and job specification.

Page 8: Chapter 4 Job Analysis Dessler HRM 12e ppt_04

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4–8

Collecting Job Analysis InformationCollecting Job Analysis Information

Interviews Questionnaires Observations

Methods for Collecting Job Analysis Information

Diaries/Logs

Page 9: Chapter 4 Job Analysis Dessler HRM 12e ppt_04

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4–9

Methods for Collecting Job Analysis Methods for Collecting Job Analysis Information: The InterviewInformation: The Interview• Information SourcesInformation Sources

Individual employeesIndividual employees Groups of employeesGroups of employees Supervisors with Supervisors with

knowledge of the jobknowledge of the job

• AdvantagesAdvantages Quick, direct way to find Quick, direct way to find

overlooked informationoverlooked information

• DisadvantageDisadvantage Distorted informationDistorted information

• Interview FormatsInterview Formats Structured (Checklist)Structured (Checklist) UnstructuredUnstructured

Page 10: Chapter 4 Job Analysis Dessler HRM 12e ppt_04

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4–10

Methods for Collecting Job Analysis Methods for Collecting Job Analysis Information: QuestionnairesInformation: Questionnaires• Information SourceInformation Source

Have employees fill out Have employees fill out questionnaires to describe questionnaires to describe their job-related duties and their job-related duties and responsibilitiesresponsibilities

• Questionnaire FormatsQuestionnaire Formats Structured checklistsStructured checklists Open-ended questions Open-ended questions

• AdvantagesAdvantages Quick and efficient way Quick and efficient way

to gather information to gather information from large numbers of from large numbers of employeesemployees

• DisadvantagesDisadvantages Expense and time Expense and time

consumed in preparing and consumed in preparing and testing the questionnairetesting the questionnaire

Page 11: Chapter 4 Job Analysis Dessler HRM 12e ppt_04

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4–11

Methods for Collecting Job Analysis Methods for Collecting Job Analysis Information: ObservationInformation: Observation• Information SourceInformation Source

Observing and noting the Observing and noting the physical activities of physical activities of employees as they go employees as they go about their jobs by about their jobs by managers.managers.

• AdvantagesAdvantages Provides first-hand Provides first-hand

informationinformation Reduces distortion Reduces distortion

of informationof information

• DisadvantagesDisadvantages Time consumingTime consuming Reactivity response distorts Reactivity response distorts

employee behavioremployee behavior Difficulty in capturing Difficulty in capturing

entire job cycleentire job cycle Of little use if job involves a Of little use if job involves a

high level of mental activityhigh level of mental activity

Page 12: Chapter 4 Job Analysis Dessler HRM 12e ppt_04

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4–12

Methods for Collecting Job Analysis Methods for Collecting Job Analysis Information: Participant Information: Participant Diaries/LogsDiaries/Logs• Information SourceInformation Source

Workers keep a Workers keep a chronological diary or log chronological diary or log of what they do and the of what they do and the time spent on each activitytime spent on each activity

• AdvantagesAdvantages Produces a more complete Produces a more complete

picture of the jobpicture of the job Employee participationEmployee participation

• DisadvantagesDisadvantages Distortion of informationDistortion of information Depends upon employees Depends upon employees

to accurately recall their to accurately recall their activitiesactivities

Page 13: Chapter 4 Job Analysis Dessler HRM 12e ppt_04

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4–13

Quantitative Job Analysis Quantitative Job Analysis TechniquesTechniques

Position Analysis Questionnaire

Functional Job Analysis

Quantitative Job Analysis

Department of Labor (DOL) Procedure

Page 14: Chapter 4 Job Analysis Dessler HRM 12e ppt_04

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4–14

Writing Job DescriptionsWriting Job Descriptions

Jobidentification

Jobsummary

Responsibilities and duties

Authority of the incumbent

Standards of performance

Working conditions

Jobspecifications

Sections of a Typical Job Description

Page 15: Chapter 4 Job Analysis Dessler HRM 12e ppt_04

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4–15

The Job DescriptionThe Job Description• Job IdentificationJob Identification

Job titleJob title FLSA status sectionFLSA status section Preparation datePreparation date PreparerPreparer

• Job SummaryJob Summary General nature of the jobGeneral nature of the job Major functions/activitiesMajor functions/activities

• Relationships Relationships Reports to:Reports to: Supervises:Supervises: Works with: Works with: Outside the company:Outside the company:

• Responsibilities and DutiesResponsibilities and Duties Major responsibilities and Major responsibilities and

duties (essential functions)duties (essential functions) Decision-making authorityDecision-making authority Direct supervisionDirect supervision Budgetary limitationsBudgetary limitations

• Standards of Performance Standards of Performance and Working Conditionsand Working Conditions What it takes to do the job What it takes to do the job

successfullysuccessfully

Page 16: Chapter 4 Job Analysis Dessler HRM 12e ppt_04

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4–16

Writing Job SpecificationsWriting Job Specifications

Job specificationsfor trained versus

untrained personnel

Job specifications based on

statistical analysis

“What human traits and experience are

required to do this job well?”

Job specifications based on judgment

Page 17: Chapter 4 Job Analysis Dessler HRM 12e ppt_04

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4–17

Job Analysis in a Worker-Job Analysis in a Worker-Empowered WorldEmpowered World

JobEnlargement

Job Enrichment

Job Design:From Specialized to Enriched Jobs

Job Rotation

Page 18: Chapter 4 Job Analysis Dessler HRM 12e ppt_04

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4–18

Competency-Based Job AnalysisCompetency-Based Job Analysis• CompetenciesCompetencies

Demonstrable characteristics of a person that enable Demonstrable characteristics of a person that enable performance of a job.performance of a job.

• Reasons for Competency-Based Job AnalysisReasons for Competency-Based Job Analysis To support a high-performance work system (HPWS).To support a high-performance work system (HPWS). To create strategically-focused job descriptions.To create strategically-focused job descriptions. To support the performance management process in To support the performance management process in

fostering, measuring, and rewarding:fostering, measuring, and rewarding: General competenciesGeneral competencies Leadership competenciesLeadership competencies Technical competenciesTechnical competencies